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Officers of the Society elected April 12, 1888 .... vii 

Resident Members, in the order of their election ... ix 

Honorary and Corresponding Members xi 

Members deceased xiii 

Preface xv 

Correspondence of Fitz-John Winthrop . 3 

Appendix 423 

Index 559 




Elected April 12, 1888. 

Rev. GEORGE E. ELLIS, D.D., LL.D Boston. 




gUcorbing &eeretarg. 
Rev. EDWARD J. YOUNG, D.D Waltham. 

Correspoubing Setretarg. 


Hon. SAMUEL A. GREEN, M.D Boston. 

Cabinet- jieeper. 

fetntibe Committee of tlje Council. 


Hon. JOHN LOWELL, LL.D Newton. 

Hon. JOHN D. WASHBURN, LL.B Worcester. 

Hon. GEORGE S. HALE, A.M Boston. 





Hon. Robert C. Winthrop, LL.D. 
Rev. George E. Ellis, LL.D. 
Hon. PelegW. Chandler, LL.D. 
Rev. Lucius R. Paige, D.D. 
Henry Wheatland, M.D. 
Charles Deane, LL.D. 
Francis Parkman, LL.D. 
Oliver Wendell Holmes, D.C.L. 
Hon. Leverett Saltonstall, A.M. 
Henry W. Torrey, LL.D. 
Rev. Robert C. Waterston, A.M. 
Thomas C. Amory, A.M. 
Hon. Samuel A. Green, M.D. 
Charles Eliot Norton, LL.D. 
Robert Bennett Forbes, Esq. 
Rev. Edward E. Hale, D.D. 
Rev. Andrew P. Peabody, LL.D. 
Hon. Horace Gray, LL.D. 
Rev. Edwards A. Park, LL.D. 
William H. Whitmore, A.M. 
Hon. James Russell Lowell, D.C.L. 
Hon. William C. Endicott, LL.D. 
Hon. E. Rockwood Hoar, LL.D. 
Josiah P. Quincy, A.M. 
Samuel Eliot, LL.D. 
Henry G. Denny, A.M. 
Charles C. Smith, A.M. 
Hon. George S. Hale, A.M. 

William S. Appleton, A.M. 
Rev. Henry M. Dexter, D.D. 
Hon. Theodore Lyman, S.B. 
Abner C. Goodell, Jr., A.M. 
Edward D. Harris, Esq. 
Augustus T. Perkins, A.M. 
Hou. Mellen Chamberlain, LL.D. 
Winslow Warren, LL.B. 
Francis W. Palfrey, A.M. 
Charles W. Eliot, LL.D. 
Rev. Henry W. Foote, A.M. 
Charles F. Dunbar, A.B. 
Hon. Charles Devens, LL.D. 
Charles Francis Adams, A.B. 
William P. Upham, A.B. 
Fitch Edward Oliver, M.D. 
William Everett, Ph.D. 
George B. Chase, A.M. 
Hon. Henry Cabot Lodge, Ph.D. 
John T. Morse, Jr., A.B. 
Justin Winsor, LL.D. 
J. Elliot Cabot, LL.D. 
Henry Lee, A.M. 
Gamaliel Bradford, A.B. 
Rev. Edward J. Young, D.D. 
Hon. John Lowell, LL.D. 
Abbott Lawrence, A.M. 
Rev. Phillips Brooks, D.D. 



William W. Greenough, A.B. 
Robert C. Winthrop, Jr., A.M. 
Henry W. Haynes, A.M. 
Thomas W. Higginson, A.M. 
Rev. Edward G. Porter, A.M. 
John C. Ropes, LL.B. 
Rev. Henry F. Jenks, A.M. 
Hon. Samuel C. Cobb. 
Horace E. Sc udder, A.M. 
Rev. Edmund F. Slafter, A.M. 
Stephen Salisbury, A.M. 
John T. Hassam, A.M. 
Rev. Alexander McKenzie, D.D. 
Arthur Lord, A.B. 
Arthur B. Ellis, LL.B. 
Clement Hugh Hill, A.M. 
Frederick W. Putnam, A.M. 
James M. Bugbee, Esq. 
Hon. John D. Washburn, LL.B. 
Rev. Egbert C. Smyth, D.D. 

Francis A. Walker, LL.D. 

Rev. Arthur L. Perry, LL.D. 

Hon. John E. Sanford, A.M. 

Uriel H. Crocker, LL.B. 

Hon. Martin Brimmer, A.B. 

Roger Wolcott, LL.B. 

William G. Russell, LL.D. 

Edward J. Lowell, A.M. 

Edward Channing, Ph.D. 

Hon. Lincoln F. Brigham, LL.D. 

Edward Bangs, LL.B. 

Samuel F. McCleary, A.M. 

William W. Goodwin, LL.D. 

Hon. George F. Hoar, LL.D. 

Rev. Alexander V. G. Allen, D.D. 

Charles G. Loring, A.M. 

Rev. Octavius B. Frothingham, A.M. 

Solomon Lincoln, A.M. 

Edwin P. Seaver, A.M. 

Albert Bushnell Hart, Ph.D. 



Hon. George Bancroft, D C.L. 
J. Hammond Trumbull, LL.D. 
James Riker, Esq. 

Rev. William S. Southgate, A.M. 
John Gilmary Shea, LL.D. 



James Anthony Froude, M.A. 

Edward A. Freeman, D.C.L. 

Rt. Rev. Lord A. C. Hervey, D.D. 

Rev. Theodore D. Woolsey, D.D. 

David Masson, LL D. 

Baron Franz von Holtzendorff. 

S.A.R. le comte de Paris. 

Rt. Rev. William Stubbs, D.D. 

Hon. William M. Evarts, LL.D. 
Theodor Mommsen. 
Marquis de Rochambeau. 
John Robert Seeley, LL.D. 
William E. H. Lecky, LL.D. 
Very Rev. Charles Merivale, D.D. 
Ernst Curtius. 
Hon. Carl Schurz, LL.D. 




Hon. William H. Trescot. 
George H. Moore, LL.D. 
William Noel Sainsbury, Esq. 
S. Austin Allibone, LL.D. 
Henry Tuke Parker, A.M. 
Benson J. Lossing, LL.D. 
Lyman C. Draper, LL.D. 
Henry B. Dawson, Esq. 
Goldwin Smith, D.C.L. 
George Ticknor Curtis, A.B. 
Hon. John Meredith Read, A.M. 
Joseph Jackson Howard, LL.D. 
Richard Henry Major, F.S.A. 
Rev. Edmond de Pressense, D.D. 
Charles J. Stille, LL.D. 
William W. Story, D.C.L. 
M. Jules Marcou. 
Thomas B. Akins, D.C.L. 
M. Pierre Margry. 
Charles J. Hoadly, A.M. 
John Foster Kirk, Esq. 
Benjamin Scott, Esq. 
Hon. Charles H. Bell, LL.D. 
Rev. Edward D. Neil], D.D. 
William Gammell, LL.D. 
Rev. Thomas Hill, LL.D. 
Hon. Manning F. Force, LL.B. 
Sir Bernard Burke, C.B., LL.D. 
Samuel Rawson Gardiner, LL.D. 
Hon. John Bigelow, LL.D. 
George William Curtis, LL.D. 
Henry Charles Lea, Esq. 
Hubert H. Bancroft, A.M. 
Rev. Richard S. Storrs, LL.D. 

M. Gustave Vapereau. 

William F. Poole, LL.D. 

Rev. E. Edwards Beardsley, D.D. 

John Austin Stevens, A.B. 

Joseph F. Loubat, LL.D. 

Charles H. Hart, LL.B. 

Rev. Moses Coit Tyler, LL.D. 

Hermann von Hoist, Ph.D. 

Franklin B. Dexter, A.M. 

John M. Brown, A.M. 

Hon. Andrew D. White, LL.D. 

George W. Ranck, Esq. 

James M. Le Moine, Esq. 

Rt. Hon. Sir George O. Trevelyan, 

Bart., D.C.L. 
Henry Adams, A.B. 
Julius Dexter, A.B. 
Rev. Henry M. Baird, D.D. 
Hon. William Wirt Henry. 
Vicomte d'Haussonville. 
William F. Allen, A.M. 
James Bryce, D.C.L. 
Rev. Charles R. Weld, B.D. 
Herbert B. Adams, Ph.D. 
Signor Cornelio Desimoni. 
Gen. George W. Cullum, U.S.A. 
Hon. Jabez L. M. Curry, LL.D. 
Amos Perry, A.M. 
Horatio Hale, A.M. 
Hon. William A. Courtenay. 
Alexander Johnston, A.M. 
Rev. Mandell Creighton, LL.D. 
John Andrew Doyle, M.A. 
William C. Rives, LL.B. 


Members who have died since the last volume of the Proceedings was issued, Feb. 9, 
1888, arranged in the order of their election, and with the date of death. 


Henry Austin Whitney, A.M Feb. 21, 1889 

William Amory, A.M Dec. 8, 1888 

Rev. James Freeman Clarke, D.D June 8, 1888 

Hon Henry Morris, LL.D June 4, 1888 

Honorary and Corresponding. 

Ephraim George Squier, Esq April 17, 1888 



So long a period has elapsed since the Society began 
the publication of the Winthrop Papers, and they have 
appeared in print at such irregular intervals, that it may 
be convenient to describe briefly what has thus far been 

Nearly sixty years ago, one of our associates, Mr. James 
Bowdoin, began to prepare for the press selections from 
that portion of this collection which belonged to his 
father, the Hon. Thomas Lindall Winthrop, formerly 
President of this Society. Mr. Bowdoin's early death, 
at Havana in 1833, cut short his undertaking ; but ten 
years later, in 1843, the copies he had made were com- 
municated to the Society by his younger brother, the Hon. 
Robert C. Winthrop. They consisted of one hundred and 
thirty-five letters, mostly of the earliest Colonial period 
(including twenty-seven from Roger Williams and twenty- 
one from John Davenport) ; and they may be found 
partly in the ninth volume of the third series of the So- 
ciety's Collections, published in 1846, and partly in the 
tenth volume of the same series, published in 1849. 

Twelve years later, in 1861, the Hon. Robert C. Win- 
throp, who had in the mean time become President of 
the Society, placed at its disposal for publication a mass 
of papers which had recently come into his possession by 
a family arrangement, and which had been preserved at 
New London from a remote period. Between 1863 and 
1865 the Society published two volumes of selections 


from them, — the sixth and seventh volumes of its fourth 
series of Collections, sometimes referred to as Winthrop 
Papers, Parts I. and II. They embrace very numerous 
letters from the most eminent of the founders of New 
England ; the dates, with a few exceptions, ranging from 
1628 to 1650. Mr. Winthrop reserved for his personal 
use the letters and State papers of Governor Winthrop 
the elder, the diary of the latter's father, and certain 
family correspondence, most of which he printed in his 
" Life and Letters of John Winthrop,'' of which the first 
volume appeared in 1864 and the second in 1867. In 
the latter year Mr. Winthrop communicated to the So- 
ciety forty-eight letters of Cotton Mather, which may be 
found in the eighth volume of the fourth series of Collec- 
tions (the Mather Papers). 

In 1871 the Society published a third volume of selec- 
tions (5 Mass. Hist. Coll. I. : Winthrop Papers, Part III.), 
consisting chiefly of miscellaneous letters of the early 
Colonial period, which should be carefully studied in con- 
nection with Winthrop's " History of New England," as 
among them are many of the original authorities on which 
Governor Winthrop relied for matters not within his per- 
sonal knowledge. This volume was followed, after an 
interval of eleven years, by a fourth volume (5 Mass. Hist. 
Coll. VIII. : Winthrop Papers, Part IV.), which was 
wholly devoted to letters of Governor John Winthrop the 
younger and his brothers, together with letters of Fitz- 
John and Wait Winthrop to the close of the seventeenth 

The present volume was originally intended to include 
the political correspondence of Fitz-John Winthrop and 
Wait Winthrop from 1700 to their deaths in 1707 and 
1717, respectively ; but the mass of letters and other 
papers gradually selected and copied for this purpose 
became so large that it was decided to reserve Wait Win- 
throp's correspondence for the succeeding volume, and 


devote the present one wholly to the correspondence and 
State papers of Fitz-John Winthrop during the latter part 
of his life, together with an appendix containing a num- 
ber of miscellaneous letters and papers connected either 
with him or with Joseph Dudley. Portions of Dudley's 
correspondence to be found in this appendix throw ad- 
ditional light on the character and aims of that remark- 
able man, who figures so conspicuously in the other parts 
of the volume. 

The successive volumes above cited do not, however, 
co»mprise all the selections from these papers which have 
been published. It was the habit of the Hon. Robert C. 
Winthrop during the thirty years of his Presidency (an 
example followed more recently by his son) to make, from 
time to time, separate communication to the Society of 
single letters, or short sequences of letters, and other 
papers of interest, which may be found scattered through 
the Society's Proceedings, and which, had they been col- 
lected together, would have made a volume of nearly the 
same size as the others.* 

The magnitude of this collection ; its disorder when it 
came into the possession of its present owner; the irre- 
parable injuries portions of it had received from damp, 

* It may be convenient to record here that the Winthrop papers printed 
by the Hon. James Savage in the appendices to his editions of Winthrop's 
History of New England were loaned to him by Mr. Francis Bayard Win- 
throp, of New Haven, one of our Corresponding Members, by whose sur- 
viving children the originals were given to the Society in 1880. These 
papers and those of the Hon. T. L. Winthrop already alluded to, were frag- 
ments of the great New London collection, which remained substantially 
intact till 1817. In 1770, however, Governor Jonathan Trumbull, of Con- 
necticut, had been allowed access to it, and had been permitted to take, 
apparently somewhat at random, a limited number of manuscripts and to 
make copies of others, which are now part of the Trumbull papers given to 
this Society, in 1794, by his son. It thus happens that no inconsiderable 
part of the Society's first volume of Trumbull papers (5 Mass. Hist. Coll. IX.) 
is composed of material detached by Governor Trumbull from the Winthrop 
collection at New London more than a hundred years ago. 


and in some instances from mice ; the mistakes of the per- 
son originally employed to arrange and paste it in folios ; 
the extreme difficulty of deciphering more than half of 
the handwriting, and the fragile condition of much of the 
paper; — all combined to render it impossible for any 
Committee of Publication to make even an approach to a 
really exhaustive examination of it, or to determine any 
comprehensive scheme for editing the successive volumes 
in chronological order. All that has been practicable has 
been from time to time to prepare and annotate some- 
what miscellaneous selections of matter calculated to shed 
light upon the history of New England ; and this task, 
simple as it seems, has entailed an amount of labor which 
can only be appreciated by those who have engaged in it. 
The members of this Society who can spare the requisite 
time for such pursuits were never so few in number as 
now, and the probability is that a very long period will 
elapse before this source of information is entirely ex- 
hausted. Nearly everything of any historical value down 
to the death of Governor Winthrop the elder, in 1649, 
has already appeared, and there is very little worth 
printing of a later date than 1750 ; * but the manuscripts 
of the intervening century still exhibit a mass of original 
material, much of it only partially examined, which can- 
not fail to repay future study. 

In the preparation of the present volume the Committee 
have fortunately been able to do what was impracticable 
to their predecessors, and furnish in close proximity both 
letter and answer, thereby insuring a certain unity and 
completeness which would not otherwise have been pos- 
sible. In some instances the answers to the letters now 

* Tlx> Howdoin papers belonging to the Hon. R. C. Winthrop have never 
been regarded as part of this collection ; while the papers of Professor John 
Winthrop, the Revolutionary patriot, published by the Society in 5 Coll. IV. 
and 1 Proc. XV., came from a different source. 


printed must be sought for in the preceding part of the 
Winthrop Papers, but in most cases they are here given. 
The Committee believe their selections will be found to 
comprise many important contributions to the history of 
New England during the period covered by this volume ; 
but they realize that the interest of some of the letters 
and papers contained in it will depend largely upon indi- 
vidual taste. In dealing with historical material of the 
second order, nothing is more difficult than to decide how 
much of it is worthy of being preserved in print, and it 
not infrequently happens that what is most appreciated 
by one reader is least so by another. 

A heliotype copy of an original portrait of Fitz-John 
Winthrop, now belonging to Robert Winthrop, Esq., of 
118 Fifth Avenue, New York, who has kindly had it 
photographed for this purpose, is given as a frontispiece. 
This portrait, of which there exist several copies in oil 
taken at different periods, is supposed to have been painted 
in London between the years 1694 and 1697, when the 
subject of it was residing there as Agent for Connecticut, 
and when it was the fashion to paint military men in 
mediaeval armor. The less elaborate armor actually worn 
by him is still in possession of his family ; and his sword, 
a genuine " Andrew Ferrara," was not long ago deposited 
in the Museum of the American Antiquarian Society at 
Worcester. A miniature of him when a young officer of 
the Parliamentary army is known to have formerly ex- 
isted, but cannot now be traced. * A heliotype of his first 
commission as Major- General, with the signature and seal 
of Sir Edmund Andros, will be found at page 483. The 
Committee originally intended, in conformity to former 

* In the course of some repairs to the State Capitol at Hartford many 
years ago, several of the labels upon portraits of Connecticut celebrities 
became temporarily misplaced, which resulted in an amusing blunder by 
which, in the first edition of a History of New England by the late C. W. 
Elliott, Fitz-John Winthrop figures as a frontispiece under the name of 
Governor John Haynes. 


usage, to append other fac-similes of signatures and seals ; 
but the seals, on examination, proved to be so much in- 
jured as to defy reproduction, and the signatures became 
so numerous that it was decided not to add to the size of 
a volume already large. Any of them which the Society 
may desire to see reproduced can be hereafter given with 
the correspondence of Wait Winthrop, much of which is 
of the same period and by the same writers. 







For the Hon Ue Maj r Generall John Winthrop, att Albany ; to be left at 
Coll Aliens at Hartford, S? sent by the first Post. 

N: London, July 17. 1690. 

Honb le S R , — After my best service to your Honour, I 
am bold to enform you y t all yours here are well. This 
morning about eight of y e clock wee discovered at y e 
west end of Fishers Island, standing in between that & 
Long Island, 4 vessels, a ship, a catch & 2 sloops. They 

* Continued from 5 Mass. Hist. Coll. VIII. (Winthrop Papers, Part IV.). It may be 
convenient to repeat that the Christian name of the writer was John, and that he was styled 
Fitz-John to distinguish him from his father and grandfather. The elder of the two sons 
of Governor John Winthrop, of Connecticut, he was born in Ipswich, Mass., March 14, 
163|; left Harvard College before taking his degree on receiving a commission in the Par- 
liamentary army; served under General Monk in Scotland and elsewhere; but returned to 
New England when his regiment was disbanded after the Restoration. The remainder of 
his life was passed in the military or civil service of Connecticut. In 1690 he commanded 
the joint expedition against Canada ; from 1693 to 1697 he was Agent of Connecticut at 
the Court of William III.; and from 1698 until his death, Governor of Connecticut. He 
resided chiefly in New London, but died in Boston, Nov. 25, 1707, while on a visit to his 
brother. By his wife Elizabeth, daughter of George Tongue, of New London, he had an 
only child, Mary, who married Colonel John Livingston, of Albany, but died without issue. 
Many of these selections from Fitz-John Winthrop's own letters and State papers are 
taken from rough draughts, or copies prepared for the writer; but the letters of Ins 
correspondents are printed from the originals received by him. — Eds. 

t Rev. Gurdon Saltonstall (b. March 27, 1666 — Harv. Coll. 1684 — d. Sept. 20, 1724) 
was eldest son of Hon. Nathaniel Saltonstall, of Haverhill, and a great-grandson of Sir 
Richard Saltonstall. He was for nearly seventeen years minister of New London, during 
which period he took so active a part in public affairs and acquired so much influence in 
Connecticut, that he was by common consent chosen Governor on the death of Fitz-John 
Winthrop, in 1707, and held that office until his own death. — Eds. 


made, the best of y r way in, with English colours. They 
were attended upon by a company of about 150 men, all 
along y e shore as y y came into y e harbour, who hailed 
them on Mamacock whence they were & were answered 
" from Jamaica." They sailed up & anchored ag e Cap* 
Denes's, made severall waves w th y r antient for a boat to 
come on board, but had no answer from us. There y y 
lay a considerable while with y r English colours flying ; 
at last y y put out y r French colours, fired a great shot, 
& at once every vessell took to y r oares (y e wind being ag fc 
them) and stood out. There were severall great shots 
fired after them, (and many by y m ) in all to y e number of 
50, some whereof struck y r ships. With y e aid y t came in 
for our help we had in arms, on both sides of y e River, 
neer 400 men, besides Indians. Our men followed them 
down as low as y e harbours mouth, with shouts & shot, 
and there y y now ly at anchor. Wee have a rumor that 
gr ^ym: ph[p S? ^vith 4 ships, is at Road Island, and there- 
upon wee have dispatched a post for that place, another 
along y e shore, another for Hartford. I expect an attack 
to morrow. There are neer 350 men on y e guard this 
night ; Maj r Palmes is with us and hath as much command 
as any body, and yet I think y r is nothing w c we want 
more. This night y r came over from Fishers Island a small 
number of Indians, who give an acct of a skirmish y l y y 
had with a small number of the French. They have 
brought over a scalp with them and say y y have left one 
dead there whose scalp they had not time to take. It is 
presumed (upon y r report) y fc your house is rifled at y e 
Island ; w fc credit may be given to it I know not. The 
reports wee have are very uncertaine. Doct r Williams is 
just now come from Martins Vineyard, who contradicts y e 
report we heard formerly & tells us y 1 both Martins Vine- 
yard & Nantucket are safe. I have not had time in this 
hurry to speak with your Islanders, but shall take the first 
opportunity. M r . 8 B : & M? Mary is well, who presents her 


duty to you, and service is given from all hands, espec : 
from my wife, who thanks your Hon r kindly for mee. 
Wee long'd heartily for your Hon r here to day. My wife 
seems to bee enclined to goe up to Hartford with M rs Mary. 
If she doth, I shall be y e readier for your Hon rs service at 
Albany, where, if you doe not intend a speedy return, I 
shall waite you & approve my self 

Your unfeigned S fc . 

G. Saltonstall. 

I had a hard journey from Hartford and am not yet rid 
of y e feaver. My bro Thorn : presents his service to your 
Hon r & I would entreat your Hon r to give mine to M r Lev- 
ingstone. I hope your Hon r will pardon y e erratas, writing 
in haste & being just now called off to assist in forming of 
y e guard. 


N: Lond: July 24. 1690. 

HoN BLE S R , — I doubt not but your Hon r hath rec d a ltt r 
of mine bearing date the 17 th instant, that being the day 
wherein y e enemy made an attack upon this place. I 
sent your Hon r therein as good an acct of all the remark- 
able passages worthy of notice in it, as y e haste of the 
post, then mounted for Hartford, would permit mee. I 
had thought to have given you a new and more compleat 
acct, but when I consider in what a hurry & distracting 
way almost every thing here is acted, I can have but little 
hopes to mend the former relation, if I should attempt it. 
As for the erratas y* have escaped my pen, whether in 
point of orthography or of style, you will soon perceive 
from y e apparent causes of both (viz : an affrighted mind 
& a trembling hand) that at least a great measure of the 
blame may, without any injustice, be transfered from mee 


to those whose entrance into our port was as formidable 
& swaggering as theire exit was sneaking & shamefull. 
As far as I remember, S r the last acc fc I gave you of them 
was y fc w n y y row d out of our River, which was y e 17 th 
instant, they came to an anchor at the mouth of it, & 
lay all night within call of our soldiers y fc were posted 
on each side of y e River, neer or upon y e chops of y e har- 
bour. The next morning, at break of y e day, they weighed 
anchor and stood over for your Island ; 3 of them came 
to anchor there between y e hamocks & y e harbour ; the 
other, which was y e biggest sloop, (as wee guest her, about 
50 tunn) stood up y e Sound, took a small sloop to y e west- 
ward of Fishers Island, then returned to & anchored with 
the rest. Here they lay the remainder of this day, 
and left not the place wholly (tho some say 2 of them 
cruised up y e Sound on Saturday) untill Munday in y e 
morning ; at which time, y e wind at North West, they 
weighd and weathered y e west end of your Island, & so 
stood along between that & Long Island. Since which 
time I have had no intelligence of them y* may with any 
safety be depended upon. Rumors say y t some vessels 
y fc came from Boston on purpose to find them, joyning 
with others of Road Island, did engage them that day 
in y e evening y fc y y left your Island (off of Block Island) 
and wee are impatient till wee are satisfied of y e truth & 
event of it, w c wee waite for & expect every minute. M r 
Brinley from Road Island gives an acct that 2 ships, a 
katch & a sloop, sailed out of Boston after them on y e 
Wedensday before y y left Fishers Island, and y t y e winds 
have been so favourable y fc wee conclude y y cannot easyly 
miss of them. The day before yesterday a Jamaica sloop, 
w th 4 guns & between 30 & 40 men, came in hither from 
York, in pursuit of y e enemy, & sailed y e next mornin. 
early. It is s d y t he had an acct by 4 men y fc went on board 
him in our harbour y e same morning he sailed, y 4 as soon 
as ever y e enemy discovered the Boston & Road Island 


vessells, y y sent y e katch, w c was a prize y y had made, 
(& retaken from some of Capt Massons men, who were 
pressed from Port-Royall bound to N York and ordered to 
y e Lt Governour there ; there was another catch taken in 
company with her, very richly loaden likewise, and or- 
dered y e same way, sunk by them, on Block-Island shore) 
with y e sloop y y took in y e Sound, to y e Westward ; so y* 
he expected to meet with one or both of them off of 
Fishers Island. As for a particular ace* of your affaires 
upon y e Island, I spare it in this place, bee : here comes 
enclosed one from M r Smethurst of my penning, w c speaks 
as much of y e loss you have sustained there as we know. 
When I got home, I found all your Islanders but Jonathan 
in a very great fright hurrying to Boston y e very next 
morning, & so could by no means come to a speech with 
them. You will perceive by his letter w* his inclinations 
are ; I have used all the arguments I can think of with 
him, but cannot alter them. Your Hon rs presence here 
would doe much, or (if that is not likely to be attained) 
your directions unto him. When I was last down w th M rs 
Betty (who is very well, w th M rs Mary, & doe y r respects & 
duty in order unto your Hon 1 ) wee were discoursing about 
severall things y* wee wanted to know your Hon 3 mind 
concerning. He name them, and shall be ready my self 
to be as serviceable as I can in attending any directions 
you send : Whether you would have any of y e creatures 
removed from y e Island ? If they must stay there, how y y 
should be provided for in y e winter ? I have urged Jon- 
athan to mow & make w* hay will be needfull for their 
keeping, and he tels mee he will doe whatever he is able ; 
his Negroe is still with him & he expects Peter up again 
dayly. Yesterday I spake with M r Ashby concerning 
buisness at y r farme ; I find y e barley was then mowing ; 
but the grass had not been touched w th a sithe ; he bids 
mee tell you y* y e enemy hath hitherto given your la- 
bourers a little diversion, but y 4 now y y will fall too in 


good earnest ; and y e truth is hee seems to be resolved 
to doe w* he can to make them stand stoutly to y r work. 
As for y e affaires of the county and town, they are still 
too much in confusion ; and though I doubt not but 
your Hon rs presence & command at Albany will exceed- 
ingly contribute to y e safety of y e country in generall, 
and so redound to our particular profit & benefitt, yet w n 
I consider how easyly our domestick distractions would 
be allayed & quieted by your being present among us, I 
must profess my self as desirous to see your Hon r here as 
I am willing to waite upon you where you are. M re Betty 
hath been put to no small trouble to carry things from 
home & to secure them abroad ; my wife & family was 
posted at your Hon rs a considerable while, it being 
thought to be y e most convenient place for the femi- 
nine rendevouz. M r James (who commands in cheife 
among them) upon y e coast alarme given, faceth to y e 
mill, gathers like a snow ball as he goes, makes a gene- 
rall muster at your Hon rs , and so posts away with the 
greatest speed, to take y e advantage of y e neighbouring 
rocky hills, craggy inaccessible mountaines ; so that w*- 
ever els is lost, M r James & y e women are safe. There 
was a late convention of y e military officers of the County 
of N: London held here to consult of and resolve upon 
what might be most for y e security of this County, and 
of this Town in speciall ; Maj r Palmes was desired to 
be present. After they had resolved upon some con- 
clusions Maj r Palmes came and disliked what they had 
done, giving only this generall reason, that they were for 
driving and he was for drawing. He staid not long, but 
departed in a very great heat ; desired those present to 
take notice y t he declared ag* their proceedings and that 
it would not be long ere both what he would have done, and 
they had done, would be overhaled. There can be nothing 
more grievous to mee than to behold such irreconcileable 
contentions at home, when the enemy threatens us with 


destruction at our very dores ; in so much, that were 
there no other reason, I should think it adviseable, for 
my own part, to remove from such a place whatever T 
am unwilling to loose. I purposed on y e beginning of 
the next week to remove my wife (who sends her hearty 
service to your Hon r ) to Hartford ; but am afraid that 
I shall be hindred from doing it so speedely, shee being 
this day taken, and most of this day sick in bed, with 
a violent feaver, which I fear will incapacitate her for such 
a journey. The enemy as y y came on upon this coast 
took a katch belonging to M r Paine of Southhold about 
40 leagues southard of Cape Cod, hired to loaden with 
provision by some merchants in Boston (of whom M r Bel- 
char was one) and bound for Barbadoes. The katch y y 
burnt after they had taken out of her w* they had occa- 
sion for. The mariners were set on shore on Block 
Island; some of them have made their escape, and are 
now in town, who say that they learnt by y e enemy that 
they expected to meet with a ship off Block Island of 
40 guns; and y fc when they came from Petguavas there 
were twelve saile of brigantines & sloops making ready 
for these coasts ; so got a supply of provision, which is 
very much wanted among them. What credit may be 
given to this story I know not ; but yet I think wee may 
rationally expect to be frequently alarmd here this sum- 
mer, and therefore cannot, without being guilty of great- 
est imprudence, neglect to put our selves into a better 
posture of defence y n wee are likely speedily to be in. 
Something for that end is resolved upon : As y fc y r be 
a battery raised by Capt Deniss, w c is already begun 
and some platforms for great guns made ; that three of 
y e guns at Say-brook be brought hither ; that y r be 
watches & wards kept along upon y e shore ; but how far 
these things will be attended and prosecuted I know not. 
There hath been proposall made (as I take it, by Maj r 
Palmes) concerning a beacon to be placed on Mount Pros- 



pect on your Island, and y* a watch & ward be kept there, 
which I would desire your judgment of, if you think 
meet. T have not as yet had a line from y e Councill 
above, and y r fore can say nothing concerning my waiting 
upon your Hon r at Albany, save y* I am now, and ever 
shall be, ready to attend your orders and obey your 
desires or commands. I hope, S r , you find all things 
there according to your mind ; or if you doe not, I doubt 
not but they will be soon so ordered, if it lie within y e 
compass, or is attainable by ye greatest, best and most 
exact measures of prudence. At as great a distance as I 
am, I endeavour to contribute my mite to y e success of 
y e expedition your Hon r is engaged in, and shall never 
cease to supplicate Almighty God for a blessing on your 
undertakings, or by any meanes (whereby I am able) to 
approve my self 

Your Hon" most humble Serv fc , 

G. Saltonstall. 

Bro Thomas presents his service to your Hon! Pray 
S r give my hearty service to M r Livingstone. 

To the Hono hU Maj r General! John Winthrop, at Albany. 

N: Loxd: July 28. 1690. 

Hon d S R , — I have not untill now had an opportunity 
to send the enclosed unto you ; which makes mee add a 
line or 2 to enform you w fc hath hapned since the writing 
thereof. Cap* Paine of Road Island, in a sloop with 60 
men & 10 guns, came to engage with the French y e same 
day they left your Island, being last Munday. He sought 
them under saile, being himself at anchor under Block 
Island, whither y e enemy directed their course from 
hence w th an intention utterly to destroy the place ; 
(which, as we learn from some y' were on board them 


when they were here, and now in town, was y r design 
upon this place, in requitall of Capt Mason's kindness who 
served those at Portroyall in y e same sort). Some from 
on bord the French since y r engagement with Paine, re- 
port that he killed them 13 men out right (whereof one 
was y e master of y e great sloop) and wounded many 
more. Paine lost only one Indian, and some few of his 
men not dangerously wounded. About 4 hours after the 
fight, y e Boston ships came in sight ; the enemy there- 
upon fled, and Cap* Sugars went in pursuit of them ; to 
accelerate their speed they sank the katch y y brought 
into our harb r , shee being but a dull sailer, and put all 
or most of y e English prisoners in to another vessell & 
gave them leave to shift for themselves. These are 
since come into Road Island ; some of them have passed 
through our town and give us y e information I send you. 
Things still remain in y e same broken posture, and very 
much want your Hon rs direction & commands w c would 
soon amend them. Your family is in good health ; my 
wife lies very sick of a very bad feavour, w c I doubt will 
hinder my carry g her to Hartford. Wee have news here 
y* your Hon r is set out from Albany with twenty hundred 
men, three field peices &c. If it be so, S r , I wish I had 
the hon r to make one of your traine; and am fully as- 
sured y* among them all you would find none more ready 
to attend your commands than 

Your most obliged S fc , 

G. Saltonstall. 


To the Hon Ue Maf Gen 11 John Winthrop, at Albany. 

N : London, August 1. 1690. 

Hon d S B , — Last night I was at Maj r Palmes' s, when he 
desired mee to take care of the letter enclosed ; some 


formalities about a receipt for the delivery of it were 
attended, without w c you would hardly had y e sight of 
it at Albany. Since my last I know nothing very consid- 
erable that hath hapned here. This week we have been 
alarm'd by vessels on y e coast, w c proved Yorkers, sent 
in pursuit of the enemy. They landed with a Periauger 
on Fisher's Island, which hath scared Jonathan & Peter 
off ; Jonathan, as M rs Betty tels mee, offers his share of 
graine to any body that will secure y e rest, but will not 
venture himself upon y e Island without a guard. I have 
not as yet spoke with him, but shall take y e first oppor- 
tunity to rectifie him in that matter. Last night arrived 
here the gentleman with his family who is to live at 
your farme. The carpenters' negligence I fear will be 
some disapointment to him, they having not as yet made 
the house ready to receive him. Your Hon r will from 
hence conclude how welcome your presence would be 
here ; but if that cannot be obtained, you shall find that 
wherein I am able & your Hon r please to command, 
I am your most faithfull S l , 

G. Saltonstall. 
Your Hon" family are well. 


Albany, Aug: 26: 1690. 

May it please Yoy Hon f , — Wee haue with all ac- 
knowledgment of gratitude received y e person of y e hon ble 
Majf Gen 11 Winthrop, with those persons under his com- 

* Colonel Peter Schuyler (b. 1657 — d. 1724), first Mayor of Albany and Chairman of 
the Hoard of Commissioners for Indian Affairs, was celebrated for his skill in dealing with 
Bavage tribes. Direk Wesselsson, or Wessels, was named one of the Aldermen, in the 
charter of Albany granted by Governor Dongan, and was afterward Recorder. This letter 
is from a copy in the handwriting of Fitz-John Winthrop, who may have mistaken the sig- 
nature of the Recorder. The name is commonlv printed Wessels, Wessells, or Wesselse. 
See Munsell's Annals of Albany and O'Callaghan's N. Y. Col. Documents, passim. — Eds. 


and for y e expedition for Canada ; with whom we set 
forwards with great hope of success, but to our great sor- 
row found ourselves greatly disapointed, haueing traveled 
about one hundred English miles and expecting to haue 
found canooes enough to haue transported y e whole army, 
there was not enough for half the Christians. The In- 
dians allsoe, contrary to their agrement with y e Comis- 
sioners, stayed back & came not to the apointed place ; 
we found not aboue 70 Indians of all the 5 nations where 
we expected aboue 300. The small pox allsoe being very 
rife among the Indians was giuen as some reason for their 
staying at home. Its noe small greif to us that this 
hon ble gent m has had noe better succes, of whose conduct 
we haue noe reason to doubt of in the least, but are 
highly satisfyed in his indevoures, tho it hath pleased the 
Almighty to frustrate his & our designes. We may alsoe 
let yor Hon? know that the Maj' Gen 1 . 1 , with the advice 
of the Councill of War, sent out aboue 42 of our choice 
young men with y e 70 Maquaes & Onyades who were 
with us, and about 30 of the Shackcough & River Indians, 
and haue orderd them to alarme & spoile any of the 
enemy as they haue opportunety ; w c . h we hope may be 
seruiceable to y e fleete. Wee understand by y e Maj r that 
y e sd fleete from New England is gon out towards Can- 
ada ; we doe heartily pray God bles them with succes ; 
otherwise our condition is like to be this winter very 
deplorable. We haue at p r sent noe more to trouble 
yo r Hon! with, but with our hearty respects remaine yo T . 
Hon™ assured freinds & humble seruants, 

P. Schuyler, Mag* 

Dirck Wesselsson, Recorder. 

For the Hon^- e the Gov r & Councill of his Ma d ? 8 Collony of Conecti- 
cot, at Hartford, New-England, these. 


To the Hon hU Maj r . Gen 11 John Winthrop, at Boston. 

N: Lond: January 241 69£. 

S R , — Coming so lately from the anniversary feast at 
Master Plumbs, I cannot forget to wish your Honour a 
good New Year. By the general concourse there it is 
hopefully predicted a moderate winter will ensue ; I 
wish them in y e right, principally that your Hon r may 
have an inviting opportunity for a speedy return. By 
Anthony I reed yours, which I humbly return you my 
thanks for, and for y e trouble you were pleased to take 
about y e enclosed. Wee dont forget here y e authority 
you were pleased to invest the Justice & my self with, 
but accordg to y e gaise of y e world are like to improve 
it to such purpose y fc nothing y fc is good is like to escape 
us. Your family and affaires here are in good order ; I 
have not just now an opportunity to speak with them, 
nor had I to see them at y e last nights collation, but the 
day before I understood by M rs Betty of an opportunity 
to write directly to you in a short time ; w c consideration 
and y e shortness of y e present time I have of writing, as 
also bee this comes to you round about by Norwich, so 
to Taunton &c, hath made me less concerned to enquire 
whether there is any thing here needf nil to acquaint your 
Hon r with ; but I shall not forget it, either by Cap* Prents 
who intends down quickly, or by y e other person whom 
M rs Betty told me of, whose name I have forgotten. I 
have been bold with the gun you were pleased to lend 
me and have proved so fortunate y i I am still bolder in 
this request, that your Honour would please (if without 
trouble & with conveniency it may be) to enquire after 
the fellow of it. If Coll Shrimpton hath by this time 
worn it out of esteem, and will easyly part with it, I 
think none will better serve my turn. For news I can 


send you word here is arrived a brigantine from Eng- 
land, and a gentleman in it y* quite outdoes all our 
Hectors, so that at present y y are much crestfallen. 
Some wagers were laid before of great things to be 
by y e 10 th of March, but I beleive y y wish y e money in 
y r pockets. The gentleman saith that twenty 4 hours 
before he sailed out of England y r was a currant report 
of a great battell & victory y* K. W. had obtained in 
Flanders, but no confirmation. I beg you S r to give my 
due service to his Hon r your brothr and to y e ladies in 
his house, with thanks for my Almanack. My wife hath 
robd M rs Betty of a paper of your black powder, and 
hath found such good by it y* she begs his Hon r to spare 
her a potion or two. I hope, S r , you will not forget to 
give my service & excuse mee to Coll Dungan. Here is 
still a generall peace, and yet great wishes for a change. 
I cannot tell, and they themselves are afraid, how long it 
will be ere y y see y r wishes accomplished ; but I hope 
we y* look for a speedier and as good & great a change, 
w c your return hither & presence with us will necessa- 
rily effect, shall not so long be tormented upon y e tenter- 
hooks of expectation ; for I am sure, as our wishes may 
at least compare with the strongest of those affections 
wherewith they hug y r deer chimeras, so it far excells 
them in y* w c is y e ground of all reasonable desines, true 
knowledge & a reguller understanding. I hope your Hon r 
will now and then at y r leisure think of us, and ere 
it be long let us have leave to welcome w fc we wish for, 
your return home. In y e mean time, I shall be ready 
to serve you in w* I am able, and be alwayes at your 

Your most humble & obligd S*, 

G. Saltonstall. 



Major-Generall Winthrop: 

Sir, — It is the opinion of many very prudent & con- 
siderable persons, of this Colony of Connecticott, that 
the best expedient to setle this Colony in peace and 
unity, and to attaine a right understanding amongst 
all partys, would be to get the Charter granted by 
King Charles ratified & confirmed by a letter from the 
King, or in such method as the learned in the law 
shall direct, with these expositions following : That 
whereas King Charles in his Royall Charter declares 
that his pleasure is that his subjects here should be 
civilly, peaceably, and religiously governed, — Therefore 
first, that their Majesties pleasure be declared that an 
able, learned & pious ministry be maintained in all the 
parishes of this Colony, and that maintenance not to de- 
pend upon the arbetrary humors of the vulgar sort of 
people, but that the civill authority take due care that 
there be a sutable and honourable maintenance stated in 
every place for them, according to the numbers, qualitys, 
& abilitys of the people, that so that the clergie of this 
Colony may not fall into contempt ; — Secondly, that 
due civill rights of the King's subjects here may be pre- 
served inviolable, That their Majesties pleasure be de- 
clared that, according to the express words of the Charter, 
the people here shall enjoy " all the priveledges of free & 
naturall-borne subjects in this our Realme of England,' ' 
That therefore they declare that all their subjects here 
who desire the benifit of the Common and Statute Laws 
of England may enjoy them without the least abridge- 
ment or infringement; for it hath been a great misinter- 
pretation & perverting of the sceme of the Charter that 

* Samuel Willis, of Hartford (b. in England 1632 — Harv. Coll. 1653 — d. 1709), was 
for thirty-four years an Assistant of Connecticut and some time Commissioner of the United 
Colonies. His father, George Willis (or Wyllys), was third Governor of Connecticut. — Eds. 

1693.] SAMUEL WILLIS. 17 

the favour therein granted to make sutable locall laws 
should in the least barr the people of this Colony from y e 
enjoyment of priveledges which the King & Queen, by 
their Coronation Oath, are sworne to maintaine in all 
their Dominions ; therefore for any here to take upon 
them to abrogate & abolish the English laws as useles 
and burthensome is a prerogative the King himself does 
not assume, much less any of his subjects, nor are any 
such impositions put upon any of the King's Colonys of 
America. It is certaine the wise men of this Colony will 
never bare it to have themselves inslaved, and their pos- 
terity, to the arbetrary humors of their fellow-subjects, 
and to be deprived of the English laws which our fa- 
thers esteemed the best in the world. — Thirdly, That 
their Majesties please to declare that persons of mean 
& low degree be not improved in the cheifest place 
of civill & military affairs, to gratifie some litle humors, 
when they are not qualified nor fit for the King's ser- 
vice, which will bring inevitably their Majesties govern- 
ment here into contempt both amongst themselves and 
neighbour Colonys ; but that persons of good parintage, 
education, abilitye, and integrity be setled in such offices, 
as may administer law, justice & equity to the King's 
subjects here (that so the honour and justice of his gov- 
ernment of his Colonys of America may shine forth as 
well as in his Kingdomes of Urope, where liberty and 
property are duly preserved), y fc religion and righteous- 
ness may flourish in this Colony. These things being 
obtained, it may be hoped that this part of the countrey 
may flourish under a peaceable and orderly establish- 
ment, and without which it is feared twill be like the 
waves of a troubled sea. 

Your humble Servant, 

Samuell Willis. 

Hartford, Sept: 1693. 

These, for Major-Gen 11 Winthrop, to peruse at his leisure. 




To the Hono rh } Major Gen r ! 1 FitzJohn Winthrop Esq, in New London, 

this del r . 

Hon rble S?, — I receaved yours againe by M r Ray men t 
& returne you many thanks for your kinde letters, which 
I really intended to have retaliated with a short visit, 
thereby to have paid my respects to you and taken my 
valediction of you, haveing laid me under so great obliga- 
tions by yo r great condescendency in so great an under- 
taking for secureing of our liberties & properties, and 
shall as in duty bound always pray for Heavens blessing 
to accompanie you and all my hearty prayers & well 
wishes to God for you, and desire others may doe the 
same and doe assuredly beleeve it will be done. And its 
noe small thing to me that by reason of the paucity of 
the members of o r Court I am disapointed of takeing my 
leave and sending you away not only w th my poor bless- 
ing but hope of all the good people of the Colonie, w ch is 
ground of encouragement to you, being not onely so freely 
& gener 1 - 7 called to this great work, but also many prayers 
will goe along w th you for yo r good protection & pros- 
perity therein. And as it hath been my true & hearty 
desires and reall endeavours that you may be well ac- 
comodated in yo r way & for your work, so I hope I shall 
be willing and all ways readie to doe whats w th me for yo r 
hono rb,e and comfortable supplies, and have accquainted 
my Counsell w th y e contence of yo r lett rs , who are under 
dificulties, but hope the Gen rU Court so just at hand may 
and will enlarge therein though it seeme dificulte to us. 

* Robert Treat, of Milford (b. in England 1622 -died 1710), passed his life in the mili- 
tary or civil service of Connecticut, where he was deservedly beloved and respected. 
Greatly distinguished in the Indian wars, he was fifteen years Governor, and retiring at 
his own desire, consented to serve as Deputy-Governor under Fitz-John Winthrop, between 
whom and himself there existed a very cordial intimacy. At the date of this letter he 
was still Governor, and Fitz-John was about starting for England as Agent of the 
Colonv. — Eds. 


And, Hono rd Sy haveing so great confidence in your reall 
and hearty afections not only to me yo r freind and fathers 
freind but to the wholl Colonie, and especially in yo r 
selfe-denieall in this adventure for their good, truely and 
faithfully to represent o r state and condition, desireing in 
all things to be loyall & obedient to their Ma- S , of which 
you can assure them, and of our all ways readines to be 
helpfull to our nighbour Colonies as able, and also to 
cleare us as far as you may from the calumnious aspertions 
of o r westerne nighbours, and to doe yo r sense endeavours 
to get all o r choyse priveledges to be continued to us. A 
word to y e wise may suffice : I have lately heard of one 
S r Stephen Evans, a Newhaven born man, mention'd as 
freindly.* I referre you to Collo 11 Allins lr s for news and 
shall take leave, committing you and your dificult and 
arduous afairs to the protection of y e Lord, & remain 
Your afetionate freind & humble servant, 

Robert Treat. 

October y c 10* 1693. 


Tunbridg Wells, 14 th July, 1694. 
Coll Wintrop, — I will by no meens interfere with 
you aboutt the 100 lb M r Belamy is to haue of my Coss 

* Presumably Stephen Evance, who was born in New Haven April 21, 1652. He was a 
son of John Evance, one of the signers of the original compact of June 4, 1639. The father 
probably returned to England about 1656.. See Savage's Genealogical Dictionary. — Eds. 

f William Ashurst, of an ancient Lancashire family, was one of the leading members 
of the Long Parliament. His younger brother, Henry, became a wealth}' London merchant, 
one of the founders of the Corporation for Propagating the Gospel in Foreign Parts, and 
a man eminent for benevolence and piety. Henry's eldest son, Sir Henry Ashurst, Baronet, 
of Waterstock, Co. Oxford, sat many years in Parliament, repeatedly acting as Agent for 
the New England Colonies, to whom he rendered important services. His brother, Sir 
William Ashurst, some time Lord Mayor of London, also sat in Parliament, and was ac- 
tively interested in Colonial affairs. Sir Henry's wife was a daughter of Lord Paget, and 
a niece of his married the Lord Chancellor Cowper, so that the family were able to exert 
social as well as political influence. There are much earlier letters of Sir Henry, addressed 
to the father of Fitz-John Winthrop; and they will one day see the light in a long-delayed 
volume of selections from the correspondence of Governor John Winthrop the younger, 
with many prominent men of his time. — Eds. 


Thompson, you haueing itt for the same end I haue. I 
pray let mee know p this bearer when you goe. I was 
a litle troubled I did not see you befor I left the towne ; 
I was affraid you toold something il of mee, w c * I shold 
bee troubled at if you did, for I am uery realy 
Yo r faithfull frind & Se tfc , 

Hen. Ashhurst. 

For the Hon hle Maj r . Gen 11 John Winthrop Esq r ., in London, these present. 

Hartford, OctV r 19. 1694. 

Hon BU! S R , — Your letters of June 4 & July 16 th last 
we have received and are glad to heare of your wellfare 
and that you have proceeded so far in our affayres, and 
trust through the mercy of God you will in a short time 
obtayne a good and comfortable issue of our occasions 
under your management & a safe returne unto us againe, 
which we pray God to hasten. We are well satisfyed w- 
your chargeing a bill of one hundred & thirty pounds 
upon our Treasurer, which will be well payd to content 
and we shall readily take your advice to be kind to our 
neighboures of the Massachusets & New Yorke. And ac- 
cordingly you may remember that, as we in our former 
letters acquainted you, we had granted Col : Fletcher six 
hundred pounds out of our Country Rate this sumer payd, 
& in August last we sent 60 men upon Col: Fletchers 
desire to wayte upon him while he was treating with the 
Five Nations at Albany, which with that part of what we 
granted towards a present that was given to the Five 
Nations will amount to about fow r er hundred & fifty 
pounds ; so that our charge granted towards Albany es 
support within a twelve month will be ten hundred & 
fifty pounds, and we shall be ready to doe our duty still 
for the advancement of their Ma tie9 interest & the defence 


of their Ma* 1 . 68 subjects there. S r you are well acquainted 
with the great cost & charge we have been out upon y e 
defence of Albany in former times & ever since their 
Ma"! 58 coming to y e . crowne ; which we hope will bee 
taken notice of to our advantage, notwithstanding our 
neighboures endeaveoures to represent us as those that 
take no care of and affoard little towards the defence of 
their Ma ties interest in these American partes of the world. 
If it be considered what we have done towards the de- 
fence of our neighboures in the Massachusets up the 
Kiver & Albany, & oar owne poverty, we doubt not but 
it will be to the sattisf action of our superiors at home. 
But we must leave it to y T . Honnour to improve these 
things so as may be best for our advantage. Sf at this 
time armes & ammunition are very scarse to be had and 
at very deere rates. Gunpowder is at fifteen pounds a 
barrell. If their Ma"? 8 out of their abundant grace & 
bounty would be pleased to grant us as they shall see 
reason, a supply of such things in this time of warr, we 
shall with all humility and thankfullness acknowledg their 
bounty & improve the same against theire enemies & for 
the defence of our selves and other their Ma ties good 
subjects in these parts; we having exhausted our own 
stocks in their Ma ties service & by reason of blasts & other 
frownes of Gods Providence we are brought very low r . 
We need not mention how we lye open to the enemy by 
sea & land ; you can fully informe that matter, and of 
our fortes at New London & Saybrooke and the charge 
we are at there. If any thing could be procured toward 
the supply of those fortes it would be acceptable. S r in 
a postscript to your letter you are pleased to mention 
to us that the Earle of Arran hath layd a clayme to 
the lands from the east side of Conecticutt Kiver, Nar- 
rogancett & Khode Island & those partes to which we 
say our charter doth bear the eldest date. Ours was 
granted 1631 by the Earle of Warwick, which our Colony 


purchased Decemb r 5. 1644 & was confirmed to us by 
Charles the second of blessed memorie the 23 d of Aprill 
in the fowerteenth year of his reigne, & have bin ever 
since possessed by us, which we conceive will cleare up 
o r right & make null the Earle of Arran's right to those 
landes. We hope this will be sufficient at present, but if 
we know what farther is objected against us, it shall be 
our worke to send our answers to such objections, but we 
hope there will be no need of any more at p r sent. Hon b ! e 
S r we are in hopes of your returne by the next ships ; we 
shall therefore add no more at p r sent but our hearty re- 
spects to your Hon r , with hearty thankes for your great 
care and paynes in our affaires under your care and 
management, and are Your most affectionate Freinds and 
Servants, The Gov r & Council of Conecticutt, 
their order, signed p 

John Allyn,* SecreP. 



To the Rt Hon bl the Lords Comiss™ of Trade and Plantacons The 
Memorial of Fitz John Winthrop Esq r Agent fur his Maf ! Jl s Colony oj 

That his Maj tie , by his commission dated the 10 th of 
June 1693, constituted Benjamin Fletcher Esq r Generall 
and Comander in chief of New York and to be Comander 
in chief of the Militia and of all the forces within the 
Colony of Connecticott, with power to levy, arm, muster, 

* John Allyn, of Hartford (b. in England — d. 1G96), was for thirty-four years a Con- 
necticut magistrate, and for twenty-eight years Secretary of the Colony, besides discharg- 
ing other public duties. The Winthrop Papers embrace a mass of his letters, chiefly to 
Governor John Winthrop the younger, some of which will one day be printed. There are 
a Dumber of other letters from the Council of Connecticut to Fitz-John Winthrop while he 
was their Agent in London; but it has not been thought desirable to print them in this 
volume. — Eds. 


command and employ the said Militia and upon neces- 
sary and urgent occasions to transfer the same to New 
York. That the said Fletcher demanded of the said 
Collony of Conecticott v considerable supplyes of men, 
amunicon and provision, in so large a maiier and propor- 
tion as was chargeable and grievous to the inhabitants, 
and at such time when the said Collony was in greater 
danger from the enemy than the Province of New York ; 
notwithstanding which the said Collony did sev'rall times 
send large and suitable supplyes and relief to New York. 
That the said Fletcher pressing the said Collony of Conecti- 
cott with frequent and unreasonable demands of supplyes, 
the said Collony in the yeare 1693 by their peticon 
complained thereof to their Majestyes and prayd relief 
therein. That the matter of the said peticon was referred 
to the Lords Comittee of Trade and Plantacons and by 
them to their Majf Attorny and Sollicitor Generall for 
their opinion, who reported That y e Militia of the said 
Collony consists of all males from 16 to 60 years of age, 
— that the Charter and Grant of the said Collony doth 
give y e ordinary power of the Militia to the Government 
there, But that his Maj- might constitute a Chief Com- 
ander who may have authority to comand or order such 
a proportion of the forces of each Collony as his Maj*!? 
shall think fitt, But in time of peace the Militia of the 
said Collony ought to be under the rule and govern- 
ment of the said Collony. That his Maj*, 16 was gratiously 
pleased in Councill to approve y e said Report and to 
order that the quota for the said Collony of Conecticott 
should not exceed one hundred and twenty men. That 
her late Maj" e was thereupon gratiously pleased to signify 
her royal pleasure to the said Fletcher and allso by her 
royall letter to the Govern 1 and Magistrates of Conecti- 
cott Collony to intimate that the sd Fletcher in the exe- 
cucon of the powers of this said Comisson should not take 
upon him any more than during this warr to command 


a quota or part of the Militia of the said Collony of Con- 
ecticott, not exceeding the number of one hundred and 
twenty men, with especiall direcons that the said Govern* 
of New York should not command or draw out more of 
the sd quota of the said Militia then he should command 
or draw out from the respective Militia's of the adjacent 
Collonyes. That the said Agent is informed that the 
same comand and power relating to the Militia of the 
said Collony of Conecticott is intended to be granted to 
the Earl of Bellomont Govern r of New England and New 
York as was at first granted to the said Fletcher. The 
said Agent therefore in behalf of the said Collony prays 
that the power to be given to my Lord Bellomont and 
the Govern r of New England and New York for the time 
being relating to the Militia of the said Collony may be 
qualifyed with and subject to such directions and restric- 
tions as were by her late Maj"? given to the said Fletcher 
in the execucon of his said power, and that the said 
quota during this warr may be the standing measure of 
assistance to be given by the said Collony of Conecticott, 
and that to be drawne out and commanded onely in pro- 
portion with the forces to be drawne out of the other 
Collonyes, and that in time of peace the Militia of the 
said Collony may be solely under the comand and dis- 
posall of the Govern r and Company of the said Collony. 

J: Winthrop. 

Duplicates of y e sd report & of his Majesty'es letter, 
the sd Agent has ready to produce. 

Indorsed by F. J. W. " this not prsented." 



N: Lond: Aug. 6. 1696. 

Hon bl S R , — You have been long looked for here, and 
the news of the French fleet designed upon this coast 
made me think you would be here to take some order 
about Fishers Island. If the French intend for York 
(which may I think be supposed) that Island will ly con- 
veniently for them ; and methinks it would not be amiss 
to draw off what stock might be fit for a market this 
summer, before they come. I mention it bee : I hear 
Singleton is much concerned about his dividend, & talks 
of getting them off, but w* he will do I cannot tell. M rs 
Betty desires me to enform you y* divers of your young 
Indians at y e farm are very ill & some dangerously ; she 
hath taken one to this side, who is very ill with a feaver 
& sore leg ; and she prays for some phisick & materials 
to make water for his leg. There is some hay, I under- 
stand, gotten at Fishers Island, but not enough, & it is 
very hard, as I understand by M rs Betty, to get mowers 
to go over. William the miller makes a great stir about 
his wages ; his year is up & he s th he will be gon, he can 
have more of M r Elderkin & divers others ; this M rs 
Betty told me is his discourse, & she desireth me to talk 
with him, which I have done & I find him unwilling to be 
persuaded to patience till y e Maj r comes from England; 
but I have prevaild with him to promise to stay till your 
self come up (which I think is much at one), if you see 
good to order him what is now due. He is a touchy un- 
governed fellow & it is hard to manage him, & M rs Betty 
prays to understand your mind by the next post. We 
were in great expectation of letters from England from 
y e Maj r by the mast ships, but as yet have not heard of 
them. S r , I am put to great difficulties to get a crib 
of glass ; I spake to M r Adam Winthrop when I was 
down last at Boston about glass, but he had none & I 



hear that the ships brought in mostly chest glass, which 
John Plumb tels me is not so good as y e crib ; he tels me 
also that he hath an account that there is some crib glass 
expected. If you have any by you, or can procure a 
crib for me, I shall attend your order for the pay. I 
have tried the best friends I have at Boston & they tell 
mee there is none but chest glass, & y fc at 3 11 4 d : & 3 11 10 d 
p-€. M r Hallam had glass here ready made up, w° I could 
have had cheaper, but when we came to look upon it, it 
was half of it broke. I have spoke with M rs Betty about 
a crib that lies there, & she tels me there will be none 
used for the Island this year, & much more than enough 
to doe the farm. If I should get none elswhere & you 
see good to spare the residue, I must not contest the 
price let it be what it will, and shall be much obliged. 
I beg of y r Hon r y e pardon of this trouble, which upon 
the opportunity of the abovementioned buisness I am 
bold to give you, & rest 

Yr most humble & bounden S fc , 

G: Saltonstall. 


For Coll: Winthrop, these. 

S R , — I rece d yo re and I can by no meens admitt yo r 
excus. I am sure itt is more for the service of yo r coun- 
trey you shold goe thither than to the Lords of the Com- 
mit who sitt euery day ; besides you will disapint Allin. 
I am suer ware it not for yo r company I would not goe ; 
I haue hired a fine gelding for you and if itt be faire 
weather, I shall expect you by seven oclocke tomorrow 
morning. I am with all imaginable respect, 

IIon ble S r , yo r affect. Frind k humble Se", 

Hen. Ashhurst. 

London, Sept. 1G06. 

1696.] CALEB STANLEY. 27 


These for Hon Ue Major Generall Fitz-John Winihr op Esquire in London, 

Humbly present, 

Harttford, Octobr 214 1696. 

Honr able S R , — Affter the tender offe my most affeck- 
tionate & humble seruice to yo r Honner, wishing you all 
happines and prospirety, these lyns may aquaint you that 
I much feere that my letter dated about this time twelve 
month miscarry ed, that I sent yo r Hon r , and went to France 
with sundry more that was sent from sundry gen^men 
att Harttford, when the money wee sent you by Capt 
Elldredge went theither allso. S r , I am sorry wee haue 
beene so vnfortunate in sending diuers letters vnto you 
that have not come unto your hands and that you haue 
cause so much to lament the want offe the same from 
your freinds in this Collony, espeatially considdring the 
many obligations wee lye under to shew yon all the 
hon r and respeckt that is possible. Dere S r , wee were 
exseeding sorrowfull to heare offe yo r last sicknes in Aprill 
or May last, which wee vnderstand was the occation offe 
hindering yo r retime by the mast ships ; yet itt did 
reuive us againe and caused us to return e praises to 
Allmighty God for hopes offe yo r Hon rs recovery out offe 
said sicknes. All the good people offe our Collony do 
much long to see yo r face againe : hoping in due time 
wee shall so doe and that the God offe heaven will give 
us liarts enlarged to praise his name for the continuance 
offe all our civell & sacred injoyments granted us in our 
Royall Charter; and the keeping offe those oppressions 
wee were allmost involved in when yo r Hon r went from 
us, and should haue beene ouerwhelmed with all before 
this time had not due meanes beene used to preuent 

* Caleb Stanley, of Hartford, long an Assistant and sometime Secretary of Connecticut, 
was one of Fitz-John Winthrop's stanchest supporters. He died May 5, 1718, aged seventy- 
six. — Eds. 


the same. For all which next unto the God offe Heauen 
and our soueraigne Lord the King wee are emediatly 
oblidged unto your worthy selfe and desire ever to 
acknowledg the same ; which happy endeuers off yors 
crowned with such good sucksess are thankfully accepted 
by his Majesties good subjeckts offe this his Majesties Col- 
lony offe Coneticutt in generall and haue much quiated 
the good people, espeatially in respeckt offe the disturb- 
ances and convoltions they were in when yo r Hon r went 
from us and the next winter following ; so that this 
presant yeare wee haue had no trouble nor mollestation, 
but all things are quiet and peacable ; onely renewed 
applications from his Exelency the Gou r offe Yorke, as 
by his letters, or coppys of the same, you will plainly 
see, whereas wee know not that any offe the rest of our 
neighbouring Collonys or Prouinces are so called uppon, 
or that haue don so much as wee haue don. S r , I must 
confess I am ready to thinke yo r Hon rs stay in England is 
as much for our aduantage att present as yor returne 
would bee, untill the Massecucets Collony or Prouince is 
setled with a gov r and Gov! Fletcher is sumthing more 
restrickted in his demands offe our coato offe men, iff itt 
may bee obtained : allthow what is granted to him would 
be nothing but reasonable, did he onely sende for ours 
in proportion with the rest of his Majeties gouernours 
and when there was just occation for the same. But, 
deere S r , wee long to see you and shall continually pray 
to God for yo r prospirrety whilst absent from us, and 
saffe & happy retime when you shall come towards this 
country againe ; and desire you to lay yo r comands uppon 
us for whatsoeuer is our duty to doe and yo r imploy- 
ment on our affeyrs calls for. Pray excuse my long lynes 
and againe accept offe my humble seruice, which will euer 
oblidge S r , 

Yo r humble seru 1 vntill I sease to bee, 

Caleb Stanly. 


To Maj r Gen 1 } John Winthrop Usq r , in Boston. 

New London: Decern: 20. 1697. 

Hon bl S% — Your safe arrivall, the news of w c the last 
post brought us, hath not been without a very happy 
effect among us, which I hope your presence here will 
speedily corapleat. Capt Whiting with his troop hath 
been ready this two year to wait upon your arrivall at 
Boston, and I presume as soon as they hear of it they 
will be upon y r march. There is an universall joy among 
us upon y e prosperous issue of the Divine conduct w c hath 
waited upon you in your voyage at such an unexpected 
& hazardous a season ; and we take it for granted our 
Charter cannot but be secure while you are safe. The 
very expectation of your being once more among us puts 
a new life & fresh vigour into our affaires, w c I think 
would soon have expired if they had not met with such a 
revivall. There are divers in this town who are hoping 
to hear when they may attend y r Hon r on your journey 
hither; and that peculiar interest we have in the joys 
of your return renders us impatient untill we may pay 
those respects unto you. If it were fitting for mee, in my 
present mournfull attire of domestick sorrows, to indulge 
my self in these publique joys, I should resolve to waite 
upon y r Hon r at Boston ; but I presume that considera- 
tion will obtain my pardon, who am, tho clad in sorrow, 
yet heartily rejoycing upon this happy occasion, and re- 
main, Honb r S r , 

Yr most humble & obliged S fc 

G. Saltonstall. 



To the Honourable Maj r Gen aU John Winthrop, in Boston. 

Hartford, Dec. 24. 1697. 
Hon b " S R , — We heartily congratulate your Hon™ safe 
arrivall to New England & desire to remarke those spe- 
ciall effects of y e conduct of divine Providence towards 
yourself therein, & do thankfully receive your intima- 
tions of his Majesties favour (& of y e honourable Lords) 
towards this his Colony & shall wait for the letters you 
mention. We have here this day in obedience to the 
order from y e Lords Justices made publick proclamation 
of y e peace concluded between his Majesty & y e French 
King.* Your service for y e good people of this Colony, 
which you (under y e favour of Divine Providence) have 
so successfully managed, we do thankfully acknowledge 
& hope we shall not be so ingratefull to forgett. We 
have yet no intelligence of y e arrivall of the Lord of Bel- 
lamont at New Yorke ; upon y e notice of it, care w T ill be 
taken in y* matter. We have herew^ sent Capt : Whiting 
& Capt : Nicholls with directions to take some other gen- 
tlemen from New London to attend your Hon r at Boston 
with horses for your return to Connecticot, where, as 
soon as y e tediousnesse of your voyage & journey will 
allow, our Councell will be very desirous of a conference 
with yourself at some place where you shall be best able 
to come in this winter season, & if it may be indifferent 
to yourself, we should rather choose it might be at Hart- 
ford. We take leave of your Hon r , wishing you pros- 
perous on your journey, & are 

Your Hon" in all service, 

R: Treat. G: 
with y e advice of y e Councill. 

* The treaty of Ryswick was signed Sept. 11, 1697, a little more than three months 
before the date of this letter. — Eds. 



These for the Hon hle Major- Gen 1 } John Winthrop Esq, att Boston, present. 

Hartford, Decemb r 25. 1697. 

Much Hon r ? S r , — I hartyly congratulate your much 
longed for safe arivall in New England after your soe 
long absence. I hope some of your freinds not writtinge 
to you in England will obtaine your pardon, when you 
come to understand that the gentlemen of this Colony 
who like not to have the goverm* to sinke into the mire 
of popular confusion are of as little value as necke beefe 
in Ireland, and would have rendered themselves culpable 
to have written to you ; hardly any gentleman of this 
Colony havinge don or received one graine of justice 
since your departure. The present state of affaires here 
are : Capt: Fitch haveing bin the principle Minister of 
State in your absence hath bin exceedingely busy in sell- 
inge the lands of this Colony w h your hon- d father pro- 
cured of the Kinge in the Charter granted to the patentees 
& Freemen of this Colony. And to make them some 
satisfaction he hath bin drawinge up the most exact body 
of lawes (as you may well imagin) as ever was extant 
since the time of W™ the Conqueror, but nothing per- 
fected nor like to be in that matter ; most of our gen- 
tlemen secluded both houses of Parlam*, — M r Henry 
Woolcott and younge M r Chester both secluded the House 
of Comons the last sessions in Octob r , and an eminent 
syder-drinker in the roome of one and a person risen out 
of obscurity in the place of the other, — your old freind 
M r Nicoles secluded the lower house about a yeare past for 
his beinge soe good a husband for the country, who is 
very glad of this opportunity to waite upon you from 
Boston. Only Mf Jones is still continued Dep* Gov r in 
his decreped old age, who haveinge bin only capable of 
drinkinge flipp & takinge tobaco since your departure, 


yet beinge an old Crumwelian is alowed 20£ p r anil for 
his supply of those needfull comodytys. Publique and 
particular grievances & oppressions continued & aug- 
mented ; the products of the country exceedingly under- 
valued, and that by publique Acts of Parlam* ; the traders, 
tradsmen & laborers have all liberty to oppresse the hus- 
bandmen as much as they please without any redresse. 
S r , speedy redresse in these & other grievances is much 
desired & expected from your self, rather than to make 
applications to the Lord Bellamont, who it is thought 
will be very redy to heare grievances from this Colony 
and Rodesisland, as conducinge to his owne intrest. S? 
I request the favour of you to bringe with you those 
writtinges w h I sent by you respectinge the intrest w h my 
father di rived from the Earle of Stirlinge upon Longe 
Island ; possibly the Lord Bellamont, who is a person of 
honor & havinge the goverm* of that place, may afford 
mee some right in that matter before he goes to Bos- 
ton ; possibly if you also bringe up the patent w h you 
have for lands there, it may be a season to make some- 
thinge of them. S r hopeinge shortly to see you once 
again, I am 

Your affectionate Freind & Servant, 

Samuell Willis. 

S r my Sonn presents his humble service to you. My 
kinde respects to your bro r . S r , Capt: Fitch hath much 
disturbed the people at Quinabauge in your absence, as 
your bro r can informe you, but his sale of y* place was 
respitted untill your cominge. 



For ihz Honor u . e John Winthrop Esq r . att his House in New London. 

[1697-8 ?] 

May it please your Hon*, — The many inconven- 
iences that on every hand threaten us make me to beleive 
tis my duty to tell your Honf not only we are troubled, 
but that in your self lies our relief. We have a great cry 
of an election (indeed a thing sometimes very gratef ull to 
y e best & wisest), but under our circumstances, as your 
Hon r well knowes, tis hard to resolve whether tis a thing 
possible for us ; but y e difficulties of it are rendred much 
more thro y e preposterous zeal of some factious, hot heads 
whom I fear they, phaeton like presuming to drive y e sun's 
chariots, instead of beautifying & blessing y e world with its 
gentle beams, may hazard y e setting it on fire. Where- 
fore, S r , those that truly love y e peace of their country 
& have a sense of y e danger it stands in, can think of no 
way but your Hon rs presence here in Hartford y e next 
week. This I direct not to, but humbly submitt it to your 
Hon rs judgement ; I am fully satisfyed of its obtaining y e 
effect. If your Hon r likes y e meanes & many convenient 
methods for our present peace you will easily direct us, in 
which I am sure y e most & I hope y e best will readily obey. 
If your Hon r approve hereof, we shall be glad of your direc- 
tions for our receiving you as is becoming both your per- 
son & y e benefit we hope for by your coming. I shall not 
adde, but desire that God would direct your Hon r in this 
affair, whose it is to make all overtures prosperous, to 
whose protection I humbly commend your Hon r , who am 
your Hon r s most humble serv* 


We hear M r Blackleach is thriving in his affairs to 
which I wish prosperity. 

* ReA\ Timothy Woodbridge (b. 1656 — Harv. Coll. 1675 — d. 1732) was minister of 
Hartford, and a famous preacher of that period. See Sibley's Harvard Graduates, II. 
404-470. — Eds. 



For the HonJf. Fitz John Winthrop in New York, g Cap 1 Cyp r . Nichols, 

Hartford, May 12. 98. 

Honb l S B , — The election of this day hath been con- 
cluded with y e joyfull acclamations of all people that y r 
Hon r hath this government devolved into y r hands. It 
is expected that the dispatch from the Gen 1 Assembly 
upon this occasion will meet y r Hon r in y r journey from 
York ; and your presence here is longed for with univer- 
sall expectation. If I might have obtained the favour of 
waiting upon y r Hon r on the abovementioned errand, I 
should have been very happy, but our gentlemen are out 
of money & consult to save charges. I shall with much 
impatience waite y r Hon r s coming, y fc I may receive y r 
Hon r s comands for New-London, whither my occasions 
do urgently call me. What news is here, Capt Nichols 
who comes from the Assembly will enform you ; I shall 
not therfore give y r Hon r any farther trouble but with 
all due respects subscribe my self 

Honb e S r , y r most humble S*, 



Thes for the Hon r able John Winthrop Esquire, Governour of his Maje- 
ties Collony offe Conneticutt, in New London. 

Harttford, June 234 1698. 

Hon r ble S R , — Vppon yo r Hon r s letters to the Secre- 
tary a first and second time respeckting what wrightings 
or coppys did conserne the settlement betwixt o r Collony 
and Yorke, and allso Rhoad Island, those offe the Councill 
here att Harttford assisted the Secretary with the best 
ad nice wee could & helpe to look for those antiant records, 

1698.] CALEB STANLEY. 35 

letters & wrightings, which he hath sent ; notwithstand- 
ing, by a letter I reed from Capt Mason he informs 
some are yet wanting respecting Roade Island conserns, 
and for that ende wee shall meete further this day to 
accomidate those conserned with what wee can come att. 
As for the matter betwixt Yorke & o r Collony, I hope itt 
will have a speedy issue. M r Edwards readily com- 
plyed with yo r Hono r s & Councill's comands & is gon last 
Munday morning towards Yorke. Hon r able & Worthy 
S r , wee are sorry wee cannot bee more seruicable to you 
in these wayty conserns by reason offe the distance offe 
o r habitations, but shall allways implore the God offe all 
wisdome to direckt you and yo T Councill in all your con- 
serns under yo r gouerment. Allso Capt Mason informs 
that yo r Hon r doth not intend to bee att Stonington the 
next weeke to meete the Roade Islanders, but doubt not 
but yo r wisdome will be such as to do that which you 
shall judge will promoate the best issue offe that matter, 
and iffe yo r selfe & Councill should see reason to imploy 
any one person or more to assist those allready ap- 
pointed to treate with those gen u men, itt will be very 
acceptable to those offe the Councill heare, iffe yo r Hon r 
cannot bee there ; yo r selfe and the Secret'y beeing so 
neare New London, there may be intelligence passing be- 
twixt yo r Hon r & our Commitioners that may bee of ad- 
vantage in that matter. I shall onely add the payment 
offe my due respeckts to yo r Hon r & Councill and remaine 
S r , yo r Hon r s most humble seru fc , 

Caleb Stanly. 


S* the two things Capt Mason furder desires was the 
instrucktions yo r Hon r s father had when he went for 
England to procure o r charter, and the letter soone after 
sent by King Charles to the Gouerment off Conecticut 
Collony, but itt could not bee found. 



To the Hon hle John Winthrop, JEsq r ., Gov r of his Magestxfs Colony of 
Connecticott, present. 

Hartford, Augs* 13. 1698. 

Hon ble S R , — M r Woodbridge beinge latly returned from 
Boston he informes mee that M r . Brenton is bound againe 
for England the first shipp that sailes ; w* beinge soe sud- 
aine after his returne into this country it makes mee & 
M r Woodbridge both conclude that his designe is to get 
the Narraganset country fixed to Rodesisland Governr* as 
speedyly as may be, now you are come from England and 
before any thinge further is done with the Lord Bellomont 
here about it. And that w h confirmes mee in opinion is 
because I have heard that M r Brenton hath much incor- 
aged & animated Rodesisland men in their claime of the 
Narraganset, wherein I heare he pretends also to a con- 
siderable intrest. I suspect he may take this opportunity 
w- Capt : Hambleton, who I suppose is now goeinge to 
England to buy out Duke Hambleton's claimes in this 
country. How farr our Comissioners proseeded in their 
treaty with Rodisland I doe understand but little of it, 
but I was willinge by this first opportunity, meetinge 
with a Moheege Indian returninge home, to give you an 
accompt of this matter. The gaininge or looseing the 
Narraganset country beinge I judge a case of greate con- 
sequence, y fc soe you may doe what in your wisdome you 
judge most proper. I suppose there will be nothinge 
laide before the Lord Bellomont, or any hearinge be- 
fore him at Boston, untill after our Gen 11 Court in Oc- 
toby, his goeing to Boston beinge very uncertaine, who 
is but latly got to Albany. Boston gentlemen have sent 
men to Albany about the murther of the three English- 
men by the Indians about Hatfeild. There was but 4 
Indians that did that murther, who were persude up the 
river and one of them kild and another much wounded 

1698.] SAMUEL WILLIS. 37 

by the English. Keddys suretys growinge wery of theire 
bonds, he is comitted to Marshall Whitting's custody, who 
hath the mittemus w h your Hon r sent up w- the constable 
of New London. The greatest newes here is y* rume is 
growne dearer this harvist time by reason of custome 
& excise, for which people blame M r Woodbridge & M r 
Soltinstall. Our Comitte men have spent a weeke or 
two about reviseinge our lawes, which is very necessary, 
and have adjurned for a weeke, and then are to goe fresh 
to worke, and Mf Woodbridge will be sometimes w th y m . 
But our Deputys at Octob r Court may act in that matter 
as theire sence of that case leads them. I doubt it will 
be too much to compleate a body of lawes against that 
time, but if there be a strickt law made for the Acts of 
Parlam* about Trade to be put in execution here, and, as 
M r Soltinstall did move when he was att Hartford, y* if 
wee make a law that wherein our lawes are short or 
defective the English lawes may take place, it will at once 
stopp the mouthes of any that shall carpe at our Goverm fc 
either here or in England, and will salve the defects of 
such men who judge themselves wiser than the grandees of 
our nation. My respects to M r Witherell, M r Soltinstall, 
& M r Christophers. S r I am 

Yours Hon TS humble Servant, 

Samuell Willis. 

M r Woodbridge presents his service to you & to M r 


These for the Hon hle John Winthrop Esq, Gov r of his Magestys Colony of 
Connecticott, present in New London. 

Hartford, Decembr 17. 1698. 

Hon b ^ S R , — Yesterday the Secretary, accordinge to your 
Hon™ direction, imparted to the magistrates here the let- 


ter sent to him by your comand, subscribed by M r Christo- 
phers about the Narraganset affaires, by w* I understand 
that the Rod island gentlemen continue still in a tenasious, 
stuborn frame of minde, beinge desirous to monopolize 
much more than in law or equity is theire due; but I 
hope the Lord Belomont at his arrivall at Boston will 
instruct them better in theire duty. But I suppose his 
Lordship will not undertake such a journey untill the 
winter be well spent, because of that indisposition of 
body w b doth attend him ; soe that I suppose it will be 
Feby or March, if not Ap u , before he will move to Boston. 
S r , in regard you was pleased to intemate your intentions 
of goeinge shortly to Boston in your last letter to mee, I 
make bould to offer to your prudent consideration that 
wheras this last treaty at Narraganset hath not attained 
the desired & hoped for issue in y* matter, but y fc they 
seeme to triffle w- us, I apprehend that it will not only 
be expedient but very necessary that your Hon r should 
bee at Boston when the Rodisland matter is agetated 
before the Earle of Bellomont, because of your acquaint- 
ance w- and intrest in the Earle, where I apprehend the 
case had best to receive an issue without beinge transmit- 
ted to England, w h possibly may be very inconvenient in 
respect of the Earle of Arran's claimes there ; and there- 
fore upon that consideration whether it may not be 
advisable to retard your intended journey to Boston untill 
the Earle of Bellomont's motion to Boston be better 
knowne, of w h posibly there may be further information 
att the returne of Major Vawan & M r Paterige # from New 
Yorke, who, I hear, latly past by New London upon some 
urgent affaire. S' I make bould to suggest my opinion 
in this matter of concernem* w th due submition to better 
judgem 1 . 3 . S r here is noe newes, only D r Hookers younger 
brother is within a few days to marry M r Standly's daugh- 
ter, whose day of marriage to an elder brother of his was 

* Presumably George Vaughan and William Partridge, of Portsmouth, N. H. See 
5 Mass. Uist. Coll. VIII. 541.— Eds. 

1699.] SAMUEL WILLIS. 39 

appointed but his death prevented it ; wherin it is saide by 
some that D r Hooker is willing to follow the method of 
the old Levitecall law and to secure an inheritance to his 
brother into the bargaine.* M r Nicoles cominge in while 
I am writtinge, he presents his service to you. M r Wood- 
bridge not well, his legg being lame, and my daughter not 
well. My respects to M r Witherell, M r Soltinstall & M r 
Christophers. S r , I am 

Your cordiall Freind & humble Servant, 

Samuell Willis. 


These for the Hon hl . e John Winthrop, Esq r , Gov r of his Magestys Colony 
of Connecticott, present, in New London. 

Hon ble S R , — I was sorry to heare of the indisposition 
that did attend you by a feaverish distemper y* afflicted 
you, but glad to heare by Cap* Whittinge of your recov- 
ery. S* the Secretary hath discourst mee about a writ- 
tinge in parchm*, w c . h I remember your honrd father 
brought out of England, w ch was an accomodation be- 
twen him and M r Clarke of Rodesisland about bounds, 
and yet leauinge it to the liberty of the propriators of 
the Narraganset to chuse under w c . h Govern! t they pleased 
to put them selves. It was as I remember subscribed by 
M r Boile, then Gov* of the corporation in England for 
the Indian affaires, and by Cap* Brookehaven and Doctor 
Cox ; and whether any other I haue forgot, but I doe not 
remember that I haue seene it since your fathers death, 
and the Secretary cannot finde it amongst the country 
writtinges & Cap* W m Whittinge tells mee y* he never saw 

* Nathaniel Hooker, of Hartford, a son of Rev. Samuel Hooker, of Farmington, and a 
younger brother of Dr. Thomas Hooker, married, in 1698, Mary, daughter of Nathaniel 
Stanley, and died in 1711. Dr. Thomas Hooker is said to have married the richest woman 
in New England, a widow much older than himself. See Savage's Genealogical Diction- 
ary. — Eds. 


any such thinge amongst y e county papers; therefore I 
apprehend it is either amongst your or your brothers writ- 
tinges. I never remember that it was in my custody or 
coiiiitted to my charge. I remember your father was very 
carefull of it.* I shall be glad to contribute any thinge 
y* is with mee to a good settlem* of y* matter. I vnder- 
stand JVP Christophers is gon to Newfound Land, and I 
suppose Cap* Mason will not be further concerned in that 
matter. I would gladly vnderstand when and where you 
judge will be a fitt season to attend that matter, but I 
conclude the place must be att Boston, and whether you 
thinke to haue it attended before or after the Court in 
Octob! This month is an extreme busy time & next month 
the Secrtary tells mee the lawes must be perused, and I 
apprehend y l it will be very proper for your Hon r to be at 
Boston tho : others be in comission for Rodesisland affaire. 
Whatsoever the Colonys resentm's are of my self, I hope 
I shall never be wantinge to promote theire prosperity, w c ^ 
I hope will be increased under your Hon°™ good conduct, 
w c . h is the desire & shall be the praires of, S r 

Your cordiall f reind & humble servant, 

Samuell Willis. 

Hartford, August 2, 1699. 

My respects to Cap* Witherell & Mr Soltinstoll etc; 
this bearer will acquaint you of the welfaire of freinds in 
these parts. I intend to draw vp a declaration against 
Octobf Court to demonstrate how the lands in Hartford 
& N : London County have bin fairely derived to the 
English longe before Oaneco his sale of a greate part 
of the Colony. 

• The paper here referred to is probably the award under an agreement between 
John Winthrop, Jr., and John Clarke, which was printed in 5 Mass. Hist. Coll. VIII 
82, Si. — Eds. 



The Adress of the Speaker of the Lower House, in the 
name of himselfe & the Represent! tives, convened in 
Hartford October : 12 th 1699, to the Honourable John 
Winthrop Esq r , Governour of his Majesties Colony of 
Connecticutt and Commander in Cheif of all the mili- 
tary forces & places of strength therein. Hon rd S r , the 
enjoyment of the lawes & liberties of the subject is a 
happiness to be highly estemed & valued ; & it is the 
apprehension of solid & prudent men that the priviledges 
of this jurisdiction are as great (if not greater) at this 
day than the priviledges of any Goverment in his Majes- 
ties Dominion ; which we may in a great measure ac- 
knowledge to be by the paines & indefatigableness of 
your Honour ; your Hono r of late years haveing exactly 
traced the footsteps of our former Governor & patron, 
your Hono r s natural predecessor, by whose procurement 
we enjoyed a Charter Goverment, and by whose man- 
agement we were happy in his being a medium to inter- 
pose or mediate betwen his Majestie (Charles the 2 d of 
blessed memory, our then Cesar) and the people of this 
Colony, under whose umbrage we were defended for 
many years ; a confirmation or establishment of which 
immunities your Hono r hath by your endevours gained 
a fresh settlement on us or reinvesting us with the same. 
The wise man by way of interrogation saith, a faithfull 
friend who can find ? We have in your Hono r found a 
faithfull and cordiall friend in the publick concerns of this 
people, for which we owe to your Hono r our greatest 
acknowledgments and hearty thanks ; our prayer is that 
your Hono r may long florish in this Colony and that we 
may haue the fruits of your conduct & goverment. 
Giue vs leave to recite to your Hono r , & we hope may do 
it with fredom, viz : the maine end of our forefathers in 



their leaving of the place of their nativity and venturing 
of themselves & what was deer to them over the great 
deeps into this wilderness, viz : that they might with 
liberty & fredom enjoy civill & aboue all sacred privi- 
ledges in the purity & integrity thereof, that their poster- 
ity might be educated & brought up in a religious & holy 
manner, having examples of piety, sobriety & a strict 
observance of the Lords day ; in a civill behaviour & 
deportment & other virtues, which great end we may fear 
is grown languid & wants a reviveing. We haue in these 
dayes (blessed be God) a prince for piety & virtue mag- 
nanimity & fortitude rarely to be paralld, who may be 
stiled, as one in place long since, Deliciwn humani Generis, 
who has jeparded his life in the front of battle for our 
safety & the recovery of our allmost lost priviledges out 
of the hands of the worst of enemies, & has tamed our 
insulting foes, introducing serenity & peace in the room 
of bondage & slavery almost fastned vpon us. His Royall 
proclamation, which is mainly for the incoridgment of vir- 
tue & discountenancing of all vice, prophainess and im- 
morality, is that we doubt not which your Hono r will be 
strengthing of, & it is that which we intreat yo r Honour 
to be making part of the bussiness of this Generall Ses- 
sions ; to be leading to such acts as may be for the sup- 
pressing of vice & the incoridgment of virtue, and that 
lawes which direct thereunto may be revived, & the Min- 
isters of Justice be duly executing the same. It hath 
been the endevours of the freemen of this jurisdiction to 
be annually electing such for the prime station & betrust- 
ment of publick affairs which are men of uprightness, 
who are studious for the cause & interest of religion, for 
the propagateing the designes of their godly ancestors, 
which endevours are still aimed at in pursuance of their 
duty the attainment whereof is our felicity. S r not fur- 
ther to trouble your Honour & delay the ocasions to be 
negotiated we conclude, making application to your Hono r 

1699.] SAMUEL WILLIS. 43 

that there be fredom of accession to your Honour & the 
hono rd Councill dureing these sessions, that all impedi- 
ments or obstruction to the affairs vnder management 
may be prevented, and that there be a favourable con- 
struction of any debates to be agitated, and that Gent 
of the Councill be apointed where such as shall be 
a Committe for the Lower House may attend them, in 
order to a concurrence in any controversies or difference 
of opinion. 

John Chester, Speaker. 


These for the Hon bl . e John Winthrope Esq 1 "., Gov r . of his Magestys Colony 
of Connecticott, in New London. 

Hartford, Decmb 1 : 5 ttl 1699. 

Hon b P S B , — I beinge now w th the Secretary, who is 
searchinge some old records about the Narraganset Coun- 
try, the coppys of w c ?* I understand are to be sent for 
England because, I heare, the Comitte cannot effect any 
thinge to purpose w* Kodisland, w ch I conceiue might 
haue bin best for us and them also to haue agreed here, 
but I apprehend they understand not theire owne intrest ; 
the Secretary tells mee that he cannot finde that writ- 
tinge drawne vp by Mf Boile, Cap* Brookehauen and oth- 
ers about the bounds betwixt us and Rodesisland. I haue 
seene the originall, w ch as I remember was in parchm*; 
your hon rd father had the custody of it w c . h he kept very 
carefully, but I doe not know that ever I saw it since his 
death. I conceive it may be amongst his papers. S r , the 
Secretary is very carefull to send what can be found re- 
ferringe to this matter. S r , you may please to remember 
what discours was when you was at Hartford, about My 
Stodard and Major Fitch theire businesse, how that Major 

44 THE WINTHROP PAPERS. [1699-1700. 

Fitch had recovered neere 100 lb of M' Stodard, by reason 
of some mistake in his accompts. He appealed to the 
Superiour Court, where wee heare he is cast a 130 lb , w ch I 
suppose is for intrest of the mony. Now it will looke 
very hard in the world that he should pay that in cash, 
when he recovered neere 400 lb in cash of Fitch in this 
Colony and was paide in remote wood lands unto which 
hee had soe slender a title at first, hauinge before sould 
it to M r Stoughton, M r Shrimpton & Capt Blakewell, as 
you r Hon r did see at Hartford upon the publiqe records ; 
w c . h I thought to give you an intemation of, that you may 
consider what method may best salve the honour of the 
Court and Colony, or however that you may please to 
wright your senti mts to your brof about the matter, that 
an effectuall course may be taken that M r Stodard may 
haue liberty to pay Major Fitch this 130 lb in part of those 
lands w c . h he received by execution from Fitch at the same 
price. Tis very just and equall, and may somethinge ease 
M r Stodard under his oppressions, who furnished M r Fitch 
w fch such greate quantitys of goods soe many yeares past 
and hath such slow and poore paym* for them. S r , as farr 
as I vnderstand, the people in these parts are much satis- 
fyed that the customes are taken off and that the rate is 
to be in graine, tho it be half as much more as it was last 
yeare. S r , there are two thinges effected since your Hon r 
came to the Goverm' w eh I judge will much conduce to the 
welfaire of the Colony if they be continued : That the 
Magistrates and Deputy s sitt distinct & That the Justices 
be stated and comissioned & not annually chosen, w ch will 
much strengthen the Go verm 4 , when they are not at the 
despose of the arbitrary humors of the people, and yet 
subject to be called to accompt by the Generall Court or 
to be displased for delinquency. S. r , I wish your Hon e . r & 
your Goverm' all prosperity. 

I am your cordiall freind and humble servant, 

Samuell Willis. 

1609-1700.] ROBERT TREAT. 45 

My kinde respects to M r Witherell, M r Christophers, & 
M r Soltinstoll. M r Woodbridge & freinds here generally 


For his Ma eUs speciall Seruice, To the Hono rhle Collonell Winthrop Esq r . 
Gouerno r of his Ma tls Golonie of Conecticot, at New London deliu r , 
haste, poste haste. 

Hono rbl S B , — I receaved yours againe by the post w th 
y e enclosed declaration, but strange at y e carelesnes of y e 
poste in not delivering mine. I haue taken care to send 
y m according to your orders and therin mentiond M r 
Person, if your Hon r approved of him, he haveing never 
preachd at any of o r Elections y e I know of, nor M r 
Dauenport, M r Web, M r Buckingham of Harford, or M r 
Meeks of Wethersfeild, nor y e minister of Glassenbery, 
nor M r Hubberd of Haddam, who at present I think may 
be spared til better accepted of his people and setled in 
his worke. I wholly leave it with yo r Honor, not question- 
ing but what you doe will be very acceptable. And as to 
Oweneco his informatio not to be slighted, nor he dis- 
countenanced in y e least but the contrary, and as good 
inquiry made after y e matter as w T e can ; there may be 
some truth in it though all be not true, and better be 
awakened by false reports to attend duty than secure to 
expose o r selves to danger. I doubt not but yo r Honor will 
with as much speed as may be acquaint my Lord Bello- 
mont with y e report, it being said to be grounded on a 
divellish lye of a Duchman at Albany, so full of mis- 
cheivous consequence to y e wholl country ; and I pro- 
pound whether or not, if y fc y e reporte remaine likely to 
be true, it be not necessary to propose to his Lor 85 y* y e 
Indeans may be undeceaved y l its a false reporte, and y* 
there is not such thing euer heard of w th us. Sometimes 
we have experienced when o r enemies haue seen y* their 

46 THE WINTHROP PAPERS. [1699-1700. 

designs haue been discovered and y e English aware of 
them, y* they haue been discouraged for y e time ; y e 
Scattacook Indeans alvvayes since y e warr haue been 
ready to vent their mallice if they durst. I have had 
opinion at present till some further discouery to keep it 
as priuate as might be, but finde y e poste hath so opened 
it y e its in vaine. I haue been also apt to think y fc if 
there be such a designe against y e English y t y e Podatuck 
& Oweantinuck Indeans may know of it, and therefore 
haue sent to Capt n Minor of Woodbery to be as Inspec- 
tive and pump some of their Indeans if they know of anie 
designe on foot against the English & by whom formed 
against when & where to be attempted ; & if he gaines 
any more probability, y t then he must speedily enforme 
me of it & be as circumspect & watchfull and be in y e use 
of y e best means hee can for defence ; they being to have 
a Sunday at Podatuck ere long be ; y s to Capt n Minor. 
I pray God y e newes may be false, but if otherwise there 
will be need of further measures to be taken speedily for 
p r uention & preparation, w ch I think may call for y e meet- 
ing of y e Assemblie and to much for me to scrible. Bisket 
may be made at Milford if needed and care taken for 
wheat to make it of where its to be had. I shall only ad 
my heartie prayers to God for you and your Counsell and 
Colonic to guide & direct you in good & safe methods, as 
may consist with his hono r , y e peace and welfare of y e 
Colon ie, & take leaue, Hono ble S r , to assure you I am 
Yours faithfully to serue to my power, 

R. Treat, D. G. 

Milford, y e 2 d of Feb^ }f#f 

Hono^ S r , my nighbo r Daniell Northrop desires to en- 
close a few lines and humbly prayes your Hono rs good 
countenance to him according to yo r wisdom & justice 



S R , — We think our selves in duty bound to signifie to 
you the apprehentions that the generallity of people are 
under this way, respecting the danger threatens them 
from the designes of the Indians against us, as also the 
earnest desires they haue that some sutable measures 
may be taken for the prevention thereof. Especially that 
the Fiue Nations may be inform'd that the reports they 
haue rec'd, which is the pretended ground of their pro- 
ceeding in a hostile manner, are altogather false and 
unjust ; there is such a concurrance of curcumstances 
w 6 ! 1 tend that way, viz : Owonecos informacon, Ninnequo- 
bins confession, the Wabaquossets deserting. Not only 
so, but the information of an Indian here, an ace* whereof 
Cap* Whiting will present to your Hon r , which agrees w^ 
that w ! 1 Owo. reed from the Farmington Indian, and also 
the fears that all our owne Indians here are possest w*! 1 
as to approaching danger. And furthermore whether 
there is not hazard of a misrepresentation being giuen to 
the Maquaes of these things from hence by some ill af- 
fected persons, and whether they will not resent it that 
such reports shud be reed against them (if they shud be 
false), which tends to the breach of that antient chain of 
freindship that hath been between them and us, without 
makeing due enquiery into the truth thereof. All which 
things being considered, we judge it the greatest pru- 
dence to lay the matter before your Hon r and Gen tm of 
the Councill there, and leau you to act therein as in your 
wisdome shall think most conduceable to the security and 
peace of the Gouernment. Herewith we offer our humble 

* Nathaniel Stanley, of Hartford (b. 1638 — d. 1712), was then an Assistant of the 
Colony. Caleb Stanley (ante, p. 27) and William Pitkin, also of Hartford (b. 1664 — 
d. 1723), were also Assistants at that time; and Jonathan Bull, of Saybrook (b. 1649 — 
d. 1702), was an active man, but not an Assistant. — Eds. 

48 THE WINTHROP PAPERS. [1699-1700. 

seruice to your Hon! and respects to the Gen tm w th you 
and subscribe our selues, 

Your Hon r . 8 humble seruants, 

Nath Stanly. 

Caleb Stanly. 

William Pitkin. 

Jonath: Bull. 

Hartford March the 1? ^ |f . 


These for the Horfable Fitz John Winthrop Esquire, Gouornor off his 
Majesties Collony offe Coneticutt in New England, Living in New 

Harttford, March U h \§$%. 

Honorable S r , — The occation offe those lyns from 
the Gen 11 sent by the Sherriffe to yo r Hon r is expressed 
in sayd letter with the great feers offe the good people 
offe our Collony att Woodbery and allmost in all the out- 
places offe the Collony, which aprehend the least that can 
be don is to aquaint the Fiue Nations offe what is declared 
against them offe beeing in consultation against the 
English, and iffe they are deseaived or misinformed that 
the King of England hath giuen order to destroy all the 
Indians in New England, to lett them vnderstand the 
certainty that itt is not soe. For howeuer itt cometh to 
pass, many good and sober people offe this Collony are 
possesed there will bee trouble with the Indians quickly, 
iffe not forsably prevented. ST wee had the ad nice 
offe M r Willys, M r Woodbridge, M r Buckingham, Major 
Bull, the Treshu r & hye Sherreffs, and many more offe 
the principle persons offe our town & the neighbours, to 
sende to yo r Hon r and to submitt to yo r wisdome and 
councell to doe what may bee most proper in itt ; for 
some are ready to conseive the Lord Bellomont hath 

1699-1700.] CALEB STANLEY. 49 

beene extriordinaryly conserned and bissey in sending 
away the pirots, so that he may not haue considered itt 
so well as he might haue don att annother time.* And 
as for the letter from Cannada, itt is conceaived iffe 
mischeife be designed the French must needs animate the 
Indians that they shall haue releife for amunition from 
them, so that those letters to my Lord Bellomont is not 
much to be minded, & the other from Coll Skyler was 
written before thatt descouery offe Oweneco, and iffe the 
5 Nations should purpose mischeife yet are so wise not to 
discover itt vntill their putting their enterprises into ex- 
ecution, yo r Hon r will plainly understand by the Sheriff 
that there was such discoveries the Stonington Indian 
herd amongst the Scattiquack Indians that are o r enemys, 
soone affter the Jessuits went from Allbany. One thing 
more I humbly propose to yo r Hon r , that there is seven 
or eight pounds due from Mrs Gillbert for exsise money 
in 1698 that is like to be lost iff not sued for, and Liu* 
Zachariah Sandford by his comition as Collecktor is onely 
accountable to yo r Hon r and is not willing to sue for that 
or any other without a word or two from yo r Hon r to 
incorraige him so to doe ; we had thought itt had beene 
lefft with the Treash e . r to sue for itt, but can finde nothing 
uppon record to impow r him so to doe. But o r landlord 
will do itt iffe yo r Hon r sends to him so to doe according 
to his bond & comition. Plese to pardon my teageous 
lyns and accept my humble seruis to yo r Hon r & Hon rd 
Councill, being the needfull att present from 
Yo r humble Seru fc , 

Caleb Stanly senior. 

* Captain Kidd had arrived on the American coast in the summer of 1699, and shortly 
afterward was arrested by order of Lord Bellomont. In the winter of 1700 he was sent to 
England, with thirty other pirates, for trial. He arrived there in April, 1700, and was con- 
demned and executed in the following year. See De Peyster's Address before the New 
York Historical Society, Nov. 18, 1879. — Eds. 



For his Maj l,JS Service, For the Hono rhU John Winthrop Esq. Governer Sf 

Comand r in Cheife of his Maj ty * Colony of Connectticott, these, iv 

New London. 

Boston, June the 10* 1700. 

Hono* 3 " S R , — Persuant to your Hono r . s Comission to 
us granted, we came neither, presented your ler 8 to his 
Lordship on the Munday after our arriuall ; the next day 
a Comitty of both houses were appointed to meet us to 
veivv our power, hear our proposalls and make report 
thereof. The matter lyes before the Gen 11 Assembly ; 
haue yet rec'd no answer whether our propositions will 
be accepted or rejected. We assure your Hon? of our 
readyness to serve your selfe and the Gouerment in this 
affair ; how farr we shall be able we can't yet determine. 
Here is nothing new ; the Gen* added to y e Councill, 
Maj r Wally's being appointed one of the Judges, your 
Hon r has doubtless had an ace* of. Shall not offer fur- 
ther, only my most humble seruice to your selfe, adding 
thereto my most heartie desires for your health and 
happyness. I am S? your Honours most humble and 
obedient Will : Whiting. 


For his Maj t,JS Service, To the Hono rhU John Winthrop Esq r ., Gouerner 
and Comand r . in Cheife of his Maf? s Colony of Connectticott, in 
New London. 

Boston, June the 18* 1700. 

S R , — By the last post I advised your Hon! how far 
we had proceeded in the affair under our management. 

* Colonel William Whiting (b. at Cambridge, Mass., 1659 — d. probably at Newport, 
II I. .after 1724) was repeatedly in command of the forces of Connecticut; his grandfather, of 
the same name, having been one of the pioneers of that Colony. The writer was apparently a 
sportsman as well as a soldier; for in one of the unpublished letters to Fitz-John he makes 
earnest enquiry after "the old dog Pollux," who, he says, is much needed "to lead the 
pack.'' — Eds. 


Since which the matter has been often debated before his 
L d ship in Councill, as also by Comittys ; nothing yet con- 
cluded on, altho propositions have been made on both 
sides. The thing that at present remains undetermined is 
the right of gouverm*. We haue agreed on the riming 
of the line between Windsor & Suffeild, its continn nation 
farther Edward & W*ward ; but me L d will by no means 
consent that the right of gou r ment remaine in ours, as 
not being w tb in the power of the Goverments to dispose 
of, but must be determined by a superiour power. As to 
the securing the towneships intire, and saueing perticular 
properties, we shall take the best methods that can be 
obtained. We are something at a loss whether twill be 
the most advantagus to cumply w*. h the tearms proposed, 
or a new ruiiing of the line, altho we begin at their 
station or rise, from w c ? they will by no means be per- 
swaded to alter. The matter has prou'd difficult, pow- 
erfull adversaries to contend w th , their constant say is 
If we can't agree, the King must settle the difference. 
S? I thought it my duty to give your Hon r this gener- 
all ace*. Also therewith to present our most humble 
seruice, continually desiering your Hon rs well-fare and 

I am Sf your most obedient Servant in all deep re- 

Will: Whiting. 


For his Maj tys Service, To the Honor** 1 ? John Winthrop Esq r ., Gouerner 

and Comander in Cheife in his Maj tys Colony of Connecticott, these, 

in New London. 

[July, 1700.] 

Honor ble S?, — After many debates before his L d in 
Councill, as also w^ Comitties by them appointed, could 
by no means agree upon the boundarie between the 


Gouerm*? On Saterday last about noon we reed a paper 
from my Lord as an answere at present ; it is in M r 
Pitkins hand, cannot therefore recite the words, but I 
think to this purpose : Since the Comissn 1 " 8 from his Maj tys 
Colony of Connecticott do not se cause to accept of the 
proposalls made by this Province respecting the line, we 
shall therefore appoint some meet persons to go upon the 
place where those persons began the line, viz. (Wood- 
ward & Saffry) and to search out the line those gen* 
run, and make report thereof to the Generall Assembly ; 
whereupon his Lordship will signifie to your Hon r their 
resolution in that matter. I am not able to render a full 
ace* of our managements, but hope we haue not disad- 
vantaged the cause ; haue offered such reasons respecting 
the place of their beginning, wherein they haue done us 
wrong, but they haue gone a mile & ^ to the southward 
of that to a line that was stated between Plymouth and 
them, which they pretend is the line by their artists in 
the year 1642. Which will be found a gross mistake, to 
my certaine knowledge, and I question not but will ap- 
pear so upon their tryall. In the afternoon the same day 
we reed our answere, we took our departure from them, 
and on Tuesday night following arriv'd here ; this opper- 
tunity presenting, dare by no means neglect giveing your 
Hon 1 " some breif acc fc of our proceedings. This day by 
M r Treasurf we haue receiv'd information of your health, 
which affords us ground of rejoycing ; that it may be 
continued is and shall be the prayer of S? 

Your Honours most humble seruant in all deep re- 

Will: Whiting. 

S r the Gouerm* are under great obligaeons to the Maj r 
Generall at Boston for the assistance offorded us in the 
management of this affair. 



For his Ma tis speciall Seruice, For the Hono rhle ATajo r Gen rl1 Winthrop Esq, 
Gouerno r of his Ma tls Colony of Conecticot, in New London; w ih 
speed, g the poste. 

Honora b ^ e S R , — I am so amused w th multitudinous stories 
and reports of the Indeans malicious suddaine attempts to 
doe mischeif both from East & West, and upon enquiry 
doe as yet finde little more than a great pannick fear 
upon our Indeans neer us westward, upon slender grounds 
(if any at all) saying there be strange Indeans in y e woods, 
of w ch no proof is yet made to appear. But from your 
parts its reported y*M r Sabin, late of Woodstock, hath de- 
serted his farme, remoued himself, family, cattell & goods 
to Stonington upon notice giuen him by some knowing 
Indeans so to doe, y* y e enemy speedily intending to begin 
to doe some mischeifs somewhere. And y s is got in y e 
mouths of none but men, women, and children, and what 
weight is in this we know not, but we all haue o r eies on 
your Hono r , w th confidence y fc if there be any such danger 
app r hended as is reported, that you would be pleased to 
certifie us therof y t we may be undeceaved in y* matter. 
And what aduice yo r Honour shall giue us in order to o r 
safety in such a busie time as o r wheat haruest is, I shall 
be glad to receaue from you by y e first and shall readily 
attend yo r orders and good aduice in any thing y t I may 
be seruiceable to you, who am S? 

Your Hono rs dutifull & obedient seruant, 

K: Treat. D. G. 

Milf r . d y e 9 th of July, 1700. 


For his Maf" s Seruice, To the JIonora ble John Winthrop Esq r , Governer and 
Comander in Cheife of his Maj tv * Colony of Conectticott, in New London. 

S R , — Yours of y e 10 th currant by Mf Eayment came 
heither yesterday about sundown, and was forthwith 


comunicated to the gentlemen here, the contents whereof 
was uery surprizing, especially since we have for some 
time indulged our seines with thoughts of security. I am 
directed by the gen". e to present theire service to your 
Honour and to manifest their sorrow for the indisposition 
you are labouring under, and also that Cap!" Stanly and 
Mf Pitkin intend to waite upon you at N : London on Tues- 
day night next, God permitting. We haue no newes here 
worthy your knowledg. Only that the blast has generally 
preuailed upon the English graine ; a good measure of 
health is afforded . The people here are very much af- 
fected w^ the intelligence that comes from your Hon r , 
do express them selues variously about it, but time will 
determine. I shall not enlarge, only to make the offer of 
my humble seruice to your selfe, heartily desireing the 
returne of your health. 

I am S r your Honours most obedient seruant, 

Will : Whiting. 

Hartford, July the 12* 1700. 


Harttford, July 20 d 1700. 

Hon b able Sf, — M r Nathaniell Stanly and my selfe 
thought meete humbly to propose itt to yo r Hon r , iffe itt 
be not all ready entred in the Councell Booke, whether itt 
should not be done, the mutuall conclusion offe the whole 
Councell, not one opposing offe itt, that Ninequabin, for 
those wayty reasons that came in against him and allso 
for his own saffetey, did agree that he should bee sent up 
to his Majesties goale in Harttford, there to be secured 
whilst there was some time more past to see what will be 
the event offe those susspitions offe warr vppon the Mohe- 
gins or English which came divers ways to yo r Hon r & 
Councell ; he being now committed to prison by a mitte- 


mns signed by M r Nathaniell Stanly & myselfe, with some 
reasons offe his comittment by order offe the Gov r & 
Councell, as breach offe his promise in not putting his 
children under Owaneco that they might not be carryed 
away with the rest offe the New Eoxbery Indians, for 
want offe which they are now gon to the Penecooks, 
and other wayty reasons with the Gov r & Counsell for 
there so doing. Yo r Hon r s Proclamation with the advice 
of the Councell was made this morning att Harttford 
according to order, and all other matters committed to 
us shall be duely attended in this county as soone as may 
bee. Being all att present but the tender offe all due 
respeckt to yo r Hon r , with o r due acknowledgments offe 
yo r bountifull kindness to us and the Collony att the last 
meeting offe the Councell att N : London, and remaine 
Yo r Hon r s most humble seru* 

Caleb Stanly. 

S* the order offe Councell to the Secretary & others 
conserned about coppying out the Lawes is not sent up 
to him, and therefore pray yo r Hon r itt may be sent with 
yo r express commands that itt may be don, or otherways 
will auaile nothing. 


For his Maj tys Service, To the Honor* 1 ? John Winthrop Esq 7 :, Gouerner 
and Comander in Gheif of his Maj tys Colony of Connectticott, in New 

S?, — This morning proclamation was made by beat of 
drum, the orders of Councill comunicated to the Coinis- 
sion officers respecting fortifications, as also care taken 
for the sending coppies of the proclam. to the severall 
towns in the County. The Indians were sent for and 
informed what resolutions the Councill made conserning 
there safety & defence, which was by them thankfully 


receiued ; the matter of scouting was proposed, they read- 
ily comply 'd therew th and frankly offerd them selves for 
that seruice. S r upon perusuall of some former Comss 
I had by me, I found a considerable difference in the 
wording thereof from that issued from your Honour at N: 
London ; have therefore presum'd to fill up one of those 
blanks I brought up for my selfe ; must pray that one of 
these which come by Rogers may be signd & sent up for 
one of the Leiu*. 8 . I have giuen considerable offence to 
the troop in accepting a comission in the foot and leauing 
them destitute of an officer, concluding that they are not 
thought worthy to serue the country. It was a difficulty 
I laboured under before I reed my Comis. S r just now 
we haue an ace* from Springfeild that my Lord Bellomont 
is sent for home, that he goes not to N: York, has call'd a 
new Assembly. M r Bissell is the person that brings the 
newes, who sayes that Col. Pynchon was his auther. It 
seems to me very strange it shud be so, since your Hon! 
had not intemation thereof by the last post ; howeuer, 
adventure to aduice you what is reported. Shall only 
further add my heartie & constant desires for the preser- 
uation of your health and happines ; the tydings thereof 
doth constantly afford me matter of rejoyceing and shall 
alwayes be receved w rt . h thankfullness. 

I am S r , Your Honours most humble seruant, 

Will : Whiting. 

Hartford July the 20 th 1700. 


For lu's Ma etls especiaR Seruice, For the Hono rhU John Winthrop Esq., 
Gouernour of his Ma eUes Colonie of Conecticot, in Neiv London, g the 

IIoxo R - E S R , — I returne you many thanks for your in- 
telligence and late great kindness in your curteous en- 
tertaining when w*? you, and thanks be to God y* hath 

1700.] CALEB STANLEY. 57 

continued our peace hitherto (as I hope), and yo r wisdom 
can better direct, being neerer to y e Indians & Bay fro 
whence o r measures are taken, than any remoate guess is 
w* me. Y e Penecook Sagamore being not at home, how 
he resents y e message and whether he will comply w th it as 
soon as he can is questionable. I am ready to think & 
hope y e year, or sumer parte thereof, so far spent, it may 
be we may rest quiet a while longer, and unles yo r Hono r 
upon better grounds sees cause to continue scouting, I 
think it may be forborne at present, no war being begun 
y* I haue heard of ; onely rumors of it, and in our coun- 
tie we haue done little or nothing at all in scouting or for- 
tifieing, but rest rather vntill they hear more, sperare pro 
timer e ; but I submit to yo r Hono r s better judgment. We 
haue lost M r Allexander Bryan, who dyed last night 
about ten a clock, it being y e 3 d time y* he fell into his 
convulsion fits. New Hauen meeting house damnified by 
y e thunder last Friday seaven night; thanks be to God y* 
hath given us a plentifull raine, & so w* h my seruice to 
yo r Hono r and thanks to M rs Mary for her kindness to me 
also, and am Sf 

Yo r Hono rs willing & obedient seruant, 

R: Treat. D. G. 

M. y e 17th of August, 1700. 


For his Majeties Seruice, To the Horfable John Winthrop Esquire, Gou- 
ernor offe his Majeties Collony of Coneticutt, Lining in New London. 

Harttford, August W^ 1700. 

Hon rable S R , — Yo r s with a coppy offe his Majeties let- 
ter respeckting pirots and the other about the Penecook 
Indians wee rese d , and according to yo r Hon r s desire haue 
sent our opinion respeckting the scouts and Ninequabins 
continuance in prison, which is this : that vntill yo r Hon r 



haue furder intillegence of what the Penicook sachems 
answer will bee when they come to Boston, being sent for 
by the Liut Gov r & Councell, all things go on & remaine 
as they are, without there should come such intillegence 
from the Lord Bellomont or otherwise to yo r Hon r to call 
in the scouts, and would not aduise to lett out Nine- 
quabin too suddenly, considering the last clause in Capt 
Bowers letter says that they could not but judg by the 
Penicook Indians deportment that they had some ill de- 
signs against the English, or to that purpose. The last 
weeke past our scouts did not meete with the Norrige 
scouts according to appointment att Walkman tick, which 
is not well, allthou they stayed all the next day to meete 
with them ; itt w T ould be much best when they appoint to 
meete to keepe the time & place for generall sattisfacktion 
to all conserned. Wee would not desire that charge offe 
scouting any longer then yo r Hon r thinks itt needfull, and 
iffe itt be layed doune, iffe any furder danger appere, by 
a word or two itt may be attended againe by yo r Hon r s 
comand and the ord r offe the Councell for that purpose. 
S r , wee cannot but informe yo r Hon r offe one imprudent 
act of one of our scouts. Last weeke on the Wensday, 
neere night, having made a fyer att Wallamantick Kiver 
they spyed an Indian, as they say, and made up to him 
with their gunns, but neuer called to him nor he to them ; 
vppon which the Indian ran into a swamp & one of our 
scouts shot affter him, but wee hope did no harme. The 
next morning they say they saw an Indians footing neere 
that place ; the which thing wee blamed him much for, 
being quite contrary to those instrucktions they haue 
with them allways in wrighting, which instrucktions are 
to call to any small number offe Indians iffe they see them 
in their scouting and demand whence they are and their 
occations ; or iffe a greater number, to repare forthwith 
and give notice offe them, and not to feyer uppon any but 
in their own deffence or to that purpose. Wee haue allso 

1700.] CALEB STANLEY. 59 

charged our scouts for the future to be very carefull to 
auoide any such thing. There is onely English scouts 
now gon out from us ; the Indians being difficult, the 
English rather chose to goe without them. Shall not in- 
large, but to present yo r Hon r & Councell with all due 
service & respeckts from the Gen 41 offe the Councell in 


Yo r Hon" most humble seru fc , 

Caleb Stanly senior. 


These for the Hon r able John Winthrop Esquire, Gou r offe his Majeties 
Collony offe Goneticutt ; Liueing in New London. 

Harttford, Nov. 11. 1700. 
Hon r able S?, — I was desired by Seirgt John Biglow 
that came the last weeke from Boston, to doe a mes- 
sage to your Hon r from some offe the principell men 
off Woodstock or New Roxbery, which was this : that 
whereas the major part or all offe their town is within 
our Collony, as the lyne is now accounted to runn, that 
they had much rather belong to our Collony then to 
the Massetucets prouince ; and allso to informe that the 
Massetucets province haue now sent to them for a 
countey rate offe six pounds. But they had rather, iffe 
itt were thought conveniant, that yo r Hon r & Councell 
would sende to them for their List, or a rate allthow 
some what bigger, and then they would pay itt to us, or 
att least indevor not to pay any to the Massetucetts 
untill the lyne be setled betwixt us & them ; which I 
thought meete to propose to yo r Hon r s wise consideration, 
for they feere iffe once they beginn to pay rates to 
them they shall neuer bee released any more. One thing 
more I humbly offer to yo r Hon r s consideration, whether 
itt may not bee expediant in yo r Hon r s & Councells next 


letters for England about the matters offe appeales for 
England so urged by Major Palms & others, iffe that 
matter must be granted, yet to inquire whether itt may 
not be limmited to bee only for the future or time to 
come and well bounded as in the Massetusets province, 
and not for euery triueall matter; for iff itt should 
looke back and those now in authorety must answer 
for all that hath beene don since here hath beene a 
Goverment or not for many years past, when many or 
most offe those that had a hande in or were the cheife 
judges in those matters are dead that could haue giuen a 
good account offe their administrations offe justice, when 
possibly these now in place cannot, — itt had beene bet- 
ter there had neuer beene any Gov r ment in this Collony 
iff those meassures must be taken that appeales must be 
granted for any longer time than when his Majeties 
pleasure shall be known and the matter offe sayd ap- 
peales well understood so as to be saffely put into prack- 
tice. Plese to pardon my boldnes and accept offe my 
sensere & humble respeckts unto yo r Hon r and Counsell. 
S r I remaine yo r humble seru', 

Caleb Stanly. 

M r Nathaniell Stanly agrees with me in the proposalls 
abovve written. Hon rd S r , the Treashur allso desires an 
order from yo r Hon r & Councell to ship what corne will 
bee needeffull to pay the Collonys cash debts to Boston, 
to be timed into money that he may sende said order 
when he sends out the rates to the seuerall Constables ; 
which plese to sende him speedily and iffe yo r Hon r desire 
us wee shall signe sayd order with yo r selfe and so many 
offe yo r Councell that are neere you ; & remaine 
Yo r humble series, 

Nath: Stanly. 

Caleb Stanly. 

No. 23'! 1700. 

1700-1.] SIE HENRY ASHURST. 61 


For his Majesties speciall Seruice, To y e Hono rhle Majo r Gener 11 Winthrop 

Esq r , Governor of this his Ma tis Colonie of Conecticot, in New London. 

y y e poste 

[Jan. 1700-1.] 

Ho]s T o RBLE S B , — We haue felte y e beginings of another 
colde winter and cold sallute of y e new yeare, but who 
shall se y e end thereof ? I wish your good health and 
happines. Although I am a poor scribler yet thought it 
my duty to acquaint your Hono r w th a verball message 
sent down from Capt n Minor of Woodbery as his New 
Years day news to me, to enforme me of y e discovery of 
a hill about twelve miles above said Woodbery bearing 
Norwest & neerest to Oweantinock, as is said, and within 
o r Colony line, which is reported to be a hill of good 
allum ; y e fiew crumbs of it I haue heerin enclosed for 
your Hono rs perusall & better judgment of it. And with- 
all y e said Capt n Minor enforms that Oweantinock Indeans 
told him that some Dutch men haue been lately w th them 
and desire to buy the hill of them & haue profferd them 
for it downe 336 peices of 8, but y e Indeans are said to 
refuse to sell it to them, because it is in this Colonie. And 
now I haue set all y fc I know in y e matter before your 
Hono rs wisdom & consideration & haue nothing of news to 
ad but am yo r Hono r s seruant to command, 

R: Treat. 


To his Excellency John Winthrop Esqr, Governor of Conecticott, in 

New England. 

London, Febr. 5 th 1700 / v 

Much hon ed S r , — I have written to you & y r Gener- 
all Assembly in this pacquett ; but I would not let the 
oppertunity goe without particularly acknowledging my 


obligations to you for y e trust comitted to me by y r 
Colony ; which I take to have its originall from your 
kindness to me. And I hope I shall so discharge myself 
in y e imployment, that you shall have no dishonour by y r 
recomending me to it. I shall be glad of any oppertunity 
to assure you how much I am 

Y r affectionate & faithfull friend & humble ser', 

Hen. Ashhurst. 


To the Honr hU the Governer fy Gener all Assembly of the Connecticot Collony, 

in New England. 

London, Feb. 5. 1700/ r 
Hon rble S RS , — I had y e favour of y r s of 2 d June, with a 
Comission sign'd by y r self with y e consent of the Generall 
Assembly of the Colony of Conecticott in New England, 
seal'd with y e eomon seal : by which you are pleased to 
doe me y e great honor to constitute me y r agent to ap- 
pear before y e King & every of his officers & ministers in 
their severall courts, where y r affaires shall call me : which 
trust I doe with all readinesse embrace, and by this opper- 
tunity returne you my humble thanks for the good opinion 
you have of me, and assure that I will with all fidelity 
& diligence apply my self to y r service ; and am not dis- 
couraged for some great people's telling me that while 
I'm asserting y r right I am appearing against y e preroga- 
tive. All y e papers mention'd in y r last came safe to 
hand, from number one to number thirteen. Also I've re- 
ceiv'd bills of exchange for 200 ,b on M r Ives from y r brother 
Waite Winthrop (which are duely accepted) to inable me 
to discharge this service. I should desire that you'l be 
pleased in y r next to me to signifie what you design to 
allow me yearly for my own pains in my negotiations for 

1700-1.] SIR HENRY ASHURST. 63 

you, and what you expect to have an account of, and I 
would be no more chargeable to you than is decent for 
you to allow to one that serves you in y e quality I doe 
as your agent. As soon as I receiv'd yrs, I immediately 
went to y e Lords Comiss™ of Trade to enter y r comission 
in their books as y r agent, and deliver'd y r letters to their 
Lordships. I then, in as handsom addresse as I could, 
open'd to them y e nature of my comission and acquainted 
them that I were prepared to defend y r right to y e Nar- 
ragansett's country : and likewise to make answer to y e 
severall appeals by Major Palmes & John & Nicholas Hall- 
man ; as also against any appeals whatsoever. This they 
comanded me to lay before them in writing, for which I 
went to y e best councill I could gett and prepared y e two 
inclosed memorialls, which I gave in to them ; to which 
their L dps as yet have made no reply, altho' I'm attending 
them frequently ; one of them in private telling me that 
it was difficult for them to doe it. By which you see I 
doe all in my power to approve myself 

Y r most faithfull & humble servant, 

Hen. Ashhurst. 

S r , whatever other services you think fit to comand me 
shall be carefully observed. 

Note. — The copy of the memorial against allowing appeals to England 
is as follows : — 

To y 8 right Hon h } e the Lords Comiss™ of Trade fyc, the humble memoriall 
of S r . Henry Ashhurst, Bar", relating to y 6 severall Appeals brought 
by Major Edward Palmes, John Hallam Sf Nicholas Hallam. 

That y e Colony of Conecticott have a full & ample power of hearing, 
determining & bringing to a finall issue, all causes & controversies 
that shall & may arise within that Colon}', we humbly hope will fully 
& plainly appeare to y r Lordships upon veiw of their Charter, which 
his late Majesty King Charles y e Second was graciously pleased to 
grant unto the said Colon}\ By which his late Majesty was pleased 
to appoint a Governour, Deputy Governour & twelve Assistants, with 


such other freemen of their body corporate as should by them be 
elected to be the Generall Assembly, or Supream Court of judicature 
within y e said Colony, and that y e said Generall Assembly should fur- 
ther constitute and erect such other inferiour jurisdictions or Courts of 
Judicature, and also make & ordaine such statutes, laws & ordinances 
as to them should seem meet for y e better ordering & governing the 
said Colony and administring of equall & impartiall justice to every 
inhabitant thereof. In obedience to y e direction & appointment of y e 
said charter, the Generall Assembly did constitute & erect severall 
inferiour Courts, and in particular one at New London, for y e tryall of 
all matters of right between party and party. And to y e end that no 
person should be without remedy, who might think himself aggreived 
by y e proceedings in such inferiour courts, they did further ordaine 
that upon complaint of any person in such a case to y e Generall Assem- 
bly, y e cause should be again heard there and finally determined. This 
form & method of justice as 'tis y e most speedy & effectuall, and most 
for y e benefit (if not absolutely necessary to y e subsistance) of y e said 
Colony, so we humbly hope y r Lordships will allow it to be reasonable 
and lawfull and no ways injurious to y e prerogative royall of this realm ; 
though it seems to exclude any appeal property so called to this king- 
dom, and that for these reasons, which are humbly submitted to y r 
Lordships : First, The distance of y e place seems to make it in some 
measure necessary that all causes be finally determined there. For 
should y e comon course of justice be by way of appeal to this kingdom, 
the expence must be inevitably great, whatever y e value of y e cause 
may be or y e circumstances of y e party who prosecutes or defends it; 
and y e event must be that y e poor will be hereby oppressed, be his 
cause never so just. Besides y e hazarding deeds & evidences, as well 
as y e lives of witnesses, upon y e seas, where their evidence viva voce is 
requisite, is an inconvenience which by y e present establishment of 
justice there will be prevented. Y r Lordships iny r great wisdom can- 
not but be sensible that 'tis none of y e least of those great & many 
privileges on which we so justly value our English Constitution, that 
we have justice administred at our very doors. And this must needs 
be, as we see by y e happy effect that it is, a very great incouragement 
to rich & wealth}- trades, in all our neighbouring countrys, to trans- 
plant their families & treasures into this kingdom, where y e acquire- 
ments of their industry may be effectually secured to themselves and 
their posterity without y e inconvenience of being drawn to a remote 
& foreign jurisdiction to defend their property from y e unjust claims of 
a litigious adversary. And if this priviledge be so dear to us in this 
kingdome, 'tis humbly hoped y e Colon}' of Conecticott will have y' 
Lordships favor in insisting on it for themselves, for y e reasons above 

1700-1.] SIR HENRY ASHURST. 65 

mentioned ; especially since there appears no precedent of any appeal 
of this nature from y e said Colony from y e time of their incorporation 
to this da} T . 

And considering, 2 d l y That this is agreeable to their said gracious 
Charter, that they should have power fully to determine all causes 
without dela}-, trouble & expence of appeals elswhere. For by this 
they are expressly impowered to make all laws, statutes & ordinances 
which shall be thought necessary for y e good government of y e Colony. 
And if so ample a legislative power be vested in them, sure y e execu- 
tive power to putt these laws in execution must follow of course. 
But to cleare all doubts, 't is expressly named in their Charter, with a 
strict injunction to all y e inhabitants to be subject & obedient to y e 
said laws ; and whoever disobeys these laws, by seeking relief els- 
where, when they may by them in a regular course have free & im- 
partiall justice, must be guilty of a great contempt to this his Majesty's 
injunction so expressly set forth in his said Charter. 

3 d ! y , This priviledge of fully determining of all causes within y e said 
Colony without any appeal elswhere, is not inconsistent with or repug- 
nant to y e laws & statutes of this realm. We have man} T inferiour 
courts & jurisdictions in this kingdom whose sentences in things ap- 
pertaining to their connosance, are finall & conclusive. The sentence 
of the generall Quarter Sessions of the Peace upon an appeal from y 6 
order of two Justices as to y e settlement of the poor is finall & conclu- 
sive ; and this for y e quiett as well as for y e convenience of y e people, 
that they may have finall justice in their respective counties. Nay, one 
single Justice of the Peace in severall matters relating to y e King's 
revenue of excise, has a finall & decisive judgement from which there 
is no appeal. And man} 7 other inferiour jurisdictions too tedious to 
lay before y r Lordships have such a power for necessary & weighty 
reasons which in y e respective cases are ver} T obvious. But here per- 
haps it ma\ T be necessary to obviate one objection which at first sight 
may seem to have some weight in it, viz : y* if no appeals be allowed 
from the Generall Assembly of y e Colony- of Conecticott, this will make 
them absolutely independent of y e . Crown of England. To this we 
answer that such a consequence is by no means necessar}\ For y e 
true & proper signification of an appeal in this case is a form of judi- 
ciall proceeding b} T which a suit or controversie is removed in a judi- 
ciall way from an inferiour jurisdiction to a superiour. Now altho' no 
such appeal were allowed, to remove any proceedings from y e Generall 
Assembly of Conecticott to any jurisdiction here in England, yet y' 
prerogative of y e Crown of England would be no wa}' injured hereby. 
For should there ever happen to be a totall corruption in y" said Gen- 
erall Assembly, so that y e inhabitants of y e Colony could have no free 



& impartiall justice there (which is a thing scarce possible to be 
supposed), and that this should be made plainly to appeare to his 
Majesty, this would be a direct & positive forfeiture of their Charter, 
and of y° Royall Franchise thereby granted to them ; so that y e Colony 
would be thereby disfranchised and again seized into y e King's hands. 
Thus much we humbly submitt to y r Lordships in answer to y e above 
mention'd objection and as to appeals in generall. 

As to y e particular complaints of Major Edw : Palmes, John Hallam 
& Nicholas Hallam, the first of these complainants had an hearing at y e 
Court of New London, and if any injustice had been there done him, 
y u Generall Assembly were ready to have relieved him according to y e 
settled laws of their Colon} 7 . But in contempt of their jurisdiction 
he positively refused to set forth his greivance before them, in order 
to be relieved. And since he hath contemned y e ordinary & regular 
course of justice, 'tis humbly hoped y r Lordships will not permitt him 
to proceed in such an extraordinary & extrajudiciall way ; especially 
since it directly strikes at y e fundamental 1 privileges of y e Colon} 7 . As 
to y e other complainants, the} 7 have not so much as begun or comenced 
any suit or claim in any of y e Courts of y e Colony, but would carry y e 
matter still further, to have not only appeals, but even originall juris- 
diction, here in England. For which we humbly hope y r Lordships 
will see no grounds ; but rather by this, in y r great wisdom, will per- 
ceive how dangerous it is to breake into y e furthest bounds of y e privi- 
ledges of any State or Colony, and particularly in y e case now before 
y r Lordships ; since it may be a means to introduce further inconven- 
iences, and in fine, a totall subversion of the said Colony. All which 
is most humbly submitted to y r Lordships by 

Hen. Ashhurst. 


N: York, 14 Apl. 1701. 
D R S R , — I receiv'd y r kind letter w tb your daughter & 
mine, who arriv'd here on Thursday night after a toyl- 

* Robert Livingston, son of a Scottish clergyman, and some time a political exile in 
Holland, settled in Albany in 1074, and was soon after appointed Town Clerk. His subse-- 
qnent marriage to Alida, widow of Nicholas Van Rensselaer and sister of Colonel Peter 
Schuyler, allied him to the leading New York families, and assured his fortune. He held 
a number of appointments, among others those of Secretary of Indian Affairs and Speaker 
of Assembly, besides acquiring the well-known Livingston manor on the Hudson. He and 
Fitz-John Winthrop became intimate at the time of the expedition against Canada in 1690; 
and just before the date of this letter Livingston's eldest son, John, had married (for his 
first wife) Fitz-John's daughter Mary. — Lds. 


some journy, but, is now gott over it & pretty well again. 
Her frinds and relations here, as well as my selfe, were 
extreamly glad to see her & T hope she will not reckon 
her time ill bestow'd. They design for Albany this week 
w'? Cap* Vetch, & I beleeve my wife & daughter Vetch & 
husband will wait upon her down again. I fear I shall not 
be able to go with them, our governm* here being much 
out of frame, our parties being more divided I think than 
eleven years ago, so litle has my Lords administration 
contributed to our union. The Councell, Assembly, & in- 
deed y e whole Province, divided & in a foment. I wish y e 
King may send us out a Gov? that will make it his bussi- 
nesse to unite y e subjects & compose differences. I have 
not time now to give you a particular ace*, since y e Coun- 
cill is just going to sett, to see if we can put it out of dis- 
pute whether y e President, by y e Kings letters pattents to 
my L d , hath not y e power of calling & adjourning both y e 
Councill & Assembly as he shall think requisite for the 
Kings service ; w h y e other 4 members oppose, alleadgeing 
y e maj r part of y e Councill, w h is 4 to 3, have power to act 
without y e President and to take y e administration of y e 
Gov* upon them. But by y e next post I shall give you a 
further ace*. I doe assure you S? that your daughter shall 
have all y e incouragement imagineable from me & my 
wife according to our ability, & shall find such a welcome 
& civile tyes as this place can afford. She is so good 
humor'd that all her relations here are extreamly taken 
with her, & I doubt not but they'l be happy together. My 
son is not fix'd what to doe w th y e sloop ; a voyage to 
N: found Land will be dangerous if a war should break 
out, w ch is dayly expected, and there is litle fraight for 
y e West Indies. I conclude with my hearty salutations to 
y r self & lady & remain 

Your most affec* Servant, R* Livingstone. 

Coll : Schuyler & his broth r Brant give their hearty 
service to y" 


For Madam Alida Livingston, at Albany. 

Deare Madam, — Since it hath pleased God by his 
providence to dispose the affections of your son and my 
daughter to each other, and that by your concurrance 
they are now joyned together in marriage, let us pray 
that they may be a blessing to one another, and to your- 
selves and us allsoe, and I am sure noething will be want- 
ing in her to contribute to it with all dutyfull respects. 
You will find in her a temper fit for the impression of all 
good, and your dictates and insinuations will be comandes 
to her ; and being now your owne and most deare to us, 
we doe earnestly recomend her to your love and affection, 
which will be soe much the more generous, as she is a 
stranger and far from her relations. I haue great hope 
of their hapines from their endeared affection to each 
other, and from the many good quallifications which I 
have observed in your son, w c . h has greatly endeared him 
to me, and soe much soe, that I have but one affection 
for them both. And now, Madam, being related to you 
in a neerer than the neere relation of friendship, I will 
take all opportunity to express my sence of it and that it 
will very much please me to be called 

Your most affectionate Brother, 

J: Winthrop. 

New-London, Aprill 1701. 

* See footnote to preceding letter. This letter appears to have been carried by the bride 
to her mother-in-law on her •wedding-journey. — Eds. 



Kensington, 5 th of May, 1701. 

Hon rd S*, — I have writen you at larg of the 5 of Feb 
and told you what I have done in pursuance of the trust 
reposed in mee by y or Goverment. I also inclosed two 
memorialls that I deliuered into y e Counsel of Trade in 
reference to the Appealls, and also to the Narrowgansett 
Countrey, w ch I sent you p two conveyances, and haue 
atended the motions of yo r aduersaryes ; but I being de- 
fendant itt was thought by my friends that I ought not 
to push itt forward, but only to atend them continually. 
I see now the reson of thes complants. To put a beter 
face upon a designe to take away all the proprietie of 
Gouerments att one blow, to that end there is a Bill 
brought into the Lords' house, a copie is heer inclossed, 
and also a copie of my Petition to the Lords to bee heard 
by my Counsel at the barr of the Lords upon Thursday 
next. I am soliciting the Lords day and night that, if the 
Bill must pass, to leue out yo r Colony ; you haue this rep- 
utation none of the Colonieys hath, a person of my qual- 
ity to appear for them. My owne affaires require mee in 
the countrey & to vissett my daughter, whoes house and 
estate I haue not yet seene ; but you haueing trusted mee 
I will be faithfull to you. Itt is possable if you scape this 
Bill I may draw some mony upon you, but I know not 
that I shall yet doe itt. Remember mee w th much respect 
to the worthy gentlemen of the Counsel & the repre- 
sentitives. Randal hath some thing to aquaint the Lords 
that you said of him ; what hee saith you shall know. I 
am to the utmost of my power, 

Y r most faithfull & humble ser yt , 

Hen. Ashhurst. 



For his MafK* Service, To the Hon ahle Coll: John Winthrop, Gov r of his 
Taj m Collorty of Conecticott. 

Newport ox Rhoad Island, May y e 28 4 ! 1 1701. 
Hon ab . le S R , — The unhapy difference that is between 
this his Maj'? 8 Collony and his Maj t3 ! 8 Collony of Conecti- 
cott is snch that I never thinke on it without troble and 
grieff, especially when I consider the gratious priveledges 
wee might possess and injoy (could wee but heale that 
soare) beyound any of his Maj tj : s plantations in America. 
And I am of opinion that yo r Hon r , being the head of that 
Collony and one of the chieff persons concern d in s d dif- 
ference, might (would you lay aside intrest) propose some 
way to make up that breach. Lett me intreat you to 
consider what the ishu of it will be, if not speedily pre- 
vented. According to my weake capasitye, I will give 
you my sentiments thereon, viz* : that our contending doth 
lay us both open for others to take the greater advan- 
tage against us, and indeed there are many people that 
rejoice at our difference and would be glad of our over- 
throw and have taken the oportunity thereby to strike att 
our Charters. Perhaps you thinke there is noe dainger 
of yours, so you will doe your indevors to overthrow us 
and thereby strengthen yourselves ; but I would pray you 
not to flatter yourselves with such expectations, for you 
may assure yourselves that if wee splitt you will sinke ; 
for wee are both upon one bottom and I am apte to con- 
clude as many rents and leaks on your part as on ours, if 
not some trunnell holes open. Therefore, being under 
one and the same circumstance and dainger, it is our 
dutys (Colonell Winthrops & mine), we being the chieff or 
head pilots, to make knowne the dainger to the people and 
exhort them to labour for their owne preservation & safety, 

• Samuel Cranston, of Newport, for twenty -six years Governor of Rhode Island, died in 
1727, aged 08. His father, John Cranston, had been Governor at an earlier period. — Eds. 


and not to delay it till wee splitt upon the rocke or fall 
into the quick sands ; for then it will be too late and all 
the evill that will ensue may be justly charged on our 
heads as sloathfull pilats who lay sleeping when wee 
should have been upon the watch and have showne the 
people the dainger that lay before them. But there are 
some pilots many times will cast away all that is under 
their charge, and indainger the loss of themselves, for the 
Inker of some small matter of profitt and gaine ; pray let 
us be none of them. Collonell Winthrop wants nothing 
this world can affoard, but God has blest him with a large 
portion : therefore let me intreat him to lay aside all 
intrest, and indevor somthing that may make him hapy 
in the world to come and his name famous to future gen- 
erations; and what can be a greater step to it than the 
setling those unhapy differences that haue so long been 
depending between these Collonys, the performance of 
which will make the governments easy & will prevent 
those advantages that are now taken against us ! It will 
unite us to stand by and assist each other against future 
attempts upon our rights, it will prevent those animosityes 
that are now amoungst us and the pulling and hailing poor 
men, fyning & imprisoning, &c ; and finally it will make us 
a hapy people, and put us in such a posture that wee may 
goe on chearfully in providing for our defence against the 
common enemy, w ! 1 ought att this juncture to be our 
chieffest concerne, there being dayly expectation of a 
bloody warr with France & Spaine, &c, if not already in 
hostility. Lett me intreat Collonell Winthrop to propose 
some way to accomplish all this. I know he can doe it. 
And lett us make our names famous, as instruments to 
promote so good a worke. I am sattisfied there is noth- 
ing we can doe at this juncture will bring a greater bless- 
ing upon us than the accomplishing this matter, and 
nothing will strengthen us more against a common enemy. 
And, on the contrary, should we still continue our wonted 


course of pulling & hailing poore men (as I have s d be- 
fore), and contending for that w ! 1 our length and breadth 
in a little time will serve the stoutest of us all, and crea- 
ting divitions and animosityes amongst the people, as one 
will be for this government and another for that ready to 
goe together by the ears and to shedding of blood, and 
all for want of a settlement and right understanding, — I 
say, should we still continue on this corse, what can we 
expect but a just judgment & distruction to follow ! Soe, 
having sincearely layd open my mind & desires, shall 
leave it with you ; hoping the Lord will putt it into your 
hearts to promote the peace & welfaire of these Planta- 
tions, shall subscribe 

Yo r Hon rs humble serv*, Sam 1 ? 1 Cranston. 

Postscript. S r , there is severall poor men that belong 
to this government bound over to your Court att New 
London. I know of noe transgretion they have commit- 
ted, without it be one in obeying, and why such men 
should be oppressed and their familys impoverished, I 
know not. I am shure it will not be pleasing to God to 
oppress the poore & neady, and lett the guilty goe free. 
My request is therefore that you should cause their bonds 
to be canceld, or grant them an imparlance, in hopes of 
an issue of these differences and not to take any advantage 
of theire non-appearance. Vails. 


New London, June 11 th 1701. 

Hon ble S% — Your letter of May 26 th came to my 
handes whilst I was under the sorrow of cruel feavor, w c ? 

* Captain John Nanfan was commissioned Lieutenant-Governor of New York in July, 
16D7, and was acting Governor from the death of Lord Bellomont till the arrival of Lord 
Cornburv. — Eds. 


made it impossible to thank you for that favour and con- 
gratulate your happy arrivall to your government, w ! 1 has 
mourned as well as myself for your absence. Nor was I 
able to returne an answere to your last, conteyning his 
Majestyes comandes in Council relateing to Rye & Bed- 
ford ; the Gen4 Assembly of this Collony haveing allready 
complyed with his Majestyes pleasure in that affaire, w c . h 
I signifyed to the Lord Bellomont, soe that I think those 
townes are dismist from this government and, I hope, will 
dutyfully attend the comandes in your late proclamation. 
I have given order that the proclamation in yo r first of 
the 26 fc ? of May and duplicates of it be publickly set up 
in our principal townes, and have coinanded that all de- 
serters from his Majestyes service as shall be found in this 
government, be apprehended. I mourne incessantly for 
the gen 1 ! loss to this continent, as well as for my owne 
deprivation, by the death of his Exc 11 / the Earle of Bello- 
mont, whose memory I preserve with the greatest vener- 
ation, and had not the Kings service necessarily detayned 
me here, noething should have hindered me personally to 
condole the Countess her unspeakable loss, to whom I 
pray you to present my most humble service and that I 
should be excedingly hon r . d if I might be any way service- 
able to her Ladyship in this government. I am still indis- 
posed and write this with difficulty, and can onely add 
that I am most sincerely 

Yo r faythf ull humble serv*, J: Winthrop. 


Hon ble S R ,— I received yo r letter of May 28 th whilst I 
was under great indisposition, w c . h made it impossible to 
thank you for that favour and give you my sentiments of 
the contents of your letter ; and am yet unable to write 



to you a full answere to soe many considerable suggestions 
included therein, w c . h indeede are of moment, as they re- 
late to the peace & welfare of y e Kings subjects, people 
under our governments. Soe I would think my self very 
happy if in my present station I could contribute any 
expedient thereunto, and to a peaceable issue of the con- 
troversy depending betweene the governments of Conec- 
ticot & Ehode Island, w ch seemes to be made yet more 
difficult as our people have been arrested by yo r warrant 
within the boundes of Stonington, even on the west side 
Paucatuck river, where yo r Charter, nor y e Agreement 
betwene the Agents, has noe kinde of pretention ; and it 
seemes wonderfull that at y e same tyme when yo r Hon r 
insinuates for proposalls to prevent animosityes (& to use 
yo r owne words, y e pulling & hailing poore men, fyning 
& imprisoning, &c.) you should nevertheless detayne under 
extravigant bonds one of our people of y e west side Pau- 
catuck river within our knowne & undoubted boundes. 
What you are pleased to add, that some will endanger 
and cast away all under their charge for some privet pro- 
fit, I desire you to know that I am not of y* inclination, & 
pray you to be assured that whatever intrest I have in 
those lands in controversy shall all way es be submitted to 
promote a publiq good, being zelous as a good neighbour 
to doe everything in my power for the hapines of yo r gov- 
ernment as well as for this government under my care ; 
and shall be ready to serve you with the greatest freedom, 
reserveing onely my preservation of y e hon r , intrest & 
safety of y e government. I haue lately received from our 
Agent an account of his negotiation and a copy of a me- 
moriall layd before y e Lords of y e Council of Trade, & 
hope to have a good ace* of it in a little tyme. I write 
this letter to you with a great deale of difficulty, being 
still under much indisposition, & shall be very hapy to co- 
operate with you upon all occations to promote a good 
understanding betwene our governments. However, I 


will never be wanting in my privat capassety to serve you 
& express y e esteeme I have for your person, and am most 

Yo r faythfull humble serv*, J: W. 

N:Lond: June 20* 1701. 
Gov r Cranston. 


For the Hon d John Winthrop, Esq, Gouerner of Connecticot Colony, in 

New England. 

Lond: July 10. 1701. 

Much hon rd S r , — My last was of 5 th of Febr. Since 
then I have been hurryed off my legs, not having had a 
day's time but what have spent in y r service and in y e 
service of New England. After I had pressed to be heard 
about y r boundaries, and also about y r appeales, and that 
I might have councill to attend y e Lords of y e Trade to 
defend my memoriall, I was told they were busy & could 
not attend it. I thought then there was somthing a 
brewing by y r old friends M r D : & M r Rand; # and one 
Bass came in that was to doe all y r business at once, by 
contriving this Act of Pari., a copie whereof is here in- 
clos'd, which as soon as I heard of, I put in this inclosed 
Petition to y e Lords and was heard by my councill against 
v e Bill at the Lords barr, and bv an interest I made in 
y e Lords House it was stopped. But Rand: brought peo- 
ple to sweare at y e Lord's barr severall mal-administra- 
tions of y r power, refusing to obey a warrant of my Lord 
Bellamont to come for prohibited goods, and many other 
things too long for me to relate, being quite tyred in op- 
posing Dudley's going to New England, which hath been 

* Joseph Dudley and Edward Randolph. For a more detailed account of the writer's 
efforts to prevent the former from returning to Massachusetts as Governor, see Sir Henry's 
confidential letter of the same date to Wait Winthrop. — Eds. 


at the bottom of all. The hardships that have been at- 
tempted against you, God forgive him for in y r service. 
Possibly I may this yeare draw 100 ft upon you. I have 
inclosed y e order of Councill, all hatched by y r friend 
M r D. M r Blathwaite said if I would acknowledge y e 
King's right of appeals, they would then discourse with 
me of y e reasonablenesse of this appeal. I would not ac- 
knowledge any thing a right, which was not settled by 
law. The Attorney Generall and Solicitor (who are both 
my friends) told me they must say all y e King's subjects 
have a right of appeals ; and it is so* inherent in y e Crown, 
that they cannot give it away. But then they were of 
opinion that it should be very seldome used, and upon 
great occasions. But I perceive these complaints of Hal- 
lam were to introduce y e necessity of this Act of Pari, 
which destroys y r whole corporation at once. You said 
Febr : was appointed to heare these appeals. Therfore, 
since it is necessary you come or send some against next 
sessions of Pari : that may give me & y e House all satis- 
faction in answer to all of Randall, and to assist me to 
defend you against y e Bill, you may as well come to de- 
fend this right of appeals, which possibly will be so well 
defended as to hinder all y r trouble for y e future. There 
is a present stream & violent against some persons & 
things, which I hope will not last, yet I have, through 
the Lord inabling me, appear'd for you with a courage 
suitable to my profession & obligation. I sende you this 
by a private hand, and am so indisposed with y e paines 
I have taken that I have scarce time to add any more 
than my true respect to y r selfe & my masters. 

Y r affect, ftf & faithfull ser vt , Hen. Asiihurst. 

My Lord Cornbury is Gov 1 " of New York, who is my 
friend, and he has y e same Comission as y e L d Bellamont 
had to comand y e militia. Dudley at present is declared 
Gov r of N: England & N: Hampshire. 


17 July. Since my last thar is some stop put to M r 
D:'s comition ; you must bring or send money & come 
over, or send a sufficient person with instructions ; I will 
doe you the best seruice I can. I know not yet but D : 
will goe. 

Note. — The petition referred to is as follows: — 

To y e right Hon rh } e y e Lords Spirituall 2? Temporall in Parliament 
Assembled, The Petition of S r . Henry Ashhurst, Bar 1 Agent for y e 
Colony of Conecticott in New England, Humbly sheweth: 

That there is a bill depending before y r Lordships intituled an Act for 
reverting to y e Crown y e Government of severall Colonies and. Planta- 
tions in America, which will make null & void y e Charter granted to 
y e Inhabitants of y e said Colony by King Charles y e second, dated 23 
Aprill 1662. That by y e said Charter y e Goverment of y e said Colony 
is granted to y e said inhabitants, and it is so interwoven with their prop- 
erties that it cannot be taken away without exposing them to confusion, 
if not utter ruin. That the inhabitants of y e said Colony were never 
accused of any maladministration, piraticall or unlawfull trade, and that 
this case is different from that of his Ma tys other plantations. Therefore 
y r petitioner humbly prayes that he may be heard by his councill at y e 
Bar of this Hon b ! e House, in y e behalfe of y e said inhabitants against y e 
passing of the said Bill. 


Aug: 14*1701. 

Deare Brother, — I have yo r letter of y e 11^ & per- 
ceive (as I thought) that their hearts would fayle them 
when they came to the spirit of the case. But unles they 
have greater proposalls to themselves than I think, it may 

be sumtient, tho not worth your tyme & trouble. If the 

£_ _____^_^__ 

* There are numerous letters from Fitz-John Winthrop to Wait Winthrop at this period, 
but they relate so largely to matters connected with the landed property in which the broth- 
ers were jointly interested, that it has been thought desirable to print but few of them 
in this volume. The early part of this letter refers to the wish of the General Court of 
Massachusetts to send Wait Winthrop to London in the hope of preventing Dudley's 
return as Governor. Further details of this will be given in the correspondence of Wait 
Winthrop. — Eds. 


man in my last should come, noething that can be done 
will alter it, and it must needes be in vain to indevour 
any other scheme of government. What then shall one 
bring home to answere their expectations ? But possibly 
in their close consult there is something they will not let 
their shirts know. If you goe, I know I should break 
through all difficultyes to se you, but how to doe it I know 
not. The busines of Plainefield should be brought to the 
County Court here the 17 th of Sep*, and the Court of 
Assistants & the Gen 11 Court is the beginning of October ; 
and farther you know of another maine block in the way 
w c !* I se not how to get over. The jury are sworne to 
bring in a verdict according to law & evidence, & how 
they will judge of Indian testemony I know not, & wee 
have noe English witnes. The account in the Report of 
the Comitte is plain to our understanding, but how the 
Court & jury will think of it is doubtfull. Pray give me 
yo r sentiments, & anybodyes else that you can get, of this 
porticular & I will be better satisfyed about it, & I could 
y e more easely get away. In yo r letter was enclosed one 
from my nephew w ch I thank him for. He knowes I 
donte speake French, tho I can blunder at it a litle ; 
therefore should have written as tis in y e originall. I can 
not write to him now, but will lay that up for posterity. 
I have been at Anthony againe & he sayes he will se what 
he can doe, and thats all I can get of him ; but I hope he 
will doe something shortly. If a 1000 £ of that wooll 
(w c ? was soe much more than I intended) had not gon 
that way, it would have yet been in their handes, & wee 
could have had noe thing from them, it not being a co- 
iTiodity now mony is soe scarce, and Anthony prefers 
specie. My cousin An is well & went last night to y r 
far me. 

I am yo re , J: W. 

1701.] ROBERT TREAT. 79 


Honora bi,e S?, — I return you many thanks for the in- 
telligence you sent me by y e last post. I was by him 
disapointed by his faste passing along, being out y e way 
to transmit some letters y fc more properly might haue 
been dyrected firstly to your selfe, w ch are now sent you 
with y e coppie of S r Henry Ashursts letter to your selfe, 
his petition to y e Hono rble Lords on our behalfe, with y e 
copie of y e Bil or Act for reuniteing all charters and letters 
pattents to y e gouernm* of y e King and Crown of England. 
Not knowing but yo r Hono r might haue some occasion for 
them before y e meeting in October next, or whether y r be 
any oppertunity of sending over to our agent, if in your 
wisdom doe see a necessity therof. The Bill seems very 
hard for us, to be so seuerely whipt & so much on others 
backs. And y* in y e matter of y e appeals our silent sub- 
mission should be construed a deniall, w ch was neuer so 
intended by us. I hope y e passing said Bill may be waved 
at present ; it doeth seem to me not to be a season, and 
how it can be done I cannot well see thorough it. I am 
of your opinion & so are many others with us, not to call 
any Assembly before y e set time, but if y r be an opper- 
tunity to send to o r agent for o r defence in y e mean time 
what in your wisdom with yo r counsell shall judge need- 
full & safe for us. I am not in a capacity to dictate, but 
only to hint it, and ad my hearty well wishes of your 
good health and prayers to God Almighty for you and 
us all to direct and bless us what euer changes happen ; 
y t it may be well w th us for euer so prays 

Your freind & faithfull seruant to comand, 

R: Treat. Z>. G: 

M. August y e 18* 1701. 



Stonington, Octob r , 6. 1701. 

Hoxor ble S R , — I was att New London on Tusday last 
hopinge to have waited upon you before you set out 
to Newhaven, but was frustrated of my expectation. S r , 
I have bin longe under a neglect of gettinge a patent 
of those lands w ch M r Blakelaye & M r Lord have left 
mee. M r Secretary & my discharge, a coppy of fr° M r 
Lord w cb is in the box, will cleare the justice of my 
title to the lands included in the patent, w ch I request 
you to subscribe ; w ch I send by my good freind Mr Nois, 
who will take care to send it to me by the Secretary 
when yo r Hon r hath subscribed it. S r I wish peace & 
prosperity to yo r Goverm fc and hope yo r Hon rs good con- 
duct at this Generall Court will induce them to remoue 
those speciall grievances of a more publiqe nature w ch 
will be soe ill resented in England : That whereas his 
Magestys Court of Chancery that is always open in Eng- 
land is always shutt in this Colony, that such as cannot 
be relieved at the Courts of Comon Pleas must liue and 
dye vnder theire oppressions without any redresse in this 
Colony, why may not the Gov r & Councill be confided in 
to be a Court of Chancery here as well as in other Col- 
ony s ? 2 d ly, That the people of this Colony may not any 
longer bee secluded from the Comon Law & right of our 
Nation, w ch Boston Colony & all his Magestys Colonys in 
America, this onely excepted, haue the use and benefit 
of. S^ these and some other publiqe injurys wherein the 
libertys of the people here are much infringed, of w ch M r 
Pitkin hath a particular accompt, I humbly conceiue may 
be of greate importance to be removed at this Court, for 
your Hon r knowes how redjTy grieuances and complaints 
are heard by the Lords Comissioners and by them pre- 
sented not onely to the Kinge & Councill but also to the 
Parlam*. Men waite to see what this Court will doe ; but 


I beinge a State delinquent for assertinge the English 
libertys, let noe thinge be declared from me, onely you 
may please to impart the contence hereof to M r Soltin- 
stoll & M r Pitkin to consider what may be proper to be 
done in these matters. There are others besides my selfe 
that complaine of great oppressions for want of a Court 
of Equity to releive them, whose patience is much spent. 
I remember it is one of the articles against Boston Colony 
that the gentlemen of the Councill there haue publiqly 
declared their aversnesse to the Lawes of England. I 
cannot enlarge for want of paper. 
I am you r Hon r s affectionat Freind & humble Servant, 

Sam 1 ? Willis. 


For the Honoured 1 John Winthrop Esq r , Gov r of his Majesties Colony 
of Connecticut, at N : Haven. . 

N: Lond: Oct. 15, 1701. 
Hon bl S R , — Since I could not be so happy as to attend 
y r Hon rs service at N : Haven, I was very glad to find M r 
Noyes in the town before I left it ; who, I believe, is very 
much advantaged to defeat such sinister counsells as I 
doubt some gentlemen have very much pleased them- 
selves in, and are with as much art as they have to spare 
managing at this time. In this great crisis of our affairs 
it is our great happiness that we may hope, through the 
blessing of God, from y r Hon rs conduct to be preserved, 
for at least a while, from those inconveniences which 
some ignorantly, and others worse, would hasten upon us. 
The news here is that our Treasurer hath demanded a 
pass, which it's possible may be a good stroke at this 
juncture, and make our people a little more sensible what 
some of their own counsells would soon bring them to. I 
must entreat y r Hon ra pardon to add that if Sir H. A.'s last 



letters should be copied out by any persons, it might be 
very inconvenient. Such things, I remember, were done 
when y r Hon r was in England. There is a clause in that 
letter (besides others) wherein he speaks of an interest he 
had made in the House of Lords, which, if it were shewn 
in England, I doubt may do us a diskindness. I beleive 
M r II. is at a great loss what to do with his order, but 
whether that takes any effect or no, I beleive it will be 
needfull that due care be taken for transmitting a fair 
& true ace* of that case to S r H., under y e Colony Seall, 
which I hope y r Hon r will provide for. I was at y r Hon" 
late last night, where all are well, and expect y r Hon r 
home this week ; but I doubt the affairs under the con- 
sideration of the Court will not bee so soon dispatched. 
I must pray y r Hon rs favour to give my service to M r 
Noyes, & hope y r Hon r will not suffer M r Noyes & Capt. 
M. to part till the Court is over. We have no fresh news. 
I intend to see the Post & what letters are for y r Hon r to 
send them along by him. If y r Hon r please to remember 
me when you are with the gentlemen of my acquaintance 
& M r Pierpont, it will bee and I shall acknowledge it as 
an hon r to, Hon bl S r , y r most humble S\ 

G: Saltonstall. 

I pray the favour of the enclosed to my uncle. 


To the Honnourable John Winthrop Esq r . Govern r , and Commander in 
Chief of his Majesties Colony of Connecticott, in New London, these 
p r sent. 

Hartford, Octob r 25: 1701. 

Hon ble S R , — According to your Hon rs order I have pro- 
cured M r Stanley to copie out those writings that are upon 

* Eleazar Kimherly (b. 1639 — d. 1709), for many years schoolmaster at Wethcrsrield, 
was, from 1G9G until his death, Secretary of Connecticut. — Eds. 


the file, and such copies of record as may be of use in 
the case now depending between your Hon r and Nickolas 
Hallam ; which are prepared to be transmitted to your 
Hon r under the seal of the Colonie, by M r Davie. When 
I took my leave of your Honour at Newhaven, your Hon r 
was pleased to desire of me my opinion concerning the 
objection made by M r Hallam against the Probate of M r 
Liveen's will made at Newlondon. Supposing the said 
Probate was past coram non judice, the Countie Court, 
as it is called, not being constituted according to law, as 
he pretends, his words are that whereas by the lawes of 
this Colonie every Countie Court shall consist of three 
Assistants, or one Assistant and five Comissioners at 
least, in the Countie Court wherein the Probate of the 
said inst mfc & will w T as made, the Court did onely con- 
sist of one Assistant and one Comissioner onely. My 
opinion of this objection against the said Probate is that 
it is of litle force and not sufficient to make void the 
said Probate, whatever appearance of strength it may 
have with such as are not acquainted with the consti- 
tution and administrations of our Courts ; for it is cer- 
tain that our Governours and Deputie Governours have 
the full power of the Assistants vested in them for fur- 
thering the execution of justice according to the lawes 
of this Colonie ; and every Assistant hath the full power 
of a Comissioner and more, for the end aforesaid, which 
may be demonstrated as from other arguments so espe- 
cially from the respective oaths administred to the Gov- 
ern 1 ", Deputie Governour, Assistants and Comissioners. 
Now the persons constituting the said Countie Court at 
Newlondon being the Governour, an Assistant and Comis- 
sioner, all vested with that power and authority for the 
administration of justice that the members of the Countie 
Court according to law ought to be vested with, to object 
against the power of the Court because two of the mem- 
bers have a higher authority superadded which gives 


them another denomination, though alwayes including 
the authority for administration of justice according to 
lawe that the members of the Countie Court ought to be 
vested with, seems to me to be but a frivolous criticism 
and that which the law will take no notice of; for the 
lawe regards not nice points of formality (De minimis 
7ion judlcat lex). And farther to strengthen this answer 
to the objection, it may be said that the lawe concerning 
the constitution of the Countie Courts hath always been 
so interpreted. And the Governour or Deputy Govern- 
our have frequently sate as judges in those Courts, and 
the members of the Countie Courts being persons princi- 
pally concerned in making our laws are the best able to 
interpret them ; and the long continued and approved 
practice of our Courts in a matter formall hath in it (as I 
concieve) the force of a law, by reason of the generall 
consent of the country to it, although there were no posi- 
tive lawe for it. I shall further adde that provided the 
substance and end of the lawe be attended and prose- 
cuted, a greater latitude of variation from the letter of 
the lawe may well be allowed to our infant Goverment, 
under its present wel-knowm circumstances, and to our 
rulers, than may possibly be allowed in the realm of Eng- 
land. Hon b ! e Sir, I have thought it might doe well if 
something of plea were drawn to justifie the existance of 
the said Countie Court, and also the testimonies of two 
of the antient Assistants of the Colonie to the practice in 
this Goverm fc correspondent to what was then done at 
Newlondon. I had thought to have served your Hon r 
herein so farre as I am capable, according to my litle 
reason, but tw 7 o things have hindred : first, shortnesse of 
time ; secondly the Assistants here live at distance, and 
being not of so long standing I question whether they 
can give such clear testimonye in that matter as those 
that are more antient. If your Hon r shall see cause to 
direct to such a thing, I know it will be done to better 


effect then it can be by me, and I shall be ready to serve 
your Honour in doing what belongs to my trust to render 
it authentick. As for M r Hallams other pleas against the 
probate of the will, I doubt not but an able lawyer can 
easily make a substantiall reply to them ; but as those 
pleas were drawn by M r Nickols, so there is one objec- 
tion I take notice of in them, viz* that the bequest to the 
ministry of Newlondon is void as being against the Stat- 
utes of Mortmain, which plea that gentlman knew very 
well was of no force, for he affirmed in Court that none 
of the Statutes of England were in force in the forreign 
Plantations, but those wherein the Plantations were ex- 
pressly named, and I am sure the foreign Plantations are 
not named in the Statutes of Mortmain ; but our lawyers 
must say something for their fee. Hon ble S r , M r Stanley 
thinks his labour in writing to be worth eighteen shil- 
lings ; if your Hon r see cause to allow me for the seal and 
my labour a piece of eight, it shall satisfie me. I have 
not farther to adde but with hearty desires of your Hoif 8 
health and happinesse, I am Hon ble S r , 

Your Hon rs most humble obedient Servant, 

Eleazar Kimberly. 

I had almost forgot to signifie to your Hon r that I have 
delivered to M r Davie 3 comissions for military officers, 
which your Hon r may please to signe. 


For y e . Honr hl . e John Winthrop Esq r Govern*, of Coneticot in N: England, 

London, y? 1 of No. 1701. 

Much hon rd S r , — To my last I have no answer, tho 
I wrote in what danger y or charter was of being taken 
away by Act of Parlmet. I sent you a perticular account 
of every thing and told you I must be y 8 winter prepared 


against an other attempt upon yo T charter by Act of Par- 
lem nt . Insolent Randall, Bass & D:, & an other nameless 
friend, was & are very active gentlemen against all pro- 
priety governm ts . I hope and expect every ship to heare 
from you and also what directions you give as to y* per- 
ticular appeal of Hallam. I wrote very largly to you in 
May and July about every thing, and nothing hath oc- 
cured of moment since. February next is y e time ap- 
pointed to heare y e appeal ; you must send what mony 
you think necessary to prosicute yo r affairs. I am dayly 
expecting yo r worthy brother, whom I am indeavoring to 
make Lieftenant Gover nr in Stougtons roome. My un- 
fained respects to you and my worthy masters. 

I am yo r reall friend and faithfull humble servant, 

Hen. Ashhurst. 


These for the Hon hle John Winthrop Esq 1 ". Gov r of his Magestys Colony 
of Connecticott, in New London, post paid, present. 

Honble S% — Your brother Major Gen? Winthrop be- 
inge gon to keepe Salem Court and not knowinge but he 
might misse writtinge by this post, I thought it my duty 
to inform you r Hon!" of the time of the sailinge of the 
next shipp for London, not knowinge but that you r Hon r 
may haue letters of publiqe importance to send for Eng- 
land, because I suppose the friget, & fleet with her, saild 
before your letters were redy, and in regard Hallam 
who is freighted with complaints about Livinges case & all 
John Rogerses complaints of many yeares collectinge, to 
be presented to the Kinge & Councill, is wai tinge for a 
passage in that ship, w ch is saide will saile the weeke after 
next, and when any other will be redy I doe not heare. I 
hope the hon rd Generall Court hath concluded of such 
methods as may most conduce to the promotinge the 

1701-2.] ROBERT TREAT. 87 

prosperity of the Colony, w ch I shall always much re Joyce 
in. I was att New London to waite vpon your Hon r the 
day after you was gon towards Newhauen, and must 
submitt to my unhapinesse therin & waite for another 
opportunity. S r you may please to remember that you 
brought a letter for mee from my sister Haines in Eng- 
land, about a bond of 560 £ w c . h her husband promised by a 
letter to send mee, beinge discharged about thirty yeares 
since, and a bond of 27 £ most of which Colonell Page was 
to pay about 25 yeares past. I am glad to heare that the 
bonds are in this country. I haue formerly writt to her 
but my letter miscarryed. I intend to shew your broT my 
discharge and to give her a satisfynge accompt and your 
self also, that soe I may haue up my bonds, requestinge 
they may be kept safe in your hands in the interim. I 
intend next weeke to discours Col. Page to cleare up 
that matter, as it hapens M r Woodbridge hath his bond 
still for that debt, of w c . h I purpose to giue you a further 
accompt shortly. My respects to M r Witherly and M r 

■ Sf I am your cordiall Freind & humble servant, 

Samuell Willis. 

Boston, Novemb: 14. 1701. 


For his Maj ties Seruice, To f Honor hle Majo r Gener 11 Fits John Winthrop 
Fsq r , Gouerno r of his Ma etis Colonie of Oonecticot, in New London, 
with speed. 

Feb: y c 17 th 170£, Milford. 

Hono rbl S R , — I am sorry to hear of your long, great 
and hazardf ull sickness ; y e Lord in mercy graunt you a 
gratious and speedy recouery to health againe, if it be his 
good pleasure, and sanctifie y s his awfull uisitation to you 
and all y e Colonie. When I first heard of your sickness I 


did desire prayers on your behalf e on a sollemne day of 
prayer at Milford, and feruent prayers was made to Al- 
mightie God for you, and doe beleeue y* they will be so 
continued ; we are all loath to part w th yo r Hono r , our hap- 
pines is much bound up in your welfare. S! I receaued 
some weeks since your orders by y e Reverent M r Sal ton- 
stall to propose to M r Charles Chancy to preach y e next 
election sermon at Harford, which I haue done and ac- 
quainted him w th y e contense of M r Saltonstalls letter, and 
on y e 14 th of y e present have receiued his answer by word 
of his mouth presenting his seruise to your Hon r and to 
certifie you that he will prepare to preach y e said sermon 
and may be depended upon for it if nothing prouiden- 
tially fall out to hinder him. W th my humble seruise to 
yo r Hono r , hopeing for yo r recouery to good health is y e 
prayer of 

Your freind & humble seruent, 

R Treat, D. G. 


Hartford, Aprill the 2 d 1702. 

S R , — We are much rejoyc'd to hear your Honor en- 
joyes such a measure of health, and are uery solicitus for 
the continuation and encrease thereof. Your letter with 
that from M r Seer? Addinton are now before the gen lcm 
holding the County Court, as also the worshipfull M r Pitkin 
and Cap* Chester, who haue directed me to informe your 
Honour that the motion made by the gentlemen of the 
Massathuset Bay seems very reasonable. In comply ance 
wherewith M* Pitkin and my selfe resolve to attend that 
service at the time by them appointed ; or rather, some 
thing sooner if the weather fauour us. And in as much 
as Cap* Chester inclines not to undertake the journey, 
it is thought aduiseable to take M r Stanly, the County 

1702.] ROBERT TREAT. 89 

Sec?, with us to assist in that worke. We shall be glad 
to receive such further orders and directions from your 
Honour as you shall think needfull in that case ; shall ad- 
vise you of our proceeding and transactions therein as 
oppertunity offers. Inclosed is a copie of the Act of the 
Generall Court respecting that matter w c ? your Honour 
directs to us in your le r ; this is what I had given in 
charge. The gen tle present giue their service to your 
Honour, heartily wishing your recovery ; whereto is added 
the offer of my humble regards, who am your Honours 
most humble and obedient servant, 

Will: Whiting. 

To the Hon* 16 the Gouernor. 


For his Ma tls Service, To y e Honor hle Gouerno r Winthrop, at his house in 
New London, these, g y e poste. 

Hono rbl S% — Tis noe small joy to me to hear of your 
hopefull recouery from your so long and hazardfull sick- 
ness, the which y e Lord perfect and hasten your restora- 
tion to your good health againe, if it be his will ; for 
which o r souls will bless y e name of the Lord & doe long 
for y e oppertunity therof. S* through my infirmity and 
[torn'] beg yo r pardon in not visiting you in your sicknes 
and it is through my hurt hand y t I haue not sooner 
giuen yo r Honour an account of a letter y* by advice of 
seuerall gentle 11 I p r pared & without charge sent to y e 
Honor able Left nt Governor Nanfan, a true coppie wherof I 
haue heerin enclosed, which through fears and reports of 
so many least it should come too late, was posted away 
bluntly & not so well worded as might & ought to be, and 
yet very acceptable to some and obtained its end : y fc y e 
execution is suspended of y e gent 11 , & I hear y* y r irons 



are taken off in y e prison.* S r I hope more fully to certi- 
fie you, if the Lord permit y 4 I may see you at Harford 
y c next Court, to w ch I put my idinam & y fc God would 
strengthen you againe to be further seruiceable in yo r 
capacity to God and his people, so prays & remains 
Hono rle ffi 

Your humble servant, R : Treat. 

Milford, ye 7* h of Aprill 1702. 


For his Maj tys Seruice, For the Honor hl . e John Winthrop, Fsq r , Gouernor 
of his Maj tys Colony of Connectticott, in New London. 

S R , — In obedience to your Honors comand, M r Pitkin, 
M r Stanly and my selfe are come neither to attend the 
seruice respecting the boundaries between the Gouer- 
ments. The instruments are prepared, we are now upon 
the probation of them, shall not go upon the work untill 
the begining of next week. Tomorrow the Councill 
setts, when persons will be appointed on theire part to 
prosecute that matter ; we are not without hopes of a 
good issue. Here is nothing worth your Honors notice, 
no ships lately arriv'd. We make the offer of our most 
humble service to your selfe, sincearly desireing the re- 
turne and continuance of your health. I am S? in all 
deep regards 

Your Honors most humble and obedient seruant, 

Will : Whiting. 

Boston, Aprill 27* 1702. 

* In the winter of 1702 Colonel Nicholas Bayard and Captain John Hutchings, one of the 
Aldermen of New York, were arrested on a charge of high treason, imprisoned, and after a 
very unfair trial convicted and sentenced to death. On the arrival of Lord Cornbury the 
proceedings were suspended; and in the following year the sentence in each case was re* 
versed by an Order in Council. See N. Y. Col. Documents, passim. — Eds. 



For his Maj es Service, To if Hon u . e Maj r Gen 1 Winthrop, Govern 7 " of 
Connetticutt, N: London. 

N: York, 11 May, 1702. 

Hon ble S R , — By last post I gave y u an account of my 
Lord Cornberrys arrivall, & y e last week has past without 
doing any bussinesse but receiving y e congratulary com- 
plem ts from persons of all ranks & from all places, espe- 
cially those of y e English party, who my Lord declares he 
never could have beleevd they had been so much abused 
if he had not come upon y e spott to receive information. 
We have acquainted his Lordp how ready you was to 
commiserate our condition in y e late violent psecution & 
to interpose with y e Leu' Gov 1 !, who highly applauds your 
tendernesse & sympathising with us in our sufferings, 
altho y e letters had not y e desired effect. We hope to be 
rid of those 2 grand incendiaries speedily, y* projected 
our late troubles.* My Lord has directed me to have 
copys of all papers y i relate to my bussinesse mannaged 
by my adversaries during my absence, w^ I shal soon an- 
swer to their shame & reproach, if they have any. They 
have passed severall acts after his Lordp was within y e 
Hook & y* they had an acct of it, by w h they think to 
secure y e governm' in their hands to perpetuity, adding 
severall assembly men to those countys where their 
party is y e strongest ; but I doubt not but his Lordp will 
see cause to suspend y e execution of such laws as are so 
palpably ag st y e King and countrys intrest. By y e post 
y u will receive a letter of thanks from y e English, French 
& Dutch merch* 8 , w h they send by his Excel ? 8 approba- 

* See note, ante, p. 90. The "two grand incendiaries" here referred to are no doubt 
the Chief Justice, William Attwood, who was suspended by Lord Cornbury, and Thomas 
Weaver, the Solicitor-General, both of whom were violent and unscrupulous partisans. 
Weaver was also Collector of New York, and having come under the displeasure of Lord 
Cornbury he absconded and went to Virginia. See a letter from Lord Cornbury to Fitz- 
John Winthrop, post, p 96, and Mrs. Lamb's History of New York 1. 460 —Eds. 


tion. I have nothing els to ad at psent. My humble 
service to y r lady & love to our son & daughter. I am, 
Hon b ! e S r y r most obed* serv! 

Rt. Livingston. 

His Excellency wil be very glad to see y u at Albany, 
where he designs to see y e 5 Nations speedily as soon as 
matters are a little over here. 


To the Hon ble John Fitz Winthrop Esq r , Govern 1 * elect 
of this his Maj" 63 Coll of Connecticot, the humble Address 
of the House of Representatives this 16 th of May 1702, 
humbly sheweth that wee cannot but deeply and tenderly 
resent that after the great obligations which yo r Honn rs 
faithfull and sedulous service for this poor Collony hath 
made us your debtors in, that yet any thing should be sug- 
gested or insinnuated which should reflect on or asperse 
yo r Honno" administration ; which the more doth affect 
us in that the same is by one of the hon ble members of the 
Council. This House haveing appointed a comittee to 
inspect that matter doe assure your Honno r that, as in 
duty bound both to yo r Honno r and o r country whom we 
represent, wee shall with uttmost care and dilligence use 
all lawfull means for the just vindication of yo r Honno r . 
Meane time cannot but humbly sollicite yo r Honno r in 
behalf of this corporation, that y u will please, according 
to yo r wonted generosity, yet to oblige this corporation 
in accepting that service which they have so universaly 
desired you to, the denyall or delay whereof may prove 
of fatall consequence, and as in duty bound wee shall 
ever pray, &c. 

Voted in the affirmative in the Lower House, teste 

Eleazar Stent, Clerk: 



To y 6 Hon hle Mqj r Gen 1 . Winthrop, Govern'' of Conetticutt, at JV; London. 

N: York, 18 May 1702. 

Hon b . l S*, — Yesterday afternoon a sloop belonging to 
this place arrived from Surranam with very melancholy 
news ; his name is Jaques Valett, a Frenchman, and in- 
habitant here ; has been 4 weeks by y e way, & 2 days 
before his departure a Dutch man of warr arrived from 
England & to y e best of his remembrance was from Spit- 
head last : brings news y* his Maj ™ King William de- 
parted this life y e 15 of March, y t y e 17 y e town of 
Portsmouth discharged all their gunns upon this dolefull 
solemnity ; y e like was done by S r George Rook & all y e 
English fleet with their flags hoysted half staff high. Y e 
s d Capt made oath of this to y e Gov* of Surranam, upon 
w b y e fort there & y e ships in y e Eoad fired, as is usuall 
upon y e news of y e death of a Prince. While this master 
was there, my Lord has taken his oath of y e pmises. I 
was with my Lord when y e master told y e news w th great 
concern, w b struck a damp upon us all ; we are still in 
hopes it is not true, since we have no news about it, it 
being now full 2 months ; tho I fear it is too true, in 
regard his Maj e . s was sik when y e man of war left England. 
I thought it my duty to give y u this acct, knowing y* y r 
affairs as well as ours will be much affected therewith. 
As to domestik news, we have none, my Lord having 
spent his time in informing himself. Y u will hear by ye 
next, I do not doubt, y* y e 5 Councellers who committed 
Coll : Bayard and Hutchins will be suspended as soon as 
my Lord has examined in y* bussines, w h will be done 
spedely. M r Atwood is very troublesome ; its alleadged 
he has advised the Sheriffe to put Hutchins in goale after 
he had let him out upon baile, who will be turned out to 
day for it. My Lord is extream hearty to redresse all 
grevances, & we must reckon it a duble mercy y* God has 


been pleased to send him at this juncture. I shall not 
enlarge, but with y e tender of my hearty salutes to my 
sistr & love to our children, I am hon b ! e S r 

Y r most humble servant, R T Livingston. 


To the Gen- Assembly of her Majestye's Collony of Conecticot : 

I perceive this Assembly does trifle & too long delay 
justice to my complaint exhibited to this Court against 
Maj r Fitch, — i s . fc For acting contrary to her Majestyes 
comandes for the regular takeing the evidences relate- 
ing to M r Living's will ; — 2- For violateing the lawes of 
this Collony in the examination of said evidences contrary 
to his oath & the trust reposed in him by the fremen of 
this Colony, w ch I have sufficiently prooved & shall be 
represented to her Majesty in Council. 

I desire therefore that my testemony against that de- 
lay, soe contrary to her service & the honour of this Gov- 
erning may be incerted in the Records of this Assemmy. 
Yo r affectionate Serv fc , J: Winthrop. 

May 22 d 1702. 

Note. — The protracted contest over the will of John Leveen was one of 
the celebrated lawsuits of Connecticut. The testator, a wealthy merchant, 
died in 1089, bequeathing the bulk of his property to the "Ministry of New- 
London," and constituting Fitz-John Winthrop principal executor. John 
and Nicholas Hallara, sons of Leveen's widow by a former marriage, contested 
the will on various grounds, and it was not until 1704 that it was finally 
affirmed by the Privy Council. For some curious proceedings in connection 
with this case, see Caulkins's History of New London. There are three 
copies of this will among the Winthrop Papers, differing slightly from one 
another in phraseology and orthography. One of them is here printed, after 
collating it with the others: — 


In the name of God Amen, I John Liveen of New London, being 
sick and weake in body but of perfect memory and understanding, doe 


make this my last will and testament, revokeing and making null and 
voyd all others. 

First and principally, I give and bequeath my soule to God that 
gave it, beseeching him in mercy to receive it for the merits, sake and 
mediation of his deare Sonn, my blessed Lord and only Saviour Christ 
Jesus, and my body to the ground to be decently buried, and what 
estate God of his mercy hath given me to be disposed of as folio we th, 
when my just debts are paid : 

Item, I give & bequeath to my wife after my decease one third part 
of all my estate personall and reall during her life, and at her decease 
the reall to revert and returne to the Ministry, and the personall to be 
at her dispose. 

Item, I give and bequeath unto the Ministry of New London that 
house that I bought of M r Bolles, with the land that is within fence 
adjoyning thereunto. 

Item, I will y* after my decease none of my debt™ shall be sued at 
law, y* is to sa}', for book debts or bills. 

Item, I give & bequeath to Daniel Taylor of New London, as a 
token of my love to him, two rodds of my land at the waterside, on 
the south side of my wharfe, with what he is debter upon my booke 
and ten pounds in cash. 

Item, I give and bequeath to John and Nicholas Hallam, the rest 
of the land by the waterside, and John Hallam to have the lower ware- 
house and Nicholas Hallam to have the upper warehouse, the land to 
be equally divided. 

Item, I give unto the Honnoured Maj r Gen 1 . 1 Winthrop five pounds 
in cash to buy him gloves & a ring. 

Item, I give to Maj r Edward Palmes, five pounds in cash to buy 
him gloves and a ring. 

Item, I give to M r Alexander Pygan five pounds in cash to buy 
him gloves and a ring. 

Item, All the remainder of m}^ estate both personall and real not 
above disposed of, I give and bequeath to the Ministry of New Lon- 
don, to be improved for their use from time to time by my executors. 

Lastly, I appoint and constitute the Honnourable Majy Gen 1 . 1 Win- 
throp and Maj^ Edward Palmes to be J0} T nt executors with my wife of 
this my last will and testament. Dated in New London this 1 9 th day 
of October 1689. Wittness my hand, 

John Liveen. (a Seal) 

Signed sealed and delivered in p r sence of us. 

The marke of William Thorn. 
The marke of Samuel Tubbs. 
The marke of Johanna Thorne. 


The last will and testament of M r John Liveen deceased was ex- 
hibited at a speeiall court holden at New London on March 6 th 169f , 
was there proved by the oaths of M r Daniell Taylor, William Thorn, 
and Samueli Tubbs, and accepted by said court and ordred to be 


Attest Daniell Wetherell, County Clerk. 
March 12 th 169J. 

This is a true cop} T extracted out of the Court Records. 

Attest George Denison, C. Clerk. 
November the 10 th 1698. 


For his Majesties Service, To the Hono hl ? Maj r Generall Winthrop, Gov- 
ernor of the Colony of Connecticutt. 

New York, 13 th June 1702. 

Sir, — Thomas Weaver Esq r , Collector and Keceiver 
Generall of this Province, having been suspended by me 
from the execution of his office for having unduly, un- 
justly and corruptly demeaned himself therein, to the 
great scandall of his Majesties Go verm en t, the diminution 
of his Majesties revenue, the decay of trade, the hurt of . 
his Majesties good subjects and the hazard of the peace, 
good and wellfare of this Province ; and since his sus- 
pension having withdrawn himself from this Goverment, 
without accounting with and delivering up unto the 
comissioners appointed by me for the management of 
the said office the bonds, books, papers, recognizances, 
moneys and other security's in his possession belonging 
to his Maj tie , in manifest contempt of an order of Councill 
of the ninth of this instant appointing him to doe the 
same ; whereby his Majestye is greatly defrauded ; and 
the said Thomas Weaver at present lurking and abscond- 

* Edward Hyde, Viscount Cornbury, afterward 3d Earl of Clarendon, arrived in New 
York May 3, 1702, as Governor of that Province. He was of profligate habits and ruined 
fortunes, and his administration became very unpopular. After his recall, in 1708, he spent 
some time in the debtors' prison. He died in England in April, 1723. — Eds. 

1702.] JOHN CHESTER. 97 

ing himself in this or some of the adjacent Goverments, 
I have with the advice of his Maj*! 6 . 3 Councill for this 
Province thought fitt to issue the inclosed Proclamation 
offering a reward of one hundred peices of eight to such 
person or persons as shall apprehend and bring him to 
me, and prohibiting all and every person and persons 
from concealing or encouraging the concealing of him ; 
but that proclamation reaching only the limitts of this 
Goverment, I doe hereby request and desire that you 
will, imediately after your receipt hereof, issue a procla- 
mation within your Goverment of the same tenor as y e 
inclosed, and therein offer the like reward to the person 
or persons who shall apprehend him and bring him to me, 
to be payd by this Goverment ; by which means I hope 
effectually to secure him the said Weaver in such manner 
that the books, bonds, recognizances, papers, money's and 
other security's belonging to his Majestye in his hands, 
custody and possession, may be forthcoming to his Maj ties 
use. I earnestly recomend to you to be speedy in this 
matter, which will be an acceptable service to his Maj" e 
and this his Goverment. I am, Sir, 

Your humble Servant, Cornbury. 


For the Honn hle John Winthrop Esq r ", Gov r of her Majesties Colony of 
Connecticott, present, in New-London. p r M r Raimond. 

Weathersfield, June 18** 1702. 

Honn blb S R , — I receved your letter by M r Raimond 
with the respectiue orders for the sanctifiing a day of 
fast, which I shall be carefull to transfer to the places 
they are directed with seasonable disspatch. Yo r Honors 

* John Chester, of Wethersfield, second of the name, was the first Speaker of the Con- 
necticut House of Representatives after it was made a separate branch of the government, 
and one of the Assistants from 1701 to 1712. His father, who died in 1698, was also a 
leading man in Connecticut, and often one of the representatives. — Eds. 



intimation that the orders should have been sent to the 
Secretary to haue issued forth vnder his hand &c : pro- 
uided the orders had come directly from the Gen 11 Assem- 
bly, it were his work & the benefit thereby to himselfe ; 
but it being left to yo r Hon r & Councill, they are com- 
pleated (I conceve) to the acceptance of the Colony, & 
fittest according to the circumstance. When M r Raimond 
came to my house yesterday, I was at Hartford waiting 
upon the Act of Councill in proclaiming her Majestie, 
which was mannaged & carried on with the foot com- 
panies & the troops, the officers being well garb d , their 
horses richly equipped, the great gunns loaden by sail- 
ers, one a gunner. After three intire vollies by the com- 
panies, attended with three huzzaes each of the vollies, 
the great gunns were fired by a traill of wet powder 
leazurely leading to the charges, euery one that fired 
haueing a' convenient space to secure themselues be- 
fore the gunns disscharged ; with other vsuall cerimonies. 
We haue here intellegence which came last Munday that 
Gov r Dudley arriued at Boston on the 11 th of this instant, 
& a Dep* Gov r with him ; his name is Povey, as it comes 
to us, (doubtless yo r Honour hath had a perticular accompt 
before this time). I giue my devoirs to your Hon r , with 
serviss to Major Generall Winthrop, M r Saltonstall &c, 
which is the present from him who is 

Yo r Hon r s humble Serv', John Chester. 


For his Maj tis speciall Seruice, To y 6 Honor* 1 ' Gouerno r Winthrop at New 
London, convey w th care Sf speed, p Samuell Smith. 

IIono rble S R , — Yo r orders by y e poste, for proclaiming 
y e Queens Ma tie y e 17 th instant, was inspected and decently 
performed at New Haven w th great acclamations of joy, 
beating of drums, ringing y e bell & volleys of small shott 


by two Capt ns companies on New Haven Green present ; 
& sent my orders w th yo T papers & prints in like mailer to 
Capt n Gold to se it done in like mafier there. And by y e 
bearer Sam 11 Smith transmitted y s packet for her Ma tia 
speciall service to yo r Hono r , receaued at 8 of y e clock at 
night, being misti, & staid til fiue in y e morning, & re- 
turned y e other post w rth my receate of y e packet to his 
Lordship at New Yorke according to his desire ; w ch is y e 
needfull at prent, y e other post waiteing, from Sf 

Your obedient servant, R : Teeat. D. G. 

June y c 20* 1702. 


To the Honb le John Winthrop Esq r , Gouerrf of Connecticot Colony, in 

New London. 

Boston, June 21. 1702. 

Honbl e S R , — Coll : Dudley being lately arrived with a 
comission for this Government &c. comands me to give 
his service to your Honour & to inquire of your health 
& will be glad to have an account t of it. Besides what 
relates to this Province, he has distinct comissions for y e 
Government of N : Hampshire & Narraganset & comand 
of y e forts & militia at Rhode Island. Y e Leit : Governer is 
one Capt Tho : Povey, cousin to one of that name knoune 
to your self ; he is a souldier, was nine years in y e army 
in Flanders. All y e newes that is stirring I have wrote 
to M r Saltonstall; war was proclaimed against France & 
Spain in London, Vienna & y e Hague y e fourth of May 
last. Y e Gouern r deferes y e proclaiming it here till he 
receives orders from Whitehall. My humble service to 
y e Maj r Gen 11 .* 

I am your Honours humble serv' T. Woodbridge. 

* Where references occur to "the Major-General " in this correspondence, the person 
meant is Wait Winthrop, who was habitually so styled, though, at the same time, one of 
the judges. — Eds. 



My Lord, — I was very unhappy to be confined under 
the sorrowes of a cruell sicknes at that tyme when (with 
the rest of the country) I should have joyed for your 
Excellencye's soe seasonable arrivall at yo r Province of 
New- York, where your presence has allready made glad 
the hearts of all good men and yo r justice covered his 
Majesty e's subjects from ruin and oppression. Your Ex- 
cellencye's conduct thus far fills every habitation with 
joy, and wish to be under the influence of your justice. 
And this Government has a just sense of their honour 
and advantage by your Excellencye's station soe nere 
them, and pray your Excellency to accept of their hearty 
congratulations for your entrance into your Government, 
which has very long mourned for yo r Excellencye's ab- 
sence. My Lord, I have the hon r of yo r Excellencye's let- 
ter of the 13- instant and therewith a Proclamation to 
apprehend M r Weaver, late Collector & Keceiver-Gen- for 
the Province of New- York, but twas not in my power to 
issue forth a Proclamation such as your Excellency sent 
to me, my Council not being here at that tyme ; but have 
given warrants to the high sheriff & to the sheriffs of 
y e severall countyes, constables &c, to apprehend the said 
Weaver, and haue directed coppyes of yo r Proclamation for 
their encouragement ; and they cannot possibly miss him if 
he be within this Government. We are all mourning for 
the death of the late King William of glorious memory, 
and the bereavement to the world can noe other wayes be 
made up but by the accession of the most illustrious & 
excellent Princes Anne to the throne of hir royall ances- 
tors. I wish to your Excellency succes and hapines in all 
your administrations, and shall be very happ} 7 to serve 
your Excellency upon any occations, and am, my Lord, 
Yo r Excellencye's most faythfull humble Servant, 

New-London, June 24 th 1702. 

1702.] JOSEPH DUDLEY. 101 


Boston, July 6* 1702. 
S R , — Since my arrival in the quality of Governour of 
this Province I have been addrest by several the in- 
habitants of Enfield and Sufneld, villages belonging to 
and under this Government, complaining that they are 
threatned and injured and obstructed in their affairs by 
the people of the near parts of Connecticot Colony, upon 
pretence of the line dividing the two Governments. I 
am sensible, having been heretofore concerned in that 
matter, that the Colony of Connecticot is bounded upon 
the Massachusetts line, and how far that has been for- 
merly settled, and what has obstructed or jogged that 
matter so far as to make it a new controversy, is not so 
proper for me to enter upon, being always to be deter- 
mined by the Crown of England, upon which the Planta- 
tions must all depend for decision in those cases where 
they cannot be otherwise justly agreed. I shall be glad 
to have the records and papers and returns in that mat- 
ters lookt upon and calmly considered when there is a 
leisure for it, and shall only desire that her Ma^ 8 subjects 
on both sides the line be directed to keep the peace and 
to use no manner of threats or violences to each other 
until the whole affair may be opened and properly deter- 
mined, especially at this time when we have opportunitye 
enough to spend our courage upon the publick enemy, 
and had need to conciliate every thing to the strictest 
rules of friendship & correspondence. I have communi- 
cated this letter to the gentlemen of her Ma tys Council, 
and they are of opinion with me that the least disturb- 

* Governor of Massachusetts from 1702 to 1715. He was the son of Governor Thomas 
Dudley, by his second wife, in his old age, and was born in Roxbury, July 23, 1647, and died 
there April 2, 1720. His quarrel with the Mathers is one of the most famous episodes in our 
provincial histor}-. He was a man of marked ability, but sometimes unscrupulous; and 
his character has been drawn bv most of our historians in the darkest colors. — Eds. 


ance at this time is improper and will reflect upon the 
aggressors whosoever. I am S r 

Your very humble servant, J. Dudley. 

Gov r . Wmthrop. 


For the Honorable the Gouemer, these. 

S% — Your Hon" letter w th a copie of the Earl of 
Nottinghams, as also the Proclamation, we receiued this 
morning, and according to your comands it has been 
read publiquely by beat of drum and posted to New 
Hauen w^ out delay. We shall be alwayes ready to put 
your Hon" comands in execution for her Maj tyes seruice 
and the safety of her subjects. S r please to accept the 
offer of our humble seruice. We heartily desire your 
prosperitie ; this is what I am comanded by the gentle- 
men here. I am S? 

Your Honours most obedient seruant, 

Will: Whiting. 

Hartford, July the 6 th 1702. 

S R — Your Proclamation respecting M r Weeuer we also 
receiued, w th the precept to the High Sheriff, on Saterday 
night and shall be carefull to put in execution as occasion 
shall offer. 

By order of the gentlemen, Will : Whiting. 


New London, July 9* h 1702. 
S R , — I haue your Excellencye's letter of the 6 1 ! 1 in- 
stant relateing to injuryes offered to the inhabitants of 
Enfeild and Suffeild by some of this Government. I 

1702.] WILLIAM PENN. 103 

doubt the line dividing the two Govern mts being unsetled 
may occation some provocations to each other, w ch makes 
it absolutely necessary for her Maj". 68 service and the 
peace and welfare of the Plantations thereabout, to put 
that matter out of doubt. I was in great hope that the 
late indevors & survey made by M r Tayler, on behalf of 
your Province, and some gentlemen of this Government, 
would haue facillitated that matter of the boundes to a 
good & spedy issue, but now your Excellency is arrived 
it may giue new life to all action, and this matter (too 
long delayed) may now be spedely setled, and noe thing 
will be wanting on our part to contribute to it. I will 
spedely coihunicate your letter to the gentlemen of her 
Majestye's Council here, who will be very tender of the 
welfare of those villages and not suffer them to be in- 
juryed nor permit their people to be aggressors, but will 
intirely preserue the strictest rules of freindship and 
correspondence with their neighbors. I haue only to 
add farther my congratulations for your safe arrivall, 
and am 

Your Excellencyes humble Servant, 

Gov! Dudley. 


London, 27 1 1702. 

Honored Friend, — As thy good opinion of Couns er 
Whartons abilitys lead me first to entertain the same of 
him,t so seeing the unspeakable mallice of some people 
agst proprietary goverm* 8 without rhime or reason, and 
observeing how accurately well he has serv'd me in our 

* Two other letters from William Perm to Fitz-John Winthrop were communicated to 
the Society by the Hon. R. C. Winthrop in 1871, and are printed in Proceedings, XII 42, 
43. This one has since come to light. — Eds. 

t William Wharton, son of Richard Wharton of Boston. See p. 467, post. — Eds. 


common points, & that lawyers of the first ranck have 
applawed the hints he has given them in our American 
affaires, I think I can run no hazard to recommend him 
to you of that go verm* as a solicitor, w ch the Lords of 
Carolina as well as I think to do, and I hope we shall be 
very well serv'd ; for as he has a genius & knowledge 
better turn d that way than any body I know, and has be- 
fore the Atturny Gen 11 & Counsell! Dod shown it in my 
affaires, so he assures me of an intire dedication of his 
time & abilitys to be a master in our business. Pray 
therefore encourage him and you will not only do your 
selves right, but oblige a common frd & serv fc to America 
and therein yours of Conetticot, & perticulerly to Govf 

With much affect. & respect, 

Wm Penn. 


May it please yo? Lordships, — Your Lordship's 
letter of March 19 th last I haue received, directed to the 
Gov r & Company of this Collony, upon the sad occation 
of the death of his late Majesty King William and the 
happy accession of the high & mighty Princess Anne to 
the throne of her royall ancestors. Allsoe the order 
of her Majestye's most Hon ble Privy Council for proclame- 
iug her Majesty, which hath been sollemnly attended and 
performed by us in the most proper parts of this her Maj- 
estye's Collony of Conecticot. And as the inhabitants 
thereof haue universally acknowledged her Majesty to 
be their lawfull and rightfull Soveraigne Lady, soe they 
are well perswaded and confident of her Majestye's gra- 
tious care & protection of them, as is mentioned in your 
Lordships letter, and wee shall continually excite all her 


Maj**?' 8 subjects of this Collony to demeane themselves 
good & loyall subjects, and in prosecution of the warr 
against France & Spaine wee will doe all acts of hos- 
tility against them as wee haue opportunety, and will 
doe what wee are able to secure her Majestye's intrest 
& our selves in this Government. Our distance from 
Boston, above one hundred miles, and the ships being 
ready to saile, of which I had noe account till this day, 
makes it impossible to lay before your Lordships at this 
tyme such representations as would conduce to her Maj- 
estyes service and the preservation of this Collony. Wee 
hope incessantly for yoy Lordships' favour to us and yo r 
favourable representation of us to her Majesty, w c . h will 
greatly encourage & strengthen us at this tyme of warr ; 
assuring your Lordships what ever evil reports are ma- 
liciously made against us, we doe not deserue them, nor 
haue wee in the least suffered any breach of the Acts of 
Trade and Navigation. I must present to your Lordships 
that since my returne from waiting upon his late Majesty 
in behalf of this Collony in the yeare 1697, when I had 
the honf to be knowne to some of y r Lordships, the 
people haue continued the Government in my handes, 
w ch I hope is not unacceptable to yoT Lordships ; and as 
I did what was proper in my station for his late Majes- 
tye's intrest, soe I doe assure your Lordships I will omit 
noething, whilst the Government is in my handes, that 
may conduce to her Majestye's service & the prosperity 
of the Government. I beg your Lordships' favour that 
I may be accepted, my Lords, 

Your Lordships' most faythfull humble Serv* 


Collony of Conecticot, New London July 29 th 1702. 
The Lords Comission? of the Council of Trade. 




Saybrook, July 29 th 1702. 

S R , — Since my answer to yo r Exelency's letter bear- 
ing date July 6 th 1702 : I haue communicated y e same to 
her Maj ty 's Councill in this Colony, and the severall papers 
& records relateing to the line betwen your Province 
& this Colony were considered, and wee find that our 
Gen 11 Assembly in May, 1700, did delegate & appoint 
Commissio 1 " 8 for the settlement of the bounds betwene us & 
fully impowre them for that work, which Commissio" did 
with speed apply themselves to the Great & Gen tt Assem- 
bly of the Massachusetts Province, for the performance of 
the work committed to them. After severall debates 
had & proposals made in order to an agrement vpon the 
bounds betwen that Prouince & this Colony, as may ap- 
pear by y e records of yo r Goverment, the result whereof 
is conteined in an act of yo r Great & Gen 9 Assembly, bear- 
ing date June 21: 1700, viz: that meet persons should be 
appointed by his Exelency Richard, Earl of Bellomont, 
& Councill, to endeuour the finding out the southermost 
part of Charles Riuer, and of any & euery part thereof, 
as also to find the southermost line of the late Colony 
of the Massachusetts Bay, as anciently run by Nath tt 
Woodward & Soloman Saffary, & make report thereof to 
the Gen" Assembly of that Prouince. Upon which act Coll 
Hutchinson, M r Tayler, M r Anthrum & M r Prout were 
appointed to attend y fc serviss, y r Secretary, about y e be- 
gining of Aprille last, by order of her Maj'? 8 Councill in 
the Massachusetts Prouince, signifiing to us that with 
much paines & expence sutable instruments were pro- 
uided, and the Councill intended to send their artists in 
the begining of May, and that our Goverm 4 send some 
Gent? to try the instruments. Upon which information the 
persons commissionated were sent to attend that work, 
viz : William Pitkin Esq r & Cap* William Whiting, with an 

1702.] FITZ-JOHtf WINTHROP. 107 

artist M r Caleb Stanley, who, with M r Tayler appointed 
by the Councill of that Prouince, sett vpon that work the 
begining of May, as appears by their returne to this Gov- 
erm*, the same returne (probably) being made to yo r 
Goverm', according to the fore-recited act; by which it 
appears that the supposd line formerly run by your 
selves was erronious, which, with the tryall made by M r 
Butcher & Capt William Whiting (a coppy of which was 
sent to your Goverm 1 ), is fully satisfactory to vs, that the 
line runs some miles to the northward of John Bisswell's 
house, the place mentioned by M r Woodward & M r Saf- 
fary ; & wee expected, vpon M r Taylers returne presented 
to y r Goverm', meet persons would haue been appointed 
by yo r selves to haue measured the distance in lattitude' 
betwen Bisswell's house & thre mile to y e southward of 
the southernmost part of Charles River & haue sett & 
fixed sufficient boundaries which might haue been a 
peaceable, just & finall issue of that controversy ; & wee 
desire may be yett done the first conveniency, or reasons 
giuen why it should not, that the inhabitants on each 
side the line may be settled in peace & quiet. In the 
mean time the Councill will endeavour that there be no 
disturbance, & what cause of complaint any of your in- 
habitants of Suffield or Enfield haue had by their neigh- 
bours in this Goverm! hath been without the allowance 
or knowledge of the authority here ; and as our Commis- 
sioners proposed to your Goverm' anno : 1700 that there 
should be a saving of property & townships granted by 
either Goverm*, so we shall redily accommodate that 
matter according to the rules of justis, that no rong be 
done to either towns or perticular persons. The gentle- 
men of the Councill doe all agree in this representation 
to yo r Excellency & desire yo r Excellency's conclusion 
thereupon, that the same be laid before the Gen! 1 Assem- 
bly of this Colony, w c . h convenes at New Haven the 8^ 
day of Octobr next. 



Hon " S r , — Besides my perticuler concerne to heare of 
your welfare, I have longed very much for your letter 
on the state of our affaires recomended to your care, & 
perticulerly that part of it relateing to the Naroganset 
country, w c . h our gentlemen hoped might haue been re- 
solued for us before this tyme; but soe long delay makes 
us doubtful L of your health to prosecute it to the Lords of 
the Council of Trade, in whose handes I left it when I 
came from England. Our last letters from you were in 
May & July, twelue monthes since, to which wee returned 
our answere in Nov b . r following, and among other wright- 
ings there was our defence to the appeal e of M r Hallam, 
w c . h though wee heare by passengers from London that 
our packets went safe & that the case had a hearing be- 
fore the late King & Council, yet wee haue noe account 
from yourself of the issue of that matter, w c . h makes me 
very uneasy and is occation of discourse that you did not 
appeare for us to any advantage in that matter ; but I 
judg of such reports according to the inclinations and 
prejudice of those persons who discourse them here, being 
fully assured of your freindship and love of our intrest, 
tho wee are unhapy to be disapointed of yo r letters. I 
added in that letter of Nov br that the Gen 1 . 1 Assembly had 
ordered one hundred pounds to be remitted to you, but 
becaues it was difficult to procure Bills of Exchange I 
proposed to you to take vp that sum of the Corporation 
and charge a Bill vpon the Collony here and it would be 
paid, which I thought would be the best & safest way 
for yo r self; but I am not without hope that your letters 
are on the way to us & then wee shall haue ace* of this 
& all other matters. I heare of the ships sayling from 
Boston but this day, and haueing received letters from 
the Lords of the Council of Trade and from the Earles 
of Nottingham & Manchester, her Majestyes principall 

1702.] FITZ-JOHN* WINTHROP. 109 

Secretaryes of State, signefying the warr with France & 
Spaine & that wee should be in a posture of defence for 
securety &e, I am extreemely hurried to returne a short 
letter to their Lordships, intreating yo r favour to de- 
liver them & make excuse in my behalf and that you will 
set me right in their good opinion & favour. This tyme 
of war will make all opportunetyes difficult for our let- 
ters to you, but noe opportunety shall be omitted. It is 
impossible to add farther of any busines but my most 
affectionate salutations to yourself, wishing to you the 
ever ease of health and hapines, and am 

Yo r most faythfull humble serv', J: W. 

Collony of Conecticot, New-London, July 29* h , 1702. 
ST Henery Ashhurst. 


Mat it please to? Lordship, — I haue the hon r to 
receive your Lordship's letter of the 18 th of Aprill last, 
w c . h I haue comunicated to the gentlemen of her Majes- 
tye's Council here, who haue a deape sence of your Lord- 
ship's obligeing expressions of favour to the intrest of this 
Government and cannot be more happy then under your 
Lordship's patronage and favour. The necessary repre- 
sentation to yo r Lordship of the affaires of this Govern- 
ment cannot fully be presented to your Lordship at this 
tyme, the ships being ready to saile from Boston, one 
hundred miles distant from this place, of w c . h I haue an 
ace* but this day, and it will be difficult for the post to 
overtake the opportunety for this letter to yo r Lordship. 
Your Lordship's permision in your favourable letter will 

* Charles Montagu, 4th Earl of Manchester, was appointed Secretary of State a few 
weeks before the death of William III., and continued in office for a short time under 
Queen Anne. — Eds. 


countinance vs to giue your Lordship the account at all 
tymes of what may be found necessary for her Majestye's 
service and the growth & welfare of this Government, 
and noething can conduce more to our advantage then 
your Lordship's favourable representation of vs for the 
continuance of her Majestye's grace & favour, and for 
our libertyes and priviliges soe graciously granted to vs 
by her Majestye's royall predicessors. My Lord, I must 
present to your Lordship that since my returne from wait- 
ing vpon his late Majesty in behalf of this Collony, in 
the yeare 1697, the people haue put the government into 
my handes, wherein I haue done my duty to his late 
Maj:, and soe long as I am continued therein I shall to 
the utmost of my power promote her Maj : intrest & the 
welfare & prosperity of the Government, and your Lord- 
ship's intimations to us will contribute very much there- 
unto. I beg your Lordship's favour & good opinion 
and am, my Lord, 

Yo r Lordship's most faythfull humble serv*, 

J: Winthrop. 

Collony of Conecticot, New London July 29* h 1702. 
The Earle of Manchester. 


May it please your Lordship, — I haue received 
your Lordship's letter of May the 7 th last, which I haue 
comunicated to her Majestye's Council here ; allsoe her 
Majestye's Proclamation of Warr against France and 
Spaine, which according to her Maj tyes coinandes signifyed 
to us in your Lordship's letter hath been duly published 

* Daniel Finch, 2d Earl of Nottingham, was made one of the Secretaries of State shortly 
after the accession of Anne, when, through the influence of the Duke of Marlborough, she 
threw herself wholly into the hands of the Tories. — Eds. 


throughout this her Majestye's Collony of Conecticot, and 
all persons will take notice thereof and doe and execute 
in the prosecution of this warr all acts of hostility against 
France and Spaine, and will hold noe manner of corre- 
spondence or comunication with them or their subjects. 
My Lord, I am very unhappy to be confined to this short 
account to your Lordship ; her Majestye's service and 
the welfare of her loyall subjects of this Government 
does necessarily require a more full representation to 
your Lordship then can possibly be attained at this tyme, 
haueing notice of the ships sayling from Boston (a 100 
miles distant from this place) but this day, and am doubt- 
full the post will not be there in tyme to deliver this 
letter. I can onely add farther our most gratefull ac- 
knowledgment of your Lordship's favour to us, which wee 
pray your Lordship to continue and will conduce very 
much to the welfare & prosperity of this Government. 
My Lord, after my returne from waiting vpon his late 
Majesty in behalf of this Government, in the yeare 1697, 
with his Majestye's letters and from the Lords Comis- 
sioners of the Council of Trade, the people of this Collony 
put the government into my handes, and whilst I am 
continued therein I shall to the utmost of my power 
promote her Majestye's intrest and the growth and 
prosperity of the country. I shall be very happy to 
be preserved in your Lordships good grace & favour 
and am, my Lord, 

Your Lordships most faythfull humble Serv*, 


Collony of Conecticot, New-London July 29* h 1702. 

The Earle of Nottingham. 



To M .Richl Christophers, Cap*. Benj. Simply, Cap*. John Prents, M r 
John Edgcomb, Liu 1 . John Christophers 8? Ensigne John Hough, 
Greeting : 

Whereas the Gen 11 Assembly of this Collony haueing 
recomended to my care & management the reparation 
of the fort at New London, and it being now a tyme of 
war w ch calls for a present survey & reparation of the 
said fort for the defence of the towne and a guard to our 
coasting & other vessells, I doe therefore appoint and 
impower yourselves to be a Comitte to repair and put 
into a posture of defence the said fort, according to your 
best skill & discretion. Wherein you may advance to 
the vallew of forty hue poundes currant pay of this Col- 
lony, and Cap fc Prents haueing informed me that he has 
allready brought to the said fort severall loades of stone 
and timber, in order to the said reparation, of which he 
must giue you a perticuler ace*, and then the charge may 
be paid out of the said forty fiue poundes ; and you are to 
signefy to me from tyme to tyme your procedings therein 
as you haue occation & giue me a perticuler ace? of yof 
disbursment of said forty fiue poundes, to be laid before 
the next Gen 11 Assembly. Given at New London this 
30 th of July 1702, in the first yeare of her Majestye's 

J: W. Gov*. 



[Oct. 1702?] 

Tins is the first session of the Gen" Assembly since 
wee haue been acquainted with the death of our great 

* This is apparently the rough draft of an address to the General Assembly, on the 
opening of the Session Oct. 8, 1702, — King William III. having died in March of that 
year — Eds. 


and glorious King, under whose favour & protection wee 
haue long enjoyed our happy libertyes and priviliges, and 
I could not before now publickly condole with you for soe 
great a loss, — a berevement soe great, not only to us in 
this wildernes but to all the Protestant intrest, that it 
could noe way be made up but by the accession of the 
high & mighty Princess Anna to the throne of her 
royall ancestors, whose princely virtues and zeale for 
the Protestant religion is conspicuous to all the Christian 
world, and under her Government wee hope to haue 
many happy yeares ; & her Maj: has been pleased all- 
ready to give us assurances of her royall grace & favour, 
signefyed to us by the Eight Hon b ! e the Lords Comisson? 
of the Council of Trade and by her Maj: principall Secre- 
tary es of State, w c . h should oblige us to ad res her Maj : 
with all dutyfull expressions of gratitude. I must observe 
to you that by an extraordinary Providence wee are yet 
in peace & safety whilst wee are surrounded with a ter- 
rible war on all handes, w c . h should minde us to put our 
selves into a better posture of defence for the safety of 
her Maj: subjects against the approching spring, when 
wee may reasonably expect to be alarmed in all our quar- 
ters. I must farther observe to you that our Militia (the 
defence of our Government) is greatly wanting of armes 
&c. and I wish that defect were redrest & that a certaine 
number of armes &c. could be procured for a gen 1 ! Mag- 
azene, w c . h would tend to the safety & reputation of the 
Government. I haue recomended to suffitient persons 
the reparation of the fort at Say-Brook, which I hope will 
answere your expectation and the mony you haue given 
for that service. The fort at New-London I hope is in a 
condition to receive any ordinary force that shall adven- 
ture against it, and I haue put it into the handes of the 
ablest persons there for farther reparation according to 
the mony you have given for it. 




New York, 9 th November 1702. 

Sir, — When I went to visitt the northern frontiers of 
this Province I found them in a most miserable condition, 
in no manner capable of making any manner of defence 
in case they should be attacked by the French of Canada. 
I have allready begun a fort at Albany with the assist- 
ance of the two thousand pounds given by her late May- 
tie towards the erecting such forts and fortifications as 
should be necessary for the defence of the frontiers, and 
finding by my instructions that I am comanded to apply 
myself to the Governo rs of the severall Colonies upon this 
continent for the severall funds appointed to be furnished 
by the said Colonies respectively towards the said fortifi- 
cations, I therefore trouble you with this letter, earnestly 
to entreat you that upon this exigency the sume ap- 
pointed to be furnished by the Colony under your Gover- 
ment, which I find to be four hundred and fifty pounds 
ster, may be remitted hither by the very beginning of the 
spring, and I do not question but by the help of that and 
the quotas to be furnished by the other Colonies I shall 
put the frontiers into such a posture as not to fear any 
attempt the French can be able to make ; but that on the 
contrary we may be able, if requisite, to attack them ; 
but if not timely supply ed, our frontiers must still remain 
exposed to the insults and invasions of the French, which 
may prove of fatal consequence not only to this Colony 
but to the whole continent. 

I am, S r , your very humble Servant, 




New-London, Nov. 25 th 1702. 

My Lord, — Your Excellency's letter of the 9*? in- 
stant relateing to the quota of mony recomended to us 
by the late King to raise towards erecting fortifications 
for the defence of the frontiers of New York, I haue com- 
unicated to the Council here. The Gen 1 . 1 Assembly, who 
convened at New Hauen October last, was dissolued but a 
litle before the date of yo r Excellencye's letter, w c . h un- 
avoydably prevents a present consideration of raiseing the 
sum mentioned therein, w c ? otherwise might haue been ; 
and the gentlemen of the Council considering that the 
season for collecting rates in this Collony, w c . h are all- 
waise levyed in grane and such provition as the Coun- 
try produceth, is soe far spent & that the Gen! 1 Assembly 
onely haue power to raise mony, doe all agree that yo T . 
Excellencye's letter be laide before the next session of 
the Gen! 1 Assembly, and I shall carefully recofnend it to 
them and doe all that lyes in my power to quicken them 
to the needfull expedition therein, that it may be ready 
as soone as the quotaes to be furnished by the other Col- 
lonyes vpon the same occation. I pray yo r Exc 11 / to beleive 
my readines to promote her Maj : service in my present 
station, wherein nothing shall be wanting that is in my 
power, & to assure yo r Exc Uy of my zeale to yof service, 
and am my Lord, 

Yo r Exc 1,ys most faythfull humble Serv', J: W. 


N: York, 29 Decem br 1702. 

Hon bi : e S R , — I would have ere now answerd y r kind 
letter if I had not been in hopes that I should speedily at 
y e same time give you an account y* I had wrestled throu 


my difficulties ; but after all, I beleeve I shall have no 
releeffe here. I have had 6 of y e principall merchants 
and best accountants of this Province to audite my ac- 
counts, whose report I send inclosed. That is not suffi- 
cient; but y e Councill or a Committee of 3 of y™ must 
audite all out again, who are persons unacquainted with 
figures & but 2 living in town, & tho that order was made 
y e first instant, could never gett them together but once 
in an evening. So y* I see plainly its to delay me & 
weary me out, they not being designd to part with any 
money, knowing that as soon I have my quietus I will 
then make my demands ; but since I have staid so long I 
am resolv'd to see y e issue, whether they will doe it or 
not, because I may have y e better plea if I should be 
oblig'd to visit Whitehall again. I have shewd my L d my 
ace*, but I cannot perceive he is inclined to part with any 
money, it being alleadg'd y e revenue is not sufficient to 
support y e Govrnm*, & y e charge of late is considerably 
increased. S r you may be assured if our Govf had been 
designd to visite y r Governm* I would have given y u an 
ace* j he will be with y" next summer, after he has visited 
Albany and Long Island, & its alleadg'd he putts in for 
y r Governm* & is not satisfied with y e militia, & he is 
partly assured of y e Jerseys ; but without dispute your 
Collony has taken care with this alteration at home to 
secure y r selfs. Y e common talk is here as if y r self 
were designd for England, to prevent any innovations & 
manage y e affairs of y fc Collony ; should such an oppor- 
tunity present it would tempt me to goe, but I beleeve if 
there was any such design I should hear of it. My Lord 
is fallen into y e hands of those who are strangers to y e 
wellmanagem*. of our affairs & who greedily pursue their 
own intrest, & I fear he will find it so when its too late. 
We are now sending up 80 men detachd from y e coun- 
ties to Albany in a sloop as far as they can goe, y e rest 
they must march ; but I shall say no more, y u will have 


an ace* by travellers of all our affairs. I am much 
greeved y fc our son should have been at y e pains to goe to 
our parts in such a season & I not see him ; but if I had 
left y e pursute, they would have been ready to accuse me 
of negligence, & so I will continue waiting this winter to 
bring my matters to a period ; for altho y e act made by 
y e pretended Assembly for y e confiscation of my estate 
be repealed by this last Assembly, yet y e proceedings 
had thereupon are not repealed, & an office being found 
& a return made by y e jury for my houses here in N: 
Yorke, nothing but a release upon record can restore me. 
For tho it is not probable we may have y e same govrnm* 
again, yet we may have a worse ; in reguard our sinns 
increase, by consequence our plagues must also, for we 
are now more profane & wicked then ever, y t I am some- 
times of y e thought if I could sell what I have I would 
leave y e Govrnm*. Nothing but malice, envy, deceit & 
all sorts of wickednesse & profanity rages in this place ; I 
pray God turn their hearts & shew them y e evill of their 
ways. Now S? as I have great reason to beg pardon for 
my long silence, so I may now likewise for my prolixity, 
& therefore shall conclude with an assurance y*, as soon 
as I am extricat d out of my difficulties, I will to y e utmost 
of my powr doe for our son to putt him in a way to live 
in the world, w h at present by y e malice of evill men I am 
depriv'd of. Nay, they are ready to goe mad because 
they cannot find any flaw or y e least mistake in my ac- 
counts, but I leave them to their malice, & hope y* God 
will deliver me from them. Pray give my hearty salu- 
tations to y r lady & love to our daughter. I remain 
Hon ble S r , 

Your most faithfull humble Servant, 

Kob t Livingston. 

118 THE WINTHROP PAPERS. [1702-3. 


Piscataqr. 18 January, 170f. 

Honorable S r , — I have been here ten dayes with the 
Indian sachems of the East as far as Penobscot, and they 
are gone hence with good inclinations, I think to be sure, 
with all possible promises of freindship, and I beleive the 
French will not easily get them out of my hands. The 
last post I had a letter from Quabaug, and another from 
Woodstock this evening, telling of mee that at both those 
places an English man has been shot at by an Indian. 
They must be some few straggling rouges that would 
fayn set all in a flame, which I have prevented now by 
assigning bounds to the Indians which they have submit- 
ted to and strictly kept, and I judge it best that you will 
restrayn your Moheegs &c, that at present while we ex- 
pect French Indians in the woods they keep very near 
home, and if it were possible to improve any one of them 
to assist in persuading those stragglers to come in, they 
shall have all possible freindship from mee and settle 
where they choose. I have given them this notice and 
perhaps if they had it from you, they might beleive us 
together. I would by no means have the Moheegs seen 
at Woodstock ; a late quarrell there amongst the poor 
people may revive a worse mischeife. 

I am Sf your very humble servant, 

J. Dudley. 


John Winthrop, Esq r , Executor of the last will & testa- 
ment of John Leveen, late of New-London, offers to the 
Hon . 1 Prerogative Court now sitting in New-London the 
17 th day of Feb r Anno Dom: 170|, to receive & examine 

1702-3.] SIR HENRY ASHURST. 119 

such evidences as are produced before them relating to 
the contest of the s d last will, and doth declare that he 
never did, directly or indirectly, give or pay any money, 
or any other thing, arising by his improvement of any 
part of s d testator's estate, to any other person but to 
M r Gurdon Saltonstall, minister of the town of New Lon- 
don, for his own use. What the s d M r Gurdon Salton- 
stall hath done with the s d money, or other things, which 
he hath so rec'd of mee, or how he hath disposed thereof, 
I know not, any otherwise than I have heard the s d M r 
Saltonstall may have given it, or allowed it, or made some 
abatement by reason thereof, in his dealings on accounts 
with the town. Whatsoever he hath seen good to do of 
that nature was done, for aught I can tell, only by his 
own inclination, and he was not by mee obliged to do any 
such thing. And if there be any person who can say 
anything to the contrary of what is above s d , or can say 
that I have given or paid of s d money to the town of 
New London, or to the order of s d town, or to any other 
person besides the s d M r Gurdon Saltonstall, I desire that 
he may appear in this Court and make oath if he see 
good thereunto. Dated in New-London this 17 th day of 
February, 170f . 

J: Winthrop. 

To y e Hon rh ' e Col John Winthrop, Gov r of Conecticut, New England. 

London, March [blank] 1702/3. 

Dear S r , — Your letter with your Petition or Address 
to y e late King of glorious memory, and all your papers 
relateing to Hallam's Case, came all safe to my hands. 
Your Address to y e late King I delivered to him in his 
bed chamber with my own hands ; if it had not been for 
a certain person, you had neither been troubled with 


appeals in generall nor with this particular one of Hal- 
lam ; but now there is no remedie. The Councell, since 
y e King's death, have order'd Appeals in all cases from 
all y e Plantations without exception. I have deserved 
well of your country, for there was so many complaints 
against your country in generall that I have at present 
stifled ; but if I had not used an extraordinary diligence 
and ingaged persons I think not safe to name, your cause 
here had been given against ycu. They opened such 
things at y e Councel that made your cause look very 
foul, and all y e affidavits y t you took in y r country after 
y e Appeal was granted, they would not allow to be read, 
because it appear' d to be an examination ex parte. All 
that I could possibly hope for in your case I got granted, 
w ch was this : that at your charge y e whole evidence 
should be reexamined by both parties upon oath, and 
you and they have liberty to cross-examine, and then to 
have all returned back, and then y e Councel here to pass 
their final judgment. They opposed this very vehe- 
mently, urging their vast charges they had been at and 
y e length of time it had been delayed ; so that if you can 
make it a just will, then you are safe, and particularly I 
would advise you to get some plain proof that y e widow 
of y e person y t made y e will did for many years allow it 
to be a good will. I was at considerable charges and 
gave great fees to y e lawyers. I thank you & y e worthy 
members of your Assembly for y e £100 they order'd me. 
Whatever you think fit to allow me in your service, if 
you pay it to him for my use, it will be y e same thing as 
if you returned it me ; I mean my cousen Peter Sergeant, 
Esq r , of Boston. You may be assured of all y e service I 
can do you from time to time. I pray let Hallam's 
agents be present when y e affidavits are made, that they 
may have no pretence y* they were not acquainted with 
them. Col: D: hath got a commission over all y e militia, 
under restrictions not to call out yours when it is neces- 

1702-3.] FITZ-JOHN WINTHROP. 121 

sary for your own preservation. If New England had 
sent an Address to me to not to have had him their 
Governor, he had never come. If you please to give 
me a certain yearly allowance payed at Boston and my 
necessary expenses, w c . h you shall have alwais a particular 
account of to your satisfaction, and I will be as good an 
husband as 1 can, & because I consider you have not 
trade to enrich you, therefore I shall be contented with a 
moderate allowance ; please your self & you will me. 
Two hundred pounds p annum, New English money, 
is all I shall desire for my pains & trouble, w c . h you may 
please to communicate to y e Assembly, and if that be un- 
easie to them I will take less. The Cananite is in your 
land, therefore it requires and concerns you to be exact 
in the administration of your justice, that your enemie 
may have nothing to object against you; but in y e matter 
of your God I shall alwais serve you faithfully & give you 
y e best advice I can. Present my respects and humble 
service to your Assembly. I am, Hon b ! e S* 

Your affectionate & faithfull humble serv*, 

Hen. Ashhurst. 

I have taken out y e order of Councel, w c . h I have here 
inclosed. The Cannaanite being in y e land, you should 
be very cautious not to make any laws repugnent to y e 
laws of England, or if any such are already made, of 
executing them. 


N: Lond: March. 4* h , 170§. 

S R , — I have communicated y r Excellency's proposall 
mentioned in y r letter of '[wan*], for a convoy for the 
coasting vessells from these parts to Boston, to the Coun- 
cill here, who judge it may be of great consequence and 



thankfully embrace it.* I have therefore issued out orders 
for all the vessels now lading for Boston within this Col- 
ony to meet in this port by the latter end of this month, 
and I am informed that ther will be severall vessels here 
by that time. There are some now laden & ready to 
saile, which stay for that oppertunity, and I am impor- 
tuned by severall masters of s d coasters to press y r Excel- 
lency that the convoy may be here & ready to saile by 
the last of this month at the farthest. I have taken y e 
like care that such vessels that cannot get ready for 
y e convoy this month, meet at this port y e latter end of 
the next, and so for the following months, that they may 
take y e advantage of y r Excellency's offer ; who shall not 
be allowed to saile without the s d convoy, if nothing 
should fall out to obstruct yf Excellencys purpose of send- 
ing one. And that there might be no disappointment, I 
have sent the bearer, Sam 1 ! Rogers, on purpose that by 
him at his return, which will be before the next post, I 
may hear from your Excellency and be better able to 
assure our coasters that they may expect the convoy to 
be ready at the times you mention. I haue answered y r 
Excellencys letter from Piscataque relating to y* trouble 
w th ye i n( }i ans a t Woodstock, since w c . h nothing hath occurd 
in those parts worth y r notice. 


Roxbury, 10 l . h March, 170§. 

S R , — I have your letter last night, referring to the 
security of our coasters, and am glad if in any thing 
I may be serviceable to your Government. Captain 

* The war of the Spanish Succession had begun in the spring of 1702, and this proposal 
for a convoy for the protection of the coastwise trade between Connecticut and Massachu- 
setts was no doubt prompted by a fear that the trade might be broken up by French men- 
of-war or privateers. — Eds. 


Southack, our guard sloop, is at Sagadahock, but will be 
in ten dayes heare, when I shall order his cruise towards 
your river. I pray that every body may be ready and I 
will give you notice a day or two before and what his 
signal shall be for their coming out, and then I desire 
they may not delay. I wish you health and am S 

Your very humble servant, J. Dudley. 


N: London, March 13 th 170f. 

Hon bl S R , — Maj r James Fitch & Capt Witherell, on the 
10 th instant, attended the taking of evidences for M r 
Hallam at Cap* Witherells house, where I appeared in 
your Hon r8 behalf & was accepted, after Maj r Fitch had 
swore M r Denison Clerk for the present examination. 
It soon appeared that Maj r Fitch was resolved that the 
examination of the witnesses should be private, upon 
which I offerd in writing the Plea, a copy of w c here 
inclosed, w c remains with the Clerk ; Cap* Withrell de- 
clared his opinion that the parties ought to be present, 
and entred it with his own hand. It being our priviledge 
to be present, I refused to withdraw. Whereupon Maj r 
Fitch gave the inclosed order to the sheriff, who executed 
it as you will find endorsed, and since that I have not 
been near his worship. Thorn, I understand, has taken 
again the oath used in the case at y e Prorogative Court, 
and hath answered honestly & truly to y e questions w c 
I left in y e Clerks hands to be put to him on y r behalfe. 
Cap* Mason hath answered as he saw good, and, as I hear, 
what he saw good not to answer he said was needless, w c 
Maj r Fitch allowed of. Maj r Palmes would not take the 
oath to answer to such questions as should be put to him 
in y e case, but only to make answer to such questions as 
should be put to him by y e appellant, or on his behalf. 

124 THE WINTHROP PAPERS. [1702-3. 

The Clerk refused to give him such an oath, but Maj r 
Fitch hath given it him, so that tho' he is on evidence & 
sworn for the appellant, yet cannot be cross examined 
on y r Hon™ behalf. I cannot be positive what he hath 
sworn, but, as I hear, he hath sworne nothing but what is 
more ag* himself than for or against any body else. Maj r 
Fitch's methods are not understood here, nor are we able 
to understand how he dispense th with his oath. All that 
I hear he says in his defence is that the case is ex- 
traordinary ; and I think the same of his proceedings. I 
thought it needfull to enclose the copies, considering that 
y r Hon r upon y r return through the Colony would have 
oppertunity to make use of them with the gentlemen 
along shore. I beleive it was never conceived that Ap- 
peals should be carried from hence to England without 
either parties being allowed to hear such evidences as 
the other should offer. I think there will be no security 
for any thing we have if such methods be countenanced. 
Last night Sam 11 Kogers returned with a lett r from his 
Exc el Coll Dudley, a copy of which I have inclosed least 
the originall should miscarry. All our other affairs suc- 
ceed well ; the great officers of war in the town, do 
accord most lovingly. I hear Capt Witherell intends 
to introduce his son, w c will be, I beleive, with generall 
approbation. Just now Capt Saunders, y e man of war 
sloop, put in here upon his return from Rhode Island, 
bound as I suppose for N: York, the wind being ag* him. 
Our coaster will be in readiness for the convoy ag* the 
time appointed. The post calls upon me just after our 
meeting, so that I can only add that all at y r Hon rs are 
well and that I am, Hon bl S r , 

Y r most humble S fc , G. Saltonstall. 

I enclose a lett r from y T broth 1 & a news lett r from 
Campbell, w c to gain room w th out its cover, in w c is noth- 
ing but y e offer of y e news. 


Note. — The following is the copy of Plea enclosed in this letter: 

John Wlnthrop Esq! appeared before us this day by G: Saltonstall 
lawfully impowered by him, and pleaded that he might be present at 
the examination of such evidences as should be sworne on the behalf 
of Nicholas Hallam, Appellant, that he might cross examine said 
evidences ; alledging that it never was the custome of any courts 
within this Colony not to allow either partie in a case to be present 
when the wittnesses on each side were produced & examined, and 
therfore prayes that he ma} 7 not be denied the liberty of being present 
at the said examination, bee : his late Majesties order refering to the 
present case did expressly require that justice should be administred 
therin according to the course of the courts in this Colon}'. And 
the said John Winthrop doth farther add that her Majesties order in 
Councill now read before your Worships, relating to the evidences 
now to be taken, requires that the said evidences be regularly taken, 
which as he conceives intends that they should be taken according to 
law; and not only the course of the courts in this Colony, but the 
express law of this Colony (title Wittnesses, page 116) positively 
requires that when affidavits are taken out of court in behalf of any 
party, notification shall be given to the other party, which the said 
law expressly declares shall be given that he may be present at the 
time of taking such evidences ; and it further requires that the Assist- 
ant, or Justice, shall attest the said evidence, and also attest that the 
adverse party was present at the taking of the said evidences, or that 
a notification was sent him that he might be present. Forasmuch 
therfore as his late Majestie's first order relating to the present case 
required the process therin should be according to the course of the 
courts in this Colony, and her Majesties order now before your Wor- 
ships, refering to evidences to be taken in said case within y 8 Colony 
requires that they be regularly taken, — that is, as he supposeth, not in 
a way directly contrary, but according to the laws of this Colony, which 
your Worships, by the Assistants Oath (vide : Formes of Oaths in y e 
Law Book, page 87) are (as he conceives) bound to go by, — he hopes 
your Worships will not den}- him the liberty of being present, since 
he craves it as his lawfull priviledge. 

G. Saltonstall. 

New London, March the 10 th 170§. 

126 THE W1NTHR0P PAPERS. [1703. 

To Major Generall John Winthrop, Gouerner of Connecticot Cottony. 

London, March 25. 1703. 

Honr ed S R , — Y rs of the 29 of July last I haue receved, 
w ch is the sole leter I haue had from you this six months 
at least. I am wonderfully discouraged from writing to 
you, since all my leters miscary, w ch seemeth to mee al- 
most impossable. I haue inclosed in this copies of my 
leters & the papers sent you from the 25 March last to 
the 26 of June, by w c . h you will see I haue not bin negle- 
gent in yo r affaires heer or in giveing you advices what I 
have done ; itt is not my fault if they never come to yo r 
hands. As to the rite to the Narrogansett countrey, I 
told you itt was the advice of the best freinds I have to 
let itt sleep. As to all yo r buissnes in reference to Hal- 
lam, it will appear by the great charge I was att in the 
triall that I haue deserved y e mony you sent mee and 
that 1 drew upon you, and that I did appear strenuously 
in yo r service. Itt is my unhapienes, not my fault, if 
leters come not to you since I appeared befor the Lords 
of the Traid to defend you agenst a charter of incorpora- 
tion under pretence of bringing naval stores, that would 
be ruinous to yo r countrey. As to the 100 1 you men- 
tiond to be remitted to mee, I hope you have paid my bill 
to M r Sergeant of 250 1 , w ch will inable mee to goe on lay- 
ing out mony & appearing in yo r behalfe upon all occations. 
I did with my own hand deliver yo r leters to my Lord 
Nottingham. My Lord Manchester was out of the Secre- 
tary's office, and so I delivered his to S r Charles Hedges, 
and you may be suer I will allwaise atend yo r service to 
the utmost of my power, and vpon every occation make 
itt appear how much I am 

Yo! affect freind & faithfull humble Se? 

Hen. Ashhurst. 

1703.] JOSEPH DUDLEY. 127 


Boston, April. 11* 1703. 
Hono b " S R . S , — I have this day received the complaint 
of the Selectmen of Enfield, one of the towns within this 
Her Maj^ 8 Province, that some of their inhabitants have 
been lately apprehended within their own town by the 
Constable of Windsor, assisted with five or six men, and 
forceably carryed to Windsor before a Justice of Peace, 
and bound over to the County Court at Hartford to an- 
swer for getting of turpentine within their own town 
bounds. Which complaint I have communicated to her 
Majesties Council, who have a like resentm* with my selfe 
of the said irregular action, and account it a wonderful, 
strange and unwarrantable proceeding, especially after 
matters have been concerted between the two Govern- 
ments by mutual stipulation not to give any molestation 
or disturbance to the inhabitants of the one or other Gov- 
ernment upon any claim or pretence of jurisdiction. I 
have accordingly commanded the persons so bound over 
not to appear at the said court, which this Government 
will vindicate them in. It is the more unkind to revive 
any quarrel upon that head at a time when we are in- 
volved in a war and put upon such difficulties and charge 
for the defence of her Maj^ s subjects and interests, and 
particularly for securing the estates of your people in 
giveing convoy to your vessells. I justly expect you for- 
bear any further proceeding in this matter, and that the 
Queen's subjects be in peace. 

I am Gent" your humble Servant, 

J. Dudley. 

Governor & Council of Connecticott. 

128 THE WINTI1R0P PAPERS. [1703. 


For the Hono hl ? Collonell Winthrop, Govvernor of her Majesty's Gollony of 
Connecticut, in New England. 

New York, April the 6 th 1703. 

S B , — I make use of this opportunity to return you 
thanks for the kind visit you lately favourd me with in this 
place, and to assure you that if there is any thing in which 
I may be serviceable to you I shall be ready to doe it on 
all occasions. About three or four days agoe, severall of 
the Long Island Indians came to me and told me that an 
old sachem, whose name was Sceawekkan, had formerly 
delivered to your father, about 30 or 40 years agoe, a will 
or writing concerning land at Nisiquaak, which will or 
writing was left with your father in trust for that sachem's 
children ; and they now desire that you would let them 
have either the writing its self, or a true copy of it, at- 
tested by you ; this favour 1 intreat of you, and that you 
would send it by this bearer. I should not trouble you 
upon this subject, were it not that there is like to be 
some dispute about that land. I herewith likewise send 
you a letter from the Lords of Trade and Plantations ; I 
suppose it is to appoint a day of Thanksgiving for the 
great successes it has pleased Almighty God to blesse the 
arms of her Majesty and her allyes with this last sum- 
mer. I ask your pardon for this trouble and remain 
Your very humble servant, 



To the Honorable John Winthrop, Esq r . Govemour of her Ma ty . s Colony of 


Boston, 1 May, 1703. 

S R , — An accidentall mischeif amongst the Indians at 
Panobscot has forced mee to send Captain Southack 

1703.] JOSEPH DUDLEY. 129 

thither, which prevents his being at your harbours mouth 
at this time, and the Gospin frigot is newly arrived witli 
out a mayn mast, but is very busy fitting and will be at 
sea within seven dayes, and I shall direct her to receive 
your coasters vnless Southack return in the mean time, 
and he shall then come to your dore. In the mean time 
I desire you will please to advise mee what number of 
vessells you have with you and to dispose them to be 
under Goverment, that wee may not feed our enemyes 
with the victualls that we may want for our freinds in 
the West Indies. 

I am S r your very humble servant, 

J. Dudley. 


For her Ma tys Service, To the Honorable John Winthrop Esq r . Govern*, of 
her Maj tys Colony of Connecticott, Hartford. To be opened by Cap*? 
Nath. Standley Esq r in the Gov™ absence. 

Boston, 27 May 1703. 

S*, — My Lord Cornbury gives mee notice that there 
is a party of French and Indians, I suppose near one 
hundred, may be expected every day at Deerfeild and 
upon that river. I have given the officers there notice 
to be in readiness and to scout and range for a discovery. 
You are our next neighbours and our waters we drink of 
there are the same. I have directed them to express to 
Hartford to give notice of the enemy at any time and 
shall be very glad if you please to order your vpper 
towns, Hattfield and Windsor, that they may assist them 
with a party of dragoons, or musketiers on horse back, 
for their security. I am sure you are very sensible of the 
comon benefit, and I pray that, considering your distance, 
you will please for the expedition of the service to direct 
a propper officer in one of those towns that may be in 



a readiness. I hope I shall keep the Eastern Indians 
steady, tho' they are very hard prest by the Jesuites and 
French officers. I shall be there soon and let you know 
their posture at my return. I heartily wish you health 
and am S' your very humble servant, 

J. Dudley. 


New London, June 9** 1703. 

My Lord, — I have the hon r of yo r Excellencyes letter 
of May 4 th by M r Sacket, but deferred my answer till my 
returne hither from the Gen 1 . 1 Assembly, hopeing I might 
be able to give yo r Excellency some ace* of that will or 
wrighting mentioned to have been left with my father in 
trust for the children of a sachem at Nisiquaack ; but my 
brother informes me that he can not finde any such 
wrightings among our papers. And, upon farther con- 
sideration, I remember I was waiting upon my father at 
one tyme of his being on Long Island, but can not recolect 
anything of such a wrighting ; and have lately discourst 
with a gentleman that was in company with my father at 
the same tyme, but he can give noe ace' relateing to that 
matter. If the Indians could remember any person of 
Long Island that was in company at that tyme, it might 
help to bring something farther to memory about it. I 
will still be enquiring after it, & if it comes to hand, it 
shall be carefully presented to yo r Excellency. My Lord, 
contrary to my intentions when I went up to meete the 
Gen 11 Assembly, I am under obligations to serve this Gov- 
ernment a little tyme longer, & shall be very hapy to 
serve yo r Excellency in my station & very much hon r . d 
with y r freindship & good neighborhood. I have a letter 
from Gov r Dudley & your Excellencyes notice to him of 
a party of French & Indians designed to fall upon Deere- 


field, and desires our assistance to secure his frontire 
townes. It would have been a great hon r & advantage if 
yo r Excellency had pleased that wee might have had the 
least intimation of that danger, this Government being a 
frontire as much exposed as any. I am, my Lord, 
Yo r Excellencyes most faythfull humble Serv*, 

J: W. 
The Lord Cornbury. 


S R , — I have yo r Excellencye's letter of May 27* and 
the Lord Cornburye's notice of a party of French & Indi- 
ans may be expected to fall vpon Deerefeild. It seemes 
a bold attempt at this tyme, when they cannot reasonably 
expect any releif from Quebeck to sustaine such an enter- 
prise soe remote & hazardous, but tis best to have an eye 
upon them, and the directions allready given to your offi- 
cers in those frontire townes will put them into a good 
posture & they will not easely be surprised whilst their 
scoutes are rangeing ifi those quarters. I have given 
order that a party of fifty dragoones be ready to march 
upon the least alarm e, who shall scoure the fron tires & 
assist your townes as they shall be able. I hope well of 
the Easterne Indians and their steady resolution of freind- 
ship, w c . h would otherwise at this juncture put a difficulty 
upon us. I am sollicitous of your health & prosperity 

& am S r , 

Yo r very humble Serv* J: W. 

New- London, June 9^ 1703. 

Gov! Dudley. 


For M r John Winthrop, at Boston. 

Deare Cousin, — I thank you for yo r invitation to 
heare the tounges, Hebrew &c, w ch would very much 
tempt me if I were not all over impediment. One is 
written in company herewith, & another is that w ch I 
hoped before now you would have releived out of Good- 
man Glauber now in yo r study. I have aboundance more 
not now to be incerted. I wish you the first of all learn- 
ing & all virtuous accomplishments that may fit you for 
the best advantages. I desire you to waite upon yo r 
aunts & recomend me to them, whom I long very much 
to see, and your sister & cousin Lize & the rest. I will 
not divert yo r thoughts from the 7 of July, but wish you 
happy & applaues in that ceremony, & am 
Yo r affectionate uncle, 

J: Winthrop. 

New-London, June 17. 1703. 

M r Livingston has been gon to Albany about six 
weekes; his father is gon for England. I gaue Mary 
yo r letter & she salutes you, as does everybody elce. 


New York, June the 21 8t 1703. 

Gentlemen, — Your letter of the 13 th of May last from 
Hartford came to my hands on Saturday last, by which 
you signifie to me that my letter of the 9 th of 9^ 1702 
had been considered in your Assembly, and that you had 

* On being invited to attend the Commencement exercises at Harvard College, when 
Wait Winthrop's son John took his Master's degree and delivered a Latin part in support 
of Sir Kenelm Digby's theory that wounds could be cured by the use of a sympathetic 
powder. "Goodman Glauber " refers to the medical works of John Rudolph Glauber, the 
famous German chemist, translated into English by Packe iu 1689. — Eds. 


thought fit to aply to her Maiesty before you proceed far- 
ther upon the subject matter of my letter. I am sorry 
you have not thought fit to comply with her Maiesty's 
directions, when I am sure many of you are very sensible 
not only of the reasonablenesse, but alsoe of the necessity 
of the thing desired. I shall acquaint the Queen with 
your answer, and wait her Maiesty's farther commands. 
I am, Gentlemen, your very humble servant, 

Government of Connecticut. 


N. L. July 15 ,h 1703. 

Hon bl S R , — I communicated your letter to y e Gen 11 
Assembly in May last, with y e other writings you sent 
inclosed, viz : the complaints ag* us w ch you stifled, and 
a memoriall of the Ld s put in to y e House of Com, con- 
cerning our not yielding Appealls ; and y e whole Assem: 
did, with a great sence of the good service you did them 
therein, receive the account you were pleased to send 
me. As for what you mentioned in y or letters relating 
to what, a small consideration the Gov r mt would be will- 
ing to afford you for,y or care about our affairs, tho I 
did myself, with many the most considerable persons 
among us, think it very fit y e Assembly should come to a 
conclusion in y t matter & say w* they would be willing to 
allow, yet there were many who disswaded mee from in- 
sisting upon it at that session for this reason, viz : ther 
were 2 persons, who had formerly been Assistants, Maj r 
James Fitch & Capt Sam 1 } Mason (tho' our Freemen 
drop'd Mason last election, as y y had well nigh done Fitch 
also), who falling in with Maj r Palms & Hallam, do all 
they can to give us all imaginable trouble & destroy our 
Government. To this end they constantly cry out ag* 


my agent in England and say nothing will destroy us 
sooner y n to keep an agent there. If, say they, we had 
no agent in England, we should liv quiet & unobserved. 
This pretence, as false & foolish as it is, yet had been so far 
insinuated into many of our Assembly acquainted with af- 
fairs of y fc nature, that some did openly declare ag* having 
any agent at all ; and to help forward y e design the aforesd 
persons did not spare as much as they could privately to 
calumniate y r self with mee. So y* it was thought (by y e 
most considerate) best to let that motion rest at present, 
not doubting but y 4 as y or demands will be very just, & such 
as may bear proportion to our capacities, so y or ord rs to us 
will be duly complied with, & hope that before y e next 
assembly our pp will have a better understandg of those 
persons whose counsels have so misled them. For y y are 
now with a more open face caryng on y 4 known design. 
Last week, s d Fitch & Mason, Palmer & Hallam met & 
were all consulting together at Rhode Island and, as I 
hear, getting y e seall of y e Govt to severall papers, evi- 
dences & other things to asperse this Government. W ch 
I thought it necessary to give you advice of, tho' I can 
say nothing about y t matter of y r complaints, y y keeping 
y l very private. But let it be what it will, this I must 
assure you, that none of those persons have ever yet 
made known any of their grievances to our Gen 11 Assem- 
bly, y fc y y go about thus privately to complaine of. Had 
they done so, y y would have had no need of taking evi- 
dences at R: I: or getting y e seall of y* Colony to y r papers, 
for our Gen 11 Assembly do alwayes keep on file every 
complaint made toy, with y r own action thereon; w ch y y 
might have had under y e seall of this Colony if they had 
been good to make their complaint here. But since they 
will not, I hope, S r , you will be so kind & just to us, as 
to let her Majesty know that we are wholly ignorant of 
what y y complaine, and I dare say, h d we but timely no- 
tice, should be able to make out that y y have never h d 


any just reason to complaine of the Government, unless 
it be for tolerating them so much as we have in y r mis- 
demeanors. I have sent you herewith a roll of such 
papers as I think will be usefull in my Appeall. And, to 
make y t matter less troublesome to my Councill, I have 
sent you therewith a large lett r in 4 sheets, giving as 
brief and distinct ace* as I could of the whole case, with 
what m particular I would intreat you might be insisted 
upon in opening of y fc case before y e Councill, not doubt- 
ing but y t it will appear that I have done no more than an 
Execute ought to do. These lett™, and ace* therein, you 
will make use of as shall be needfull. I do not know w* 
papers Hallam has gott witnessed & sealed at R: Isla? but 
I suppose, be y y what y y will, y y are so contrary to her 
Majtie's order in y e case, w ch is ag* such private doings 
& gives liberty to both parties to hear & make answer for 
yselves, y fc y y can signifie nothing. For my part, I have 
sent you not one paper w ch was not presented, or acted & 
done, in Court, y e appel fc being present, which I thought 
was most fair and just. The particuler charges that you 
have been at about Hallam's appeall ag* mee, I shall de- 
fray vpon y e recept of y or ordf for it. I do particularly 
add my own thankfullness to you for y or solicitous care 
about our publique concerns, and so doth every knowing 
& honest person among us, and I make no doubt but y fc 
those honest but weake persons among us who have been 
misled by y e craft of y e countries' enemies, will soon be 
undee'd & made to see y*, under y e Divine protection, 
nothing will be more usefull to us y n y or friendship and in- 
terest in appearing for us ; so that there will be a readiness 
to make you all becoming expressions of our gratitude, & 
there shall be nothing wanting for that end in 

Hon bl S% y or most humble Ser', J: W. 

Postscript. I have also herewith sent you copies of all 
y e evidences y e appell* hath produced since his return 


from England, so y 4 1 might cross-examine them, viz : y e 
evidences of Danll Mason, My Nehemiah Smith, Samuell 
Rogers, Danll Wetherell Esq r & John Edgecomb, by w ch 
you may see not one of them go about to prove y e testa- 
tor was non compos mentis. 


For Major Gen r al John Winthrop, Governour of Connecticot Colony. 

Lond: 24 th of July, 1703. 

Honr ble S R , — I haue y™ of the 8 of May, w ch I am uery 
glad of, being much concerned that all my letters should 
miscary. I am fully satisfied Hallam hath no pretence, 
but his complants are incouraged in order to [nm*]. If 
M r Hallam cometh, thar is a necesity that you shuld as 
soone as possable either come ouer yo r self, or send one 
or two persons wel instructed, for amdavids are not so 
much in need as persons viva voce. I will doe all I can, 
you may bee sure. I pray giue my humble thankes to 
the Assembly for the mony they haue ordered mee, w ch I 
hope is paid to my Cossan Sergaunt. I thinke itt abso- 
lutly necessary you shuld come yo r self to be joint Agent 
with mee, and all litle enough. The Goverment heer are 
purchesing M r Pen, Gonernour of Penselvania, and I am 
affraid they will by Act of Parliaent take away yo rs . Last, 
my Lord Cornbury who hath a commition aboutt the 
militia of yo r countrey, I haue written a few lines to his 
Lordshipe to be kind to you & the countrey. My loue 
to all my friends with you. 

I am yo r true frind & faithfull s* 

Hen. Ashhurst. 

I had not an hower's notice to write this. I pray S r 
imediatly thinke of comeing yo r self, or send some per- 
sons ; yo r owne & yo r countrys affaires require itt to be 
heer in Octo. at the sitting; of the Parliment. 

1703.] JOSEPH DUDLEY. 137 

Note. — Enclosed in the foregoing was a copy of the following from Sir 
Henry to Lord Cornbury: — 

For his Excellency the Lord Viscount Cornbury, Gov r . of New York. 

London, July 24"? 1703. 
My Lord, — I shall take it kindely & will owne it to you when yo r 
Lordship returnes to England if alive, that if it be in yo r power to 
serve Maj r G: John Winthrop or the country of Conecticot, that yo r 
Lordship would doe it ; I haveing the hon r to be their Agent make 
this request to 30U. I beleiue if I had tyme, I could send you my Lord 
Rochester's letter to back this request of mine.* 

Yo r Lordships most humble Serv*, 

Hen. Ashhurst. 


Boston, ult. July. 1703. 
S?, — M r Secretary Addington covers two resolves of 
the Generall Assembly of this Province, to which I have 
consented, referring to the business of Enfeild and Suf- 
feild, and it is as farr as I can go towards an accomodation 
in that matter. I hope they will be acceptable to you 
and that you will prevent any further infraction upon the 
inhabitants under this Government. I thank the favour 
of your letters referring to the assistance of the upper 
settlements upon Connecticut River ; I have directed Col 
Partridge not easily to trouble you, but to be certain of 
an enemy before he give notice to the gentlemen of Hart- 
ford, and pray that then they do us and themselves the 
justice and favour to send good men fit for the service. 
I write this so perticularly because my intelligence from 
Quebeck makes mee almost certayn of a marching party 
for that river, another for Merimack River, another for Pis- 
cataqr, about fifty each. If our people keep upon their 
guard, they will be weary in a short time, if our Indians 
keep steady, which is most probable they will do. 

I am S* your very humble servant, J. Dudley. 

* Lawrence Hyde, Earl of Rochester, was uncle of Lord Cornbury. — Eds. 




N: Lond: Aug: 12* 1703. 

Maj r Chester, — I just now rec'd advice from Coll 
Partridge of Hadly, who enforms mee that he has by sev- 
erall ways intelligence of a party of French & Indians 
from Canada who are expected every hour to make some 
attaque on y e towns upon Connecticut River, desiring y e 
assistance of 50 or 60 men from us. Upon w ch , perusing 
the late orders of Councill, I find you have (with y e rest 
of the gentlemen of the Councill at Hartford) rec d an 
order from mee, by y e advice of y e Councill here (bearing 
date 3 d of June last,) to have 50 men in readiness upon 
any exigency to relieve those towns when any danger 
threatens them ; so that I conclude, before this can get to 
you, you have ordered those men to march, & to take 
advice of Coll Partridge in y r endeavour to prevent the 
enemy from doing the mischief they intend. If you have 
not marched them accordingly before you receive this 
order, let there be no farther delay, but cause them to 
march thither forthwith, with such instructions as shall be 
pursuant to the afores d former order, with this. Hereof 
you must not faile, for I have this week (yesterday) rec'd 
a lett r from Gov r Dudley, who tels mee he hath given 
particular directions to Coll Partrigg not to desire any re- 
leife of men from us unles he judges there be great occation 
of them. Take care to have such advice from y e officers 
you send with y e 50 men, when they are got to y e upper 
towns, as shall be necessary for mee in order to give 
farther directions for y r remaining or drawing off. Also, 
let mee receive an acc't from you immediately of y r actions 
in this afair, that I may give account thereof to Boston. 
Let your Secretary be desired to send by the same hand 
copy of y e Court act to impower the late Comitte in y e 
treaty with Rode Island. 

1703] JOSEPH DUDLEY. 139 


For her Maj ty f Service, To the Honorable John Winthrop Esq 7 ! Governour 
of her MafV Colony of Connecticut, New London, 

Boston, August 16* 1703. 

S R , — After all possible care and cost to quiet our East- 
ern Indians, which has lasted one year, they are now 
broken out, and about two hundred of them with twenty 
French men the last weeke fell in upon Wells and the 
small settlements eastward, and have burnt and destroyed 
what they found distant from the garrisons, and have 
assaulted the forts at Saco, Blackpoint and Casco, but 
they are yet safe.* And I am now makeing up the forces 
already out to five hundred, that we may be able to march 
and keep the field, and we must be content to make it a 
buisness now to follow them. While we are thus in a 
hurrey, your Government, at least the greatest part of it, 
are in peace and very capable to give the Queen's sub- 
jects yo r bretheren their assistance. If at present you 
would give us one good company of sixty men with 
officers fit for the service, I would send a good sloop to 
take them up in any part of your Government, and take 
care for their subsistence and treat them as I ought. And 
if your Indians would any of them be serviceable, I should 
be glad they were put under proper officers. Also I pray 
you to let me have your answer to this as soon as may 
be. I am S r 

Your humble servant, J. Dudley. 

Governo r Winthrop. 

Postscript : I am very sorry to be told that your In- 
dians should by any meanes be discontented. It is a very 
critical time, and if they should give us trouble also, our 
hands would be full. 

* See Niles's History of the French and Indian Wars, in 3 Mass. Hist. Coll. VI. 248- 
250. — Eds. 



For the Honn hle John Winthrop Esq r , Governo r of her Majes ties Colony of 
Connecticoit, present, in N: London. 

Weathersfield, August 16 f . h 1703. 

Honn ble S R , — I receved your order by the post a Friday 
night ab* 9 clock, w ch was the first I heard of Coll Partriggs 
writeing to yo r Hon r , & immediatly I posted a letter to 
Cap* Aaron Cooke, who was commissioned to "take the 
care of the souldiers ordered to be in readiness, giving of 
him an accompt of y e contents of yo r Hon r s letter or order 
to mee, & also hasted a man to Leu* Stephen Hollister, 
who was commissioned to be Leu* of the Company, & 
sent to the officers of the Trainbands to warn those which 
were ordered to be in readiness to march forthwith. And 
accordingly they used their endeuors to further the men 
in supplying of them with what was necessary, the officers 
keeping upp the whole night k part of Satturday ; & then 
I went to Hartford & hastened the souldiers of that place 
& accompanied them into Hartford-meadow ; it being the 
last day of the week & growing late could not conven- 
iently goe further ; the Cap* intended to be at North- 
ampton on Sabboth-day morning, haueing about fifty men 
with them at Winser. On Satturday in the forenoon a 
post came from Majo r Pynchon of Springfield desireing 
hast, enforming that the scoutes from Deerfield saw the 
enimies tracks & expected to be attacked presently ; the 
tracks & appearances of y r places of travelling being about 
fine mile from the towne, which is the last w cb wee haue 
heard from that county. We haue an account of persons 
slaine by the enimie at the eastward, at a towne called 
Weels, with great spoyl & depradations, but not the num- 
ber of persons exactly. I should haue disspatched before 
this time, but am waiting for the coppy your Hon r sent 
for ; the Secretary being remoat causes the delay. I find 
it verry difficult to haue men well fixt ; the country 

1703.] JOHN CHESTER. 141 

paying soe meanly, no man cares to trust any thing on 
the publick account ; and this method in warning of men 
to be in readiness to march when called is not so effectuall 
as the former, (they being impressed by the constable & 
in pay from the time of their being press d were incor- 
idged,) & we find that of those ordered some were sick, 
some gone out of the precincts, and no penalty if they 
neglect ; w ch forced me to issue forth warrants to the 
constables to supply such want. We have not one line in 
the law to give rule or direction in these affairs, nor to 
impower officers to punish delinquency. The laws of 
the neighbouring province are ample & full in every par- 
ticular, w ch is a great help to facilitate the work ; ours 
being silent, I haue no way but to returne the neglectory 
& delinquents to yo r Hon r to be proceded w th as you shall 
see meet. The troops are out of the way of serviss save 
the takeing of their salliries or any advantage the law 
allows y m . I haue giuen yo r Hon r an account of that 
matter & hope I am free from any further care concern- 
ing them. I find such difficulties in these things & the 
law being so deficient, there being no rule to proceed 
by, that I am desirous not to meddle for the future. I 
have not taken the oath accomodated for that office, & 
considering the great trouble & burthen of that civil trust 
that I am at present susteining, I may be discharged. 
What I haue allredy served in that place was only in 
obedience to your Hono r s commands, being unwilling 
that any thing should be wanting that your Hon r ex- 
pected from mee. I am 

Yo r Honn r s humble serv fc , 

John Chester. 



Harttford, August 174 1703. 

Honra 5 " S R , — I beeing desired by Capt Higly of 
Symsbery & divers offe our good freinds att Stony Brooke 
& Endfeilde to hasten the running offe the lyne to the 
farthest extent from Windsor that was ran so far by M r 
Taylor offe Boston & M r Wm Pitkin & som others, and is 
ordered to bee run out by M r Wm Pitkin, Capt Wm Whit- 
ing & my son Caleb, have urged these persons appointed 
by the last Generall Court to effeckt the matter & thinke 
they will speedily do itt ; allthow itt is an exseeding bissey 
time with M r Pitkin about his hay, that he cannot well 
leave itt. But do allso vnderstand, allthow itt was fully 
discoursed offe by boath Howses the last Generall Court 
that the good people should bee ordred to submitt to the 
Govo r ment of this Collony as farr as they fall within the 
same above Windsor, yet nothing is uppon record so to doe. 
Uppon all which I was desired to propose itt to yo r Hon r s 
wisdome whether yo r selfe & Councell might not give such 
an order as is aboue mentioned ; and indeede itt is hy 
time, iff not too late, to doe som thing in this matter, for 
Windsor people & Stony Brooke & Symsbery people are 
ready to mischeife one another euery day about gitting 
tirpintine in the woods, and one offe Stony Brooke, I 
heare, wounded one or two offe Windsor with his kniffe, 
whome they brought to Windsor. Allso I understand 
Gov r Dudly is sett exseedingly in that matter, in so much 
that himselfe & Councill, or the last Generall Assembly, 
haue appointed Coll Partrig, Capt Hamly & one more to 
run or perambulate the old lyne run by Woodard & some 
others that went by Bissells house, & to imprison & pros- 
secut all persons in our Collony that shall gitt tirpintine 
or tarr above the sayd lyne. That will take in good part 
of Windsor and Symsbery, and the people of Endfeild & 
Stony Brooke come within the smoke offe there chimnys 

1703.] CALEB STANLEY. 143 

and destroy all there pine trees by gitting tirpintine & 
tarr, which Windsor cannot beare. Itt is to be feered 
some blood will quickly be shed iff itt be not prevented, 
& thought the running out the lyne run by M r Taylor & 
others will much quiet the people & prevent mischeife ; 
for those two upper towns had rather be in our Collony 
then theires. Pray, yo r Hon r , to sende a few lyns by the 
first oppertunity to M r Pitkin, and the best aduice & 
direcktions possible for peace & quietness. Itt is thought 
to bee an exseeding good season att this juncktor to do 
itt, whilst the upper towns are sensible offe their want 
ofFe our men to deffend their countey from the enemy, & 
before those appointed by Gov r Dudly can attend to run 
the old lyne, they now being bissey about the enemy. 
S r , Capt Cooke marched up last Satterday with the com- 
pany appointed with him, but I heare of no return from 
them as yett. M r Pitkin could not be spoke to yesterday 
by some that went to speake to him ; that occations mee 
to wright, and pray yo r Hon r to excuse my boldnes. S r , 
I remaine 

Yo r humble Serv*, Caleb Stanly senior. 

Hon r S r , since I wrot my letter on the other side I haue 
spoke with M r fm Pitkin & Capt Wm Whiting, and they 
thinke itt may bee best to omitt that matter of ordring 
or commanding the good people offe Endfeilde & Stony 
Brooke to submitt to the Gouo r ment offe this Collony that 
may fall within the same by running offe the lyne to the 
full extent norwards, & onely to run the sayd lyne & see 
how things will worke betwixt this and the next Generall 
Court att New Hauen ; so that I would not have my men- 
tioning offe itt any ways stirr up yo r Hon r and Councell 
to do itt any furder than other reasons may move you to 
itt ; allthow I could wish yo r Hon r would urge M r Pitkin 
& those conserned to hasten the running offe sayd lyne 
and give some direcktions what to do iff Gov r Dudly s 


orders should prevaile to take or imprisson the people 
that are att worke above the old lyne ran by Woodard 
& Saffery. I was informed by one of Endfeild that one 
of their deputys told him when that matter was pro- 
posed to their Generall Assembly in Boston, the Lower 
House was very unwilling to act in the matter, saying they 
had as leave loose those two lower towns as to breake 
their correspondance with our Collony. But itt was sayd 
sometime, and that in no very good case, that the Kings 
word prevailed, which then had a sorrowfull efFeckt, and 
I wish itt may not be so now. Allso, uppon my second 
thoughts I am ready to immagin that the people offe 
Endfeild & Suffeilde will make their application to our 
next Generall Court, when they see they fall within our 
Collony, for direcktions what to doe & the settlement offe 
the lyne betwixt Windsor & Symsbery & them ; which iff 
itt was setled itt would be no great matter where the 
Collonys lyne run, allthow for their greatnes I should 
not be willing to loose our right when they know in there 
own conciences itt belongs to us by the running off the 
lyne by M r Taylor & our gentlemen, that was don by the 
best skill & deliberation immagenable. Pray S r , once 
more excuse my boldnes in meadling in this matter that 
so little conserns mee, hoping I shall not offten trouble 
yo r Hon r with such teageous lynes, but hauing bene some 
time conserned with you, cannot but ever wish yo r Hono r 
& this Collony all the happines & prospirrety that may 
bee, which, with the tender offe my sensere respeckts to 
yo r Hon r & gentlemen offe New London, is all from 
Yo r Hon r s most humble servt, 

Caleb Stanly sen 1 : 

August 18-? 1703. 



New London, Aug 19* h 1703. 

S*, — I have your letter of July last, and that of the 
16*? instant by the post last night, and am sorry for the 
mischeif done by the Easterne Indians. A sorrow and 
loss not to be made up by the distruction of the whole 
race of those barbarous and false villaines, and since the 
best and most generous indulgence lavisht vpon them 
would not oblige them to a certaine freindship, there re- 
maines noe securety for us but utterly to distroy them. I 
have appointed the Council to meete me at Say-Brook next 
Tuesday and shall lay before them your last letter with 
all the insinuations I can for their assistance, w c . h neede 
not be doubted, as far as they are able in the absence of 
the Gen 1 ! Assembly. On the 12*. h instant I received a 
letter from Coll: Partridg, dated the 10^, signefying their 
want of assistance, and imediatly dispatched the expres 
with orders to the Major of the County of Hartford to 
post away 50 well fitted dragoones to Hatfeild, under the 
comand of Cap* Cooke, a good officer, who presently 
marched with his company and quartered in the feilds of 
Hadly the next night. I expect hourely an ace* from 
him of his proceding, and what has hapned of moment 
shall be posted to you. I wish success to your amies 
against that barbarous people and will doe all I can to 
preserve your plantations up the river, and am 
Yo r Excellencye's very humble Ser*, 

J: Winthrop. 

I send Coll Partridg & Maj? Pinchon's letters for yo! 
perusall & desire they may be returned. 

Govf Dudley. 




[August, 1703 ?] 

Colonie of Conecticutt. By the JIon hle John Winthrop Esq r , Goverif of 
her Majesties Colonie of Connecticut in New England in America, a 

Whereas notwithstanding the obligations laid upon the 
Pennicook & Eastern Indians by her Majesties Governm* 
in the Massachusetts Bay, the said Indians contrary to 
their free submission, soleme promises, and stipulations 
from time to time repeated & renewed, of a steady adher- 
ence to her Majesties interests, and with the greatest 
perfidie and ingratitude, have treacherously combined 
with her Majesties enemies the French, and without any 
provocation given or pretended have appeared in open 
actual hostilities and comitted sundry outrages cruell and 
inhumane, barbarieties, murders, rapines and spoiles upon 
her Majesties good subjects, and their estates surprized, 
and lead away many of them captive, thereby discovering 
themselves with their confederates to be enemies to our 
Soveraign Lady Queen Anne, her crown & dignitie, and 
to be out of her protection, and worthy in all respects to 
be treated as such ; and whereas many of them may hap- 
pen to come within this Government, with ill intent in a 
private way either to abscond themselves or to spie out 
the state of the country, or to draw off the nations here 
inhabiting to fall to their partie, which may be of dan- 
gerous consequence to her Majesties subjects here resid- 
ing : — I doe therefore, with advice of her Majesties 
Councill, strictly forbid all her Majesties good subjects to 
hold any manner of correspondence or communication 
with any of the said Indians, or to harbour or conceal any 
of them, or to afford them any aid, succour or relief, as 
they tender the duty of their alliegance to her Majestie, 
and on pain of incurring the severest penalties of the law 
in such case provided. And 1 doe strictly charge and 

1703.] JOHN CHESTER. 147 

comand all her Majesties good subjects as they shall have 
opportunities to doe and execute all acts of hostilitie upon 
them, and upon discoverie of any strange Indians that 
they forthwith doe their utmost to apprehend and seize 
them and every of them, and bring them before the 
next Assistant or Justice of the Peace to be dealt with 

J: Winthrop. 


For the Honour 1 * 1 * John Winthrop Esq r , Governo r of her Majesties Colony 
of Connecticott, present, in N-London. 

Weathersfield, August 20 1 ! 1 1703. 

Honour ble S r , — I haue given your Hon r an accompt 
of the souldiers being sent to Deerfield ; the number of 
y e souldiers was 53 and they were at Northampton about 
sun-rise on the Sabboth day morning, and the disscorse 
there was that the scouts were misstaken in the tracks 
they found, and seemd to be troubled that the souldiers 
had taken so much paines ; and as soon as they could con- 
vieniently, the commission officers of the thre townes held 
a councill with our officers and the result was that our 
company should goe up to Deerfield & tarry there about 
two dayes while some scouts went out about thirty miles, 
and in case nothing could be discovered of the approach 
of the enimie that the souldiers should returne, which 
they did, & nothing appearing of any sudden danger, Coll 
Sam H Partrigg (to whom your Hon r ordered the commission 
officers to advise with) was free they should returne. The 
souldiers came home last night in the euening very wett 
and weary, haveing a hott & tedious jorney. The people 
hear seem to be troubled that we shud be at such charge 
& paines for uncertainties, & indeed it seems difficult to 
do them any reall good except by keeping garison among 


them ; the going when misschief is done proves ineffec- 
tually the enimie by that time they gett thither are far 
eneough out of their reach. Cap 1 Cooke desires a release 
from any further serviss at present, his wife being so con- 
cerned with his going, & she being with child the neigh- 
bours were affraid that she would haue seen him no more, 
which makes him loath to leave her vnder her present 
circumstances. This being what I receved from the offi- 
cers concerning their late expedition, haue given your 
Hon r an accompt thereof. The officers complain they 
cannot haue wherewith to refresh themselves as they 
haue ocasion, viz' within our Colony, or in some places, 
except they promiss to see the charge paid ; when they 
went from hence perticular persons treated them at 
the ordinary, & at Winser when they came home they 
were forced to promiss Leu* Cross to see him paid. I 
mention it for that there seems to be a necessity that 
some care be taken for there being furnished with what 
is necesary, if further ocasion should bee, and that pub- 
lick business should not be demurd when hast is required ; 
and it would be a great ease if the next Gen H Assembly 
would seriously consider of & enact some lawes for the 
raiseing of souldiers & sending of them out of the Colony. 
The people construe that clause in the Charter, of the 
Governo r s raiseing of men, or the Gov r & Councill, to be 
for the defence of the Goverm* & to refer to the limits of 
the Colony, & not extend to other Provinces. 

I am yo r Hono r s ready & humble serv*, 

John Chester. 


Say-Brook, Aug 23? 1703. 

S B , — I have communicated to the Councill (which I 
have this day convened for that end) y r Excellence's 


lett r of the 16 fc ? currant touching the sudden eruption of 
the Eastern Indians & barbarous actions by them com- 
mitted. And as we cannot without y e greatest sorrow 
reflect upon the treacherous basenes of those infidels, so 
we cannot but look upon as a singular favour of Provi- 
dence that, notwithstanding such a perfidious surprise, the 
forts in y e eastern parts are yet safe. Y r Excellence's 
motion for a party of English and our Indians, to serve in 
y e eastern parts ag* the enemy, is what the Councill have 
been very thoughtfull about. And considering that they 
have thought it necessary to maintain scouts of the Eng- 
lish and Indians from Connecticut Kiver to range eastward 
between the towns upon y e Kiver & the eastern parts 
of this Colony, that we may be in readiness to receive 
the enemy if they should fall upon us in those parts, or 
upon y e towns in y r Province bordering upon us there ; as 
also to order scouts on the western parts of this Colony, 
there being some apprehension of danger from the Indians 
in y t quarter : — we think it will be necessary for us, for 
a while, to improve what force we can raise on a sudden 
in y* service. There are severall new towns & settle- 
ments on our frontiers y t lie very much exposed at this 
time. We have therefore given out such orders, and are 
raising such a number of English & Indians as we hope 
will secure them, and shall take care by that means to 
have in readiness such forces as may be able to releive 
any places in these parts, if the enemy should move this 
way. We shall nevertheless endeav r to prepare the In- 
dians in this Government, so that if they shall not be so 
much needed here (which we hope a little time will dis- 
cover) they may, with a fitting number of English, march 
according to y r Excellence's desire into the eastern parts, 
if the enemy retire not from thence, or there be any op- 
portunity of pursuing them there. Which the gentlemen 
of the Councill will recommend to the next Generall As- 
sembly, who we hope will be very ready to joyn what 


forces can be spared from here with y r Excellencies at y° 
eastward, if you shall see good to keep out any number 
of forces in those parts & to march in pursuit of y c 
enemy. The dragoons I ordered to the upper towns 
on y e River are returned, without discovering any of the 
enemy, and I shall take care that they shall be alwayes 
in readiness to march for the relief of those towns, upon 
any certain notice given of approaching danger. 

I am S r , yo r very humble serv', J: W. 

Gov? Dudley. 


Boston, 30 August 1703. 
S R , — I thank the favour of your letter of the 23* 
instant. To what I have already written to move your 
self and the gentlemen of your Goverment to see the 
honner and justice of my expectation of your assistance, 
I will only acquaint that I have now 900 men, besides 
officers, in pay and yet cannot march above half that 
number, our forts and garisons are so many and so far 
extended beyond Merrimack River in the province of 
Mayn, that the other half can but well keep the inhabi- 
tants steady from leaving their posts ; and the charge of 
this number of men with incidents cannot amount to less 
then thirty six thousand pound per annum, and no gentle- 
man of her Majestyes Council here thinks it yet sufficient, 
but that our marching party es must be more, the enemy 
baveing to our best observation appeared not short of 
500 men. S r , I pray you to let it be duly considered, and 
I hope your Council and Assembly will remember that 
the interest is in common between us all, and the French 
will not distinguish, but intend the mine of the English 
interest every where, which God will prevent, and the 
next humane means is our joynt resolution to destroy 


these barbarous miscreants that no methods of justice or 
freindship can oblige. I pray you to think that my ex- 
pectation of one company this way is a very little quota. 
I thank your care in Hampshire and desire it may be 
continued, because I cannot reasonably expect they will 
be quiet. I am S r 

Your very humble servant, J. Dudley. 


S*, — I have the favour of your letter of Aug. 30^ and 
am glad to heare the enemy have done noe farther mis- 
cheif upon your people, whom I feared they would infest 
in some other part of your frontires. I am very sensible 
of the necessary charge that will accrew to secure your 
severall forts & garrisons, & to subdue those wild beasts 
of the feild, if some way be not projected to shorten the 
work w ? 1 yet seemes to be very difficult, & if their head- 
quarters where their women & children are retired can- 
not be surprised, it looks allmost fruiteles to persue them 
through the hideous & unknowne passages of that wilder- 
nes. I have not yet heard the methods that are proposed 
to recover the poor distressed captives, whom I doubt 
they will valleu at an unusuall rate to make some condi- 
tions for themselves. I make noe doubt that our gentle- 
men, who have a just sympathy with you in this publick 
calamety, will concur with you as they are able in any 
proposall that may seeme probable, to subdue for ever 
those barberous & inhumaine villaines. I have appointed 
a scout of 20 English & 12 Indians, who are now out, to 
visit Woodstock & from thence to range downe to Conec- 
ticot Kiver against Windsor, where their store of provition 
lyes, and they are to continue that service till farther 
order, & 60 dragoones be ready to assist yo r upper plan- 


tations, & it will be necessary that I have notice of y* 
motion of y e enemy as often as may be. I wish a contin- 
ued course of succes to all yo r indevors against the enemy, 
and am S r , 

Yo r very humble serv* J: Winthrop. 

New Lon: Sept. 24 1703. 

I think I omitted to make returne to y r postscript in 
yo r letter of Aug. 16. respecting y e complaint of y e Mou- 
heag Indians & some idle persons, w ch are all false & 
scandelous & not fit to be countenanced. I will not 
trouble you now to hear what may be said against those 
complaintes & persons, but assure you that where any of 
yo r people (as who knows what base people may doe?) 
come to me with fallse reports & storyes, I will let you 
know it, & as a just neighbour make bold to set them in 
y e stockes & returne them to you with their papers to be 
farther considrd. Such brutes are a bane to freindship 
& good order, & I hope when such come to you, you will 
doe me justice, as I will for yo r self. 


Boston, Sept. 6. 1703. 

S B , — The affayr of the war is so pressing that I have 
now eleven hundred men in pay, and hope speedily to 
have halfe that number in a marching party to the head 
quarters of the enemy. I have seen it also necessary to 
meet the General Assembly of this Province in an ex- 
traordinary session to provide for so great a charge, who 
have very freely agreed the necessity of all that is done, 
and have observed to me the neighbourhood of your 
government and the justice of your being equally con- 
cerned in the war, and earnestly moved me in the most 


pressing manner to put you upon it, for that is the com- 
mon interest. I therefore desire you will again consider 
the matter and perswade your Council or Assembly of the 
respect they owe to their bretheren of the English nation 
in these provinces, to afford them such assistance as will 
be honourable for your Government and agreeable to the 
just expectation of her Most Gracious Majesty, who is 
most succesfully engaged in a vigorous war against the 
common enemy of the liberty of Europe and of the Prot- 
estant religion. Which I shall represent to her Majesty, 
and will be to the honour of your Government. I have 
directed the Secretary to enclose a copy of the vote of 
the Council and Assembly of this Province, wherein you 
will see their expectation from you, and which has moved 
me again to urge you in this matter.* 

I am, S r , your humble Servant, J. Dudley. 

Governor Winthrop. 


S R , — Your Excellencye's letter of the 6*? instant I re- 
ceived by the post last night and will lay it before the 
Gen 1 ! Assembly with all the aduantage I can for yo r ser- 
vice, who onely (as you know) have power to raise men 
and send them out of the Governm*. I have enclosed a 
letter from the Council of Warr at Hartford and one from 
Coll: Partridg & Major Pynchon, that you may know the 
state of yof upper Plantations. Being much indisposed 
to day, I cannot otherwise give you ace* of it & desire 

* The vote referred to is apparently a vote of the Council, Sept. 2, 1703, concurred in 
by the House of Representatives, that "his Excellency be desired again in the most press- 
ing manner to urge " Connecticut and Rhode Island to furnish military aid. At a meeting 
of the Council, August 16, Dudley announced that he had written "to Governor Winthrop 
to desire assistance from the government of Connecticut of a foot company of sixty men 
under proper officers." — Eds. 



they may be returned to me with a former I sent to you 
from Coll: Partridg. 

I am S r , yo T . very humble serv* J: W. 

New London, Sep 4 9 l . h 1703. 
Gov r Dudley. 


New London, Sep.'lS* 1703. 

Cap™ Avery, — I have your letter of the 12^ instant 
by Corporall Dewey, and the ace* of your proceding to 
Woodstock and Windsor, and tho' your advance to Qua- 
baug and those parts was contrary to your orders, w c ? 
must allwaies be punctuall observed, yet in regard some 
gentlemen of the Council did moove you to visit those 
quarters, I doe well approve of it as a good service. My 
letters from Boston give me ace* that a marching-party of 
600 men are moveing to finde the enemye's bead-quarters, 
and therefore, till I heare farther, it is necessary that you 
attend my former instructions to you, & farther, that you 
send one of your Company to me & to be here every 
Wedensday night, that I may have opportunety to give 
you orders persuant to the ace 1 1 may receive by the post. 
As to the Indians w c . h you have brought from Quabaug, 
they may be secured at Woodstock (being their owne 
Indians) till you have orders to returne, and then part of 
them may be put under the care of the Moheag Indians 
and the other part under the Pequots, or as shall be ad- 
vised to me by the next expres. I have onely farther to 
refer you to my former instructions to you, with what I 
have now inserted, & with my salutations to yo r self & 
Company I am, 

Your very loving freind, 




Cap t Avery, — I have your letter of the 18^ instant 
by Corporall Asseraft, and upon consideration of her Maj- 
esty e's service I have thought fit, with the advice of the 
Council, that, within twenty foure houres after your receite 
hereof, you march the souldiers under yo r comand to 
Plainefeild and there dismiss those of your company be- 
longing to that towne, and from thence you are to march 
to Norwich and there dismiss the rest of y r company, 
both English and Indians, to returne to their severall 
plantations, takeing an ace* of the day of their dismission ; 
and that your self come directly to New London, that I 
may have a full ace* of your procedings and what has 
occurred to your observation relateing to the approach 
of y e enemy. As to the Indians that you brought from 
Quabaug, the Council think it meet they should for the 
present remaine at New Roxbury, being of opinion that 
it cannot be for any advantage to remove them into these 
parts. I am takeing care to provide a fresh scoute, w c . h if 
the advice I shall receive in the meane tyme from Boston 
and other parts, I intend they shall march to New Rox- 
bury the beginning of the next week. I have onely to 
add my thankes to your self & Company for their good 
service and am 

YoT very loving freind, J: Winthrop. 

New London, Sept. 22* 1703. 


For her Maj ty$ Service, For the Honora hle John Winthrop Fsq r . 7 Gouerner 
of her Maj tys Colony off Connecticott, in New London, these. 

S R , — Persuant to an order made by your Honour in 
Councill at Saybrook in Aug 8 * last, M! Pitkin, M T . Stanly 
and my selfe went up to Suffield on Munday the 21 8 . fc 


instant, where we mett w th the gentlemen appointed by 
the Government of the Massachusetts to endeuor an acco- 
modation between the townes of Windsor & Symsbury on 
our part, and Suffield and Enfield on theirs ; but our 
labour therein proved fruitless. Since which time I was 
yesterday inform'd by Cap fc Higley they seiz'd, by uertue 
of a writ from Col. Partrigg, about 30 barrels turpintine 
out of Symsbury bounds and gott by Symsbury men, altho 
Suffield people say tis within their grant, and its most 
evident their grants do interfeer some miles. We there- 
fore conclude to persue that act of the Generall Court 
made in May last respecting our setting of the difference 
of latt d between the southernmost part of Charles River 
and Bissells house, and make return of our doings therein 
to the next Generall Sessions. At the meeting above si 
with those gentlemen, we mentioned the drawing of our 
men from Deerfield, w c . h they consented to, provided they 
make no discovery of the enemy by next Munday come 
seuen night, for they say that by an expres from Albany 
the 20 th instant they are inform'd that an Indian was sent 
from thence to Cannada in Aug st last, who upon his arri- 
uall there saw the Gouern r of Canada, who had provided 
some hundreds of Indians to march this way ; but just as 
they were ready to depart, there came advice of some 
vessells that appear'd in sight of Quebeck, whereupon the 
Gouerner with those Indians posted thither. This Indian 
came from Mont Royall the 1 st instant and came in at 
Albany the 14 th . So that the gentlemen of that county 
are ready to hope that their designe for this year may be 
disappointed, are therefore willing the men should be 
drawn off. We shall wait your Honors command in that 
affair. These things we think our duty to signifie to your 
selfe, which with the tender of humble regards to your 
Honour is the needfull from, 

S r , your Honours most obedient serv*, 

Will : Whiting. 

Hartford, Sep* the 25* h 1703. 



For the Hon bl . e Robert Treat, Esq r . D: Governor, the Council, 8? Represen- 
tatives of her Majestyes Cottony of Conecticot, at New Haven. 

New London, Oct: 12'. h 1703. 

Gentlemen, — An overruling providence, w ch governes 
all our purposes and designes, prevents me by a present 
illnes from meeting your selves at the opening of this 
session of the Gen 1 . 1 Assembly, and least I should not be 
able to be present with you before the adjournment of 
this Court, I think it my duty to lay before you a few 
perticulers w ch occur to my memory at this short tyme 
of opportunety. When I parted from you at the last 
session of the Gen 1 ! Assembly, I see noe prospect of any 
danger or difficulty that I could reasonably feare would 
affect you more than the present war with France and 
Spaine, w ch it pleased God to divert from your doores 
and make your circumstances safe and easy as your 
heartes could desire, whilst others of her Majestye's sub- 
jects were involved in blood and expence. But now the 
scene is changed, and I write this to you under the most 
sensible apprehentions of a neerer approching danger, 
which threatens to disturb y e whole country. It has 
pleased God to let loose the Eastern Indians, and as most 
perfidious, bloody & inhumaine villanes have ravaged in 
the blood & estates of our brethren and neighbors, with- 
out the least provocation, and presently after a firme 
peace was concluded with them, and even whilst they 
were carresed with all the obligeing expressions that 
were fit to be layde upon them, it remaines now, and 
tis most incumbent upon you, as you are trusted by the 
people of this Government with their lives, libertyes & 
estates, soe you will effectually consider the best expe- 
dient to preserve each of them. And in order to {he 
safety of the country at this most unhapy juncture, I 
doe earnestly pres you to enquire into the present state 


of jour militia. It is of great moment that it be well 
provided, both for your owne honour & safety and to 
assist your neighboures, who call to you for help at this 
tyme. I must allsoe put you in minde to have great re- 
gard to the preservation of your liber tyes & priviliges, 
w ch haue been most deare to your predicessors. Your 
hapines in those great enjoyments makes you many eni- 
myes, and it concernes you now to use the best meanes to 
support them, that posterity may not reproach yo? mem- 
ory. I must allsoe observe to you that it is reported in 
all parts of the country that some of our freind Indians, 
and perticulerly Owaneco, the Sachem of Moheag, have 
adrest her Majesty against this Government for takeing 
from them and disposeing of their land, w 7 ^ is a great 
article against the justice of this Assembly, whose busi- 
nes it is to support, not to destroy, any one's propriety. 
Therefore, for publick satisfaction, and that he may have 
noe causes to complaine, and to mainetaine the justice of 
the Government, it is incumbent vpon you to appoint a 
Comitte to enquire fully into that matter, and that, as 
noe injustice must be done unto him, soe I hope you will 
effectually enquire into those vast tracts of your lands, 
pretended to be purchased of him, w ch by your Charter are 
the inheritans of your successors and associates, the free- 
men of this Corporation ; and this is greatly to the preju- 
dice of this Government, and has hitherto hindered an 
accomodation to the Vollun tires, to whom you are under 
perticuler obligations of gratitude. I must, last of all, 
that it may be fresh in your memory, observe to you that, 
as the late revolution of providence has made the seat of 
this unhapy war within your neighbors' province, soe I 
do earnestly recomend to your consideration their present 
circumstances, and that you be early and effectuall in 
your assistance to them. They are your brethren, under 
oue Crowne, one Religion, one intrest, and assuredly un- 
der one affection, w ch are obligations that should forever, 


as formerly, strengthen and unite both Governments 
against every comon enemy. Gentlemen, this is my 
present sence of your duty to yof country and to your 
neighbors, w ? 1 I heartily recomend to you, and hope you 
will all be of opinion with me therein; w c . h with my hearty 
salutations is all at present from, Gentlemen, 

Your most affectionate and faythfull Serv*, 



To the Honorable John Winthrop Esq r , Governour of her Majesty es Colony 

of Connecticut. 

Boston, 21 October, 1703. 
S R , — I wish you a good meeting with your Assembly. 
I hope they will be disposed to shew their respect to these 
provinces at this time. I beleive truly I am to day at 
90 th a day expence, and if I be broke here you will stand 
but a little while. My forces are now abroad ; the next 
march must be about Christmass upon the ice, when I hope 
you will give us a good foot company. I pray you also 
to send down the Quabaug Indians your scout brought in; 
Nonequaban is a dependant here and I understand they 
are his family. S r I wish you health, and am S r 
Your very humble ser fc , 

J. Dudley. 


New-London, Nov: 4t h 1703. 

S*, — I reed, your letter of Oct: 21 st at Say-Brook 
ferry, in my returne from the Court at New-Haven, but 
could not then salute you, nor assure your Excellency, as 
I was desired by our Gen u Assembly, of their read in es to 
be concerned in the present war with the Easterne In- 


dians, haveing already made declaration against them as 
tray tors & rebells to her Majesty. I must confes I am 
at a great loss for the best way to make our assistance 
succesfull to your service. Many (of good conduct) are 
of opinion that your plantations of the County of Hamp- 
shire will constantly be exposed to danger during the 
war, and that a good Company must be allwaies ready to 
assist them. And if the enemy (pressed by your forces) 
should be dislodged, they would be necessited to devide 
into skulking party es and may then aptly fall upon those 
plantations as neere & new places for their mischeif, and 
soe may require our whole strength to secure them and 
our owne fron tires, and to kepe out party es of scout to 
range above the plantations. And since wee are not able 
to kepe out marching partyes to assist in every quarter, 
the Gen! 1 Assembly seeme to conclude at present that 
they shall doe her Majesty more service by securing, as 
they are able, the County of Hampshire (w ch has allwaies 
fallen to their post in all tymes of difficulty) than to joyne 
yo r forces eastward this winter with one company, as 
yo r . Excellcy has desired. This is the substance of what 
I am desired to comunicate to your Excelency by our 
Assembly, relateing to their present assistance. I wish 
you health & hapines and am sincerely 

Your very humble serv*, 

J: Winthrop. 

Postscript. The Sheriff of Hampshire put a trick vpon 
my officer that coiiianded the scout to convoy two or thre 
Indian men, some women & children, from Quabaug to 
New Roxbury, where the people would not receive them, 
but forst the officer (as he tells me) to cary them away, 
contrary to my orders to him to leave them there. The 
officer now tells me your Excellency has sent to him about 
them, and he expects to heare farther from you about 

1703.] ROBERT TREAT. 161 


For her Ma ties Service, To the Honor Ue Majo r Gener 11 John Winthrop, 
Gouerno r of her Ma ties Colonie of Conecticot, in New London. 

Hono rb . le S R . — Yo rs w th ye copie of S r Henry Ashursts 
of y e 24 th of July 1703, I receavd, and did comunicate 
y e contents therof to Stratford and Fairfeild gentle 11 and 
desired their advice, and so likewise to New Haven, 
Brandford & Guilf 1 , and have returned to you by y e first 
their own sayes, y* others may not be blamed be- 
yond their desarts & yo r Hono r y e better see your way. 
And though I feare y e time & season may be over, as 
others doe think it is, yet y e matter being of great con- 
sirnment, (and who can tell what may haue fell in to giue 
a demurer, or y fc y e poor harmeles innocent Colonie might 
be heard before utterly condemnd,) and if any room 
or hope of o r standing-still, I would freely have con- 
sented to have made a purse of fine hundred pounds, or a 
halfe peny mony rate, to haue ventred it, or more, on y fc 
account. Bat y e seas seeme to be so exceeding dangerous 
and a winter voyage too ; so y t I cannot advise yo r Hono r 
to undertake it, though I know of none y* could or would 
doe so well as yo r selfe, if it were attaineable. And ther- 
fore I doe fall in w th your Hono r y t as full and good a rep- 
resentation of o r state & circumstances as wee can, may 
hopefully be of some service. I need not repeat any 
thing contained in y e Newhaven letter, seing it is before 
you. I cannot add any thing worth nameing, but I pray 
God to guide you & such councells as you shall in yo r 
wisdom attaine unto, to prepare & dispatch such memo- 
rials home for England as you shall think safe and 
necessary ; w ch with my humble and heartie seruice and 
sallutations to your Hono r and all yo rs , I remain e 
Yo rs humbly and faithfully to serue, 

R : Treat, D. G. 

Mil: No: y 10 f . h 1703. 



Note. — The Fairfield and New-Haven letters alluded to in the foregoing 
are as follows : — 

For the Hon hU Robert Treat, D : Govern*. 

Fairfield, Novemb r y e 5: 1703. 
Hon ble S R , — We have considered our Agents letter 3-011 sent us, 
especially the necessity therein expres d of our Hon ble Governour beeing 
joynt Agent with him, and coming himselfe or sending some persons 
to be there in October at the siting of Parliament. That beeing past, 
whatever advantages we might have had by it are lost, and the Gov- 
ern™ presence we conclude so necessary for the welfare of the Colon3 r 
under our present circumstances that he can not with safety to it be 
spared ; and if he could, considering his age & the difficult}' & hazard 
of such a vo3~age it would not be reasonable to desire it. And con- 
sidering y e season of the 3'ear for such a vo3*age is past, we are of 
opinion it is more advisable to trust Divine Providence and let the 
matter rest tiil y e Generall Court in May next, than to call a Generall 
Court, or a grand councell, upon this occasion. Which being y e need- 
full at present, we subscribe 

Your Honers humble Servants : 

Nathan Gold. \ 

Joseph Curtiss. \ Assistants. 

Peter Burr. ) 

For the Honn rhle Robert Treat, D : Govern 1 : att his house in Milford, 

humbly these. 

N : Hav: Nov: 7: 1703. 
Honn rble S R , — After o r condolence with yo r Honn r in y e great 
breach lately made in 3-0' famil3 r , these upon yo r Honn™ commands 
come to offer o r opinion in y e case proposed, viz : that it being mani- 
festly too late to send for Eng ld for y e divertion of dangers from the 
present sessions of Parliam*, there seems to be no occation for a Gen- 
eral Court as yett ; but it m&x be a good service for y e C0I0113' if the 
Govern™ IIonn r with advice of his Council would hasten letters to S r 
Heneiy, requesting a speed3' & full account of o r affairs, what prob- 
abilities there are y e design against y e forreign corporations will be 
reviv'd & take effect in Parliament, what reasons he can offer for send- 
ing an agent, whether that charg be att all likePy to do us an3' service, 
whether he with the councel he retains may not be capable of serving 
o r interest as well without as with an agent from home? It seems to 
us that if we must fall because we are a corporation, no trouble or 
charg we putt o r selves upon can save us ; if we must fall because 
criminal, o r crimes will doubtless in form of law be laid before us before 

1703.] JOSEPH DUDLEY. 163 

we be condemned. Then may be time enuf to send an Agent if there 
needs. However, if S r Henery can shew sufficient business for an 
Agent to be sent, next May Court may hasten one unto him. We 
have also thought if the Honnrble Govern* & Council would draw an 
address to y e Queen's Majestie, therin plainly representing the true 
state & interest of this Colony, how much o r fath" & we have confided 
in royal grace for the continuance of o r priveleges, expended both es- 
tate, lab r & much blond in settling, subduing & defending this Colony, 
how low & poor we yett are, having no forreign trade, & how dis- 
heartened o r people very generally will be if they must loos their pres- 
ent Charter priveledges, whereupon great numbers will doubtless choos 
to settle in some better climate & safer country, & so the Queen's 
interest in y e Colon}' will be left more exposed to dangers & charges ; 
how little chargable we have been to y e Crown, & how careful not to 
wrong its interests we have been : if these & what else ma} 7 be proper 
were putt into a memorial with a suitable address, & lodged in o r 
Agents hands with instructions under necessary correction to present 
y e same to her Majestie when y r should be occation, it might perhaps 
prevent her giving such an Act the royal assent, unless harmless 
Connecticut be exempted. However, this done, what can we do more 
but com mitt o r cause to Him that is able to deliver us? Indeed, if 
we should understand we are neer o r end, it doubtless would be very 
requisite to call a General Court, better to secure o r titles to land, 
o r town patents being insufficient, & to settle o r 8 counties & to order 
some other things of great consequence bef we dye. These (with o r 
humble service offered to yo r Honn r ) are submitted to yo r correction 
by yo r humble servants : 

josiah rosseter. 

John Alling. 

Wm. Maltbie. 

Jer. Osborn. 


For her Majestyes Service, To the Honorable John Winthrop, Esq r , Gover- 
nour of her Majestyes Colony of Connecticut. 

Boston, 24 December, 1703. 

S R , — I have had consideration lately, and have been 
moved thereunto by the Council of this Province, to write 
to you to encourage the service of the Moheegs and other 
Indians in your Goverment, and if I might have the ser- 


vice of 100 of them in the Eastern parts, I would find 
them corn for their support, and the Assembly have 
agreed to pay twenty pound per head for every man they 
shall kill, and the benefit of the sale of their captives; or if 
they that are volunteirs will provide for themselves forty 
pounds for every man they shall kill. If it be acceptable 
to you, that which I judge propperand desire is that such 
a number of them, with some prudent English officers, 
will march as soon as they can towards the Lake Wene- 
pesioco, and there take up their quarters for six months 
or more, and let mee know from thence what they want, 
that they may be supplyed. You know best the English 
men fit to conduct them, and I shall be glad to hear from 
you your concurrence herein and as early a march as 
may be. S?, I heartily wish you health and am S* your 
most humble servant, 

J. Dudley. 


For her Meg'"." Service, For the Honorable John Winthrop Esq r Gover- 
nour of her Majesties Colony of Connecticutt, New-London. 

Boston, the 3* of January, 1703/4. 

Hon ble S?, — I am commanded by his Excellency to ac- 
knowledge the receipt of yo r Honour's letter of the 28 th 
past, referring to a party of the Moheags to post them- 
selves upon the lake Winnepessioco, wherein you intimate 
a speedy meeting of your Council and attendance of the 
principal of the Indians to put forward that affayr; which 
has been communicated to the Council of this Province. 
And I am directed to acquaint your Honour that a con- 
siderable part of the English forces will be quartered at 
Newichewannock, the next English settlement to the 

* Isaac Addington (b. Jan. 22, 1645 — d. March 19, 1715), was then Secretary of the 
Province of Massachusetts, had previously been Speaker of the General Court, and was 
afterward Chief Justice. — Eds. 

1703-4.] FITZ-JOHN WINTHROP. 165 

lake, and in their ranges into the woods will have fre- 
quent communication with them, being not above fifty 
miles distant, and whither they may retreat if overpress'd 
by the enemy. The encouragement proposed as to the 
benefit of captives and plunder will be equal, whether 
they subsist themselves or not ; the onely difference is 
about the reward, which your Honour will please to let 
them fully understand. And if they take up with the 
first, of twenty pound a head, they will be fully supplyed 
with come for their subsistance and furnished with am- 
munition. If they choose the forty pound reward, they 
must subsist and find themselves, as Englishmen do, with- 
out charge to the Province. His Excellency and the 
Council request that your Honour will favour the designe 
and promote and forward it with the utmost vigour and 
speed possible. I am Hon We S r 

Your Hono r . 8 most obedient humble servant, 

Is A Addingtw. 8. 


N:Lon: Jan r 7 11 th 170J. 

S R , — Yesterday I reed M r Secry Addington's lett r in 
answer of mine to y r Excellency of y e 20 th of y e last month. 
The Councill was y n convened this day, and both that 
& y r former lett r were considered in Councill. The sa- 
chems & principall of our neighbouring Indians of Mohege 
& Pequot attended the Councill as I ordered them. Y r 
Excellency's proposall was made known to them, who did 
express themselves as willing to do what service they 
could, but many of their men were not come in from 
hunting, so y* y y could not come to a full resolution till 
they had (as y r manner is) a gen 1 . 1 councill of their men. 
They promised to call them in and to forward the design 
among them, and hoped there would be a considerable 
party of them who would rise up (according to our Indian 

166 THE WINTHROP PAPERS. [1703-4. 

custom) and offer themselves to goe and [torn]. The Pe- 
quot have promised mee to give mee an account of what 
they can do in 8 days. The Mohege hunters are farther 
off, hut the Moheg sachems have engaged to do y e same 
with all possible speed. The Indians did express them- 
selves solicetous especially in 2 things : 1 st that the place 
where y° fort y r Excellency intends for their head-quarters 
might be at Peemchawesah, where it fals into Merimake 
Riv r nee re Lake Wenipeg ; 2 d That y r Excellency would 
post such a number of English soldiers in y e s d fort, as 
should secure it for their retreat, that they, with such 
English as go from hence with them, might be at liberty 
to range in y e enemy's country ; alledging that otherwise 
there will be no liklyhood of y r taking scalps or captives, 
and they are not willing to keep garrison. I thought it 
might be usefull to acquaint y r Excellency with these 
thoughts of the Indians, that the affaire may be so man- 
aged as not to disappoint their expectations to be at a 
full liberty to take all y e advantages they can ag't y e en- 
emy. The Councill here conclude, I perceive, that if y r 
Excellency would appoint any person acquainted with 
the Eastern country to describe that country in a small 
mapp, desig"n g the places where the enemys head-quar- 
ters are supposed to be, as also the places where y r Ex- 
cellency thinks good that forces should be posted & 
imployed ag* them, such a mapp would be a great encour- 
agemt to both our English & Indians to offer themselves 
more freely. I am now sending a post to the western 
parts of this Colony to order such measures there as are 
necessary to draw off from the Indians that are in those 
parts that may be fitt for the service ; and there shall be 
nothing wanting to gain such a number of men as you 
have desired, tho' our Indians are but few, and many of 
them unable for so long a travell. I have desired M r 
Williams to be present with me in Council, that he may 
be able to give you a perticuler ace* of my intercourse, 

1703-4.] NATHANIEL STANLEY. 167 

and of their good disposition to the design, as far as they 
are able. I wish yo r Exc*! y health and hapines and am 

S r , your very humble serv fc , J: W. 


Boston, 18 January, 1703/4. 

S R , — M r Williams is well returned with your letters, 
which are very acceptable to my self and the gentlemen 
of the Council, and I pray you will forward the matter 
so as they may march in February if the spring be for- 
ward. You will please to let mee know their numbers ; 
one hundred Indians will need ten or fifteen Englishmen 
with them to steady them, and I beleive it best that they 
march directly to Barwick, the head of Piscataqr Eiver, 
where a number of English shall joyn them and march to 
the lake, and choose their seat and keep them company 
till they have a fort to retreat to, where a party must 
alwayes be left. You will please now by every oportu- 
nity to give me account of their advance and preparation, 
and they shall have a kind welcom in the Province of 
Mayn, where I shall meet them my self; but I would 
have them skilfully put by coming to Boston and the 
lower way. 

I am, S r , your very humble ser*, J. Dudley. 


For the Hbnn bl . e John Winthrop, Governo r . of her Majestie's Colony of 
Connecticot, present, in New London. 

Hartford, Jan'y. 21 st i- 7 T - 3 -. 
Honno ble S*, — On the 20 th instant recev d your Hono r s 
letter with his Excelencies letters and a letter from the 
Honn ble Dep* Gov r , & with all hast did send to the gent? 

168 THE WINTHROP PAPERS. [1703-4. 

of the Councill here, and this day mett & haue p r used tlie 
lett 173 from Gov r Dudley & have considered the proposall 
made, and are of the opinion with the Honn ble Dep e Gov r 
& gent m of the Councill there, that unless there be consid- 
erable forces of the English to joyn with them to engage 
the enimie, the Indians from this Colony will be unwilling 
to goe and abide in that country, except in some seasons 
when the enimie scatter for their advantage in hunting 
it seems probable that the Indians from us may have some 
prospect of success in annoying the enimie if in smaller 
companies. Wee shall be ready to our utmost to be with 
your Honno r in promoting the intrest of ourselves & 
neighbours against the common enimie, and doe concur 
with yo r HonnT & Councill in furnishing of the friend 
Indians with what is necesary, & shall with all speed take 
an accompt of our Indians by persons sutable to treat 
them, & to inform them of the incorridgment offered by 
his Exelency p r head, & giue your Hon r an account of 
such Indians as are willing to joyn with the Mohegs and 
others as shall undertake with them in the designe pro- 
posed. Wee shall expect to hear from your Hon r the 
time intended for the Indians to march, & how the Indians 
from hence shall be furnished, whether at New-London or 
here. Wee are in hopes there may som'e be had heare to 
fall in with those that goe from other parts of the Colony. 
S r I am yo r Hon r s ready & humble serv' 

Nath. Standly. 


For her Maj u Service, To his Excellency John Winthrop Esq r Govern*., 

or to the Horfable Gentlemen his Assist* in Govern™! at Hartford, these 

p r se?it. 

Hatfield, Jan* 28 th : 170f. 

May it please yo r Excellency & Hono rable Gentle- 
men, — The enclosed coppys of letters from Col 11 Skayler 

1703-4.] FITZ-JOHN WINTHROP. 169 

at Albany we have sent for yo p r ussall, y e orrigon 118 send 
to his Excell o r Govern r . This news stirrs us up, accord- 
ing as we are advised by o r Govern*, to make o r applica- 
tions to yo r selves for reliefe of forces to deffend o r upper 
towns & offend the enemy. We humbly propose they 
be in readyness in case y e enemy should approach this 
winter, of which we hope to have some discovery of by 
hunt rs or otherwise. However, you'll soone heere from 
us if any discovery be made as afores d . If it please God 
to restraine the enemy till y e winter break up & the woods 
passable, a garrison of 30 or 40 men will be needed at 
Linefeild, also at Quabaug 20 men, & what more we know 
not ; for its judged of all hands it will be a troublesome 
sum r , & o r Govern r expressly gives us ord r to apply o r 
selves for releife, confidently beleiveing (as o r Coniticot 
neighbo r ing forces have alwayes been forward & indeed a 
means of our safetie hitherto) so still they will put forth 
y m selves for o r releife. We y e rather send now y t if you 
see meete to be in readyness for a speedy motion, the 
enemy comonly being speedy & sudden in their attackes, 
of w ch more hereafter as occation may be. With hearty 
desires of yo r pray rs for us, desireing the good Lord to 
guide in yo r momentous affaires & succeed in all diffi- 
culties, take leave & subscribe o r selves yo r Excellencys 
much oblidged freinds & serv*s : 

Sam ll Partridge. 

John Pinchon.* 


New London, Feb: 10 th , 170f. 
S B , — I went to Stonington a few dayes since and de- 
sired Cap* Mason and Mf Noyes to meet me there, that 

* Colonel Samuel Partridge, of Hadley (b. 1645 — d. 1740), was for more than half a 
century an important personage in Western Massachusetts, and held many offices, both 
military and civil. John Pynchon the younger, of Springfield (b. 1647 — d. 1721), was the 
son and grandson of two of the most honored men in the Colony, and himself Lieutenant- 
Colonel, Clerk of the Courts, and Register of Deeds. — Eds. 


170 THE WINTHROP PAPERS. [1703-4. 

wee might presently consult the way of our assistance 
to you with our Indians to a right understanding, that 
there be noe unnecessary delay on our part. There 
seemes an indisposition in the Indians to aduenture at 
once into the very heart and danger of the enemye's 
country, but propose more leasure steps thither as they 
shall grow acquainted and haue suffitient pilots, and they 
hope to doe good service by securing the chief fishing 
places, w ch are the enemye's onely supply and depend- 
ance, espetially in the spring season, and may thereabout 
with partyes greatly distres them. I haue earnestly 
recomended to Cap* Mason and M r Noyes their perticuler 
care and service in this matter, as I propose their intrest 
in the Indians ; and they haue desired to lay before yo r 
Excellency their owne and the Indians' opinion of the 
best methode for succes, w ch will wayte vpon you by this 
post, to w c . h I doe concur and refer to your consideration 
as what seemes most agreable to the inclinations and 
temper of the Indians, w c . h must be a little conceded to 
for their encouragement. I wish you health & success 
in every adventure, and am, S r , 

Your very humble serv*, J: Winthrop. 

Gov' Dudley. 


For his Maj tis Service, To his Excellency John Winthrop Esq 1 !, Cap*. Gen 11 
Sf Govern 1- , in Sf over her Maj tis Collony of Coniticot, or to y e Honor- 
able Asisf in s d Colony. These p r sent. 

Hatfeild, Fehl 21, 170f . 

May it please yo* Excellency & Hono r able Gentle- 
men, — The further goeing on of y e enemy in their bloody 
& misschevious designes, as by o r men now returned from 
Boston we are enformed of: one garrison house taken & 
all persons in it to y e numb r of 16 or 17, some killed & 
some taken cap tiTe , at Haverhill, as alsoe two persons 
killed & many catt 11 at Exeter. Upon which o r Govern r 

1703-4.] SAMUEL PARTRIDGE. 171 

hath, as I am enform d from these men (I have not it from 
y e Govern*), sent out between 2 or 300 men to p r sue, & 
which may cause y e enemy to come over into o r p t8 , w ! 1 
if they doe we must look they 11 do as much misscheife 
as they can, which calls upon us to be in readyness to 
deffend o r selves & offend y e enemy as much as we can ; & 
haveing formerly given to yo r Excellency an account of 
my directions from o r Govorn r to make aplication to yo r - 
self, as an adition to what I formerly proposed: if the ene- 
my infest o r p ts & towns, all o r upper towns will be in dan- 
ger & stand in need of releife, but in speciall, Derefeild 
and Brookfeild. We have had no sould r s at Derefeild 
since about the 8 or 9^ Decemb! last, nor at Brookfeild 
since the 21 Jan rie last; though we had fears least we 
should have a surprize this winter, y e Pennecocks w ch now 
do the misscheife being so nere together. W th y e newes 
we had from Albany, of w ch I enclosed coppys in my last 
to yo r selves, through the goodness of God we are p r served 
yet, & hope for respitt till y e rivers break up & the great 
body of snow yet with us & up the river drawn down, 
w ch doubtless will in litle tyme ; but as soone as there be 
passing, we look for troubles. One end of my now write- 
ing is to crave yo! advice what methods to take w*ever 
may be needfull more ; yet doubtless a garrison of be- 
tween 30 or 40 men at Derefeild & 15 at Brookfeild will 
be needful. How farr you will supply with men, either 
for garrisons or to be improved in persueing the enemy, 
will be needfull to be concluded before hand ; for it is 
concluded by all it will be a troublesome suiher comeing. 
Excuse my boldness ; please to grant some intimation 
from yo r selves. I subscribe my self yo r Excellency's & 
Hono r s much oblidged freinde & servant, 

Sam ll Partridge. 

W n we apprehend o r danger is nere, yo r Excellency will 
heare from us. Brookfeild, I doubt, will need releife as 

172 THE WINTHROP PAPERS. [1703-4. 

soone as there is good travelling, the snow being more 
wasted that way & no rivers to obstruct y e ennernyes 


Boston, 22. Febr. 1703/4. 

S?, — I have your letters of the tenth, and M r Mason 
and Noyse of the eighth instant, and thank your care for 
the publiqe service in the advance of the Indians into the 
service. That which I would have is 100 Indians, and 
about twenty English men well known to them,' and M r 
Avery is recomended to mee as a sutable officer for them, 
to live abroad in a hut at a sutable place, to govern 
the western part of the Eastern Indians upon the Lake 
Winepesioco, which is better known to us than to your 
people ; and you make the wrong election when you 
speak of the western side of the said lake, which the 
Indians much less frequent than the eastern side thereof. 
And therefore I have sent two hundred men well ap- 
poynted, who marched this day fortnight, under our 
joynt kinsman Major Winthrop Hilton,* to Pegwockit, 
an Indian fort on the eastern side of the said lake, to 
destroy or dislodge the Indians, and by no means to 
destroy the fort, which I hope they will report to be a 
good reception for your party. And if they please to 
take the back of our towns for their march and come to 
Neckawanock on Piscataqr River, which is not above 80 
miles thence, they shall there be supplyed with amunition 
and Indian corn for their support, which shall from thence 
be further supplyed them ; and fifty or sixty of our men 
shall march with them to enstate them in that fort, if 
standing, or to build another in case it be demolished ; 

* Colonel Winthrop Hilton, a distinguished soldier, killed by the Indians June 23, 
1710, was grandson of Governor Dudley's much older half-brother Samuel, by his wife 
Mary, daughter of Governor John Winthrop the elder. — Eds. 

1703-4] FITZ-JOHN WINTHROP. 173 

and there they will be near the fishing falls and the plant- 
ing grounds both for their own supply and the hurt of 
the enemy. The place which M r Noyse speaks of is as 
well known to our people, but by no means judged so 
convenient. However, when your men come to Necka- 
wanock they shall, besides the force aforesaid, have some 
officers to go with them for advice, and I will not so 
determine it but that they shall be satisfyed upon the 
spott. I desire you will please to make no further delay, 
but let your whole force be gotten together and advise 
mee of their march, and they shall be made welcom at 
Neckewanock and strengthened for their march and set- 
tlement, and have the rewards for the enemy destroyed 
agreed by the Generall Assembly here; and shall want 
neither amunition nor corn for their support, but be fre- 
quently visited by the forces of these Provinces for their 
releif and security. I pray to hear frequently from you 
till the matter be on foot. I beleive a short fortnight will 
leave the grounds fit to march upon. I am S r , 

Your very humble servant, J. Dudley. 

If M r Mason come this way and meet the Indians at 
Neckawanock, I shall think it best. I pray you to let him 
and M r Noyse know what I write, being just arrived from 
Piscataq r and not haveing time to salute either of them. 
It is not to be doubted but these Provinces and your 
Governm* will so consider their service as not to let it 
pass without some acknowledgment and reward, in case 
they miss of success, which is not probable. The pro- 
posal of whaleboats is impracticable. 


New London, the 28 th of February, 170f. 

S* ? — Since I wrote to your Excellency by the last post 
I haue done what might be for the encouragment of our 

174 THE WINTHROP PAPERS. [1703-4. 

Indians to seme against our Eastern enemy, and vpon 
the receipt of y r Exeellencys letter by this post, w c . b came 
to me yesterday, I ordered the Councill to meet me this 
dny, & communicated your letter to them and to Cap* 
Mason, whom I also sent for, but M r Noyes could not be 
here ; and, vpon our further discourse with our Indians, 
we find they are resoluecl not to stir from home vpon the 
incouragment proposed by your Gouernment only, but do 
insist also upon our allowing them, as formerly, 12 d p 
diem. The Councill here, considering the state of this 
affair, haue unanimously resolued to engage the allow- 
ance to them, and I haue this day sent a post to the 
Assistants which liue remote, to haue theire concurance 
therein, which I doe conclude will be obtained, and so the 
assistance desired be aforded without such a delay as y e 
calling a Gen 11 Court at this time would necessarily occa- 
sion. In the meane time we are takeing care that our 
Indians be prepare! for the march, which I hope they will 
be ready for as I shall heare from y r Excellency by the 
next post. Our Indians are desireous to march to Berwick 
by the way of Dunstable, and a small party of them, 
with a few English, would advance first as far as Manad- 
nuck, whare they are confident thare is a party of Nipmng 
Indians, which they conclude they can surprise, and so 
meet with the rest of theire own company at Dunstable. 
But I am not willing to consent tharto without your Excel- 
lency's advice, who without doubt do best know w T hether 
such a motion may be of any service, or what Indians 
they are who may be supposed to be hunting in those 
woods. What your Excellency writes concerning the 
place where you conclude it will be most advantagious to 
improue our forces, the Councill hath considered, and are 
satisfied in that assurance y r Excellency giues them of 
that assistance & conduct you promise our men when 
they come to Berwick, provided the said assistance be 
continued with them ; for Pigwakit fort, whare your 

1703-4.] FITZ-JOHN WINTHROP. 175 

Excellency proposes that our forces may take vp theire 
head-quarters, is so far into the enemye's country that 
our men are not willing to be thare unless your Excel- 
lency strengthen them by adding such a number to them 
as shall be sufficient to hold the fort, that our Indians 
may be advantaged thereby in excursions they are de- 
sireous of makeing from thence. As for the difficulties 
which some here haue supposd in supplying a fort so 
remote with provision, we conclude y r Excellency hath 
taken such measures as are necessary and will alwayes 
giue necessary directions for that end. Wee further de- 
syre your Excellency that, in the power and instructions 
you shall be good to giue our forces when within your 
Gouerment, which we shall order them to apply to your 
Excellency for, you would grant all the liberty that may 
be, both to our English and Indians, to take all advan- 
tages to make excursions from the proposed fort into the 
enemies country; for they are very loth to be under a 
necessity to abide in that fort and to be restrained from 
endeauouring to take as many scalps & captives as they 
can. It will be therefore a great encouragment to them 
if your Excellency doth strengthen them with such a 
number of English as may be helpfull to them in holding 
the garrison, since otherwise they think the greatest part 
of theire number will be obliged to remaine in the fort 
and so not be able to range the woodes. S r , I expect 
every day an answere to my circuler letters, haueing 
ordered a veiw of the Indians upon the skirts of our 
Government, where some of them reside & settled for 
their winter hunting, and hope to haue some of them as 
very fit for the designe, and to recrute the company 
from hence. I wish you health and succes, and am 

S r , your very humble serv*, J: Winthrop. 

Postscript. Just as I am sending this I rec? y? enclosed 
from Coll: Partridge, vpon w c . h I am takeing care for a 

176 THE WINTHROP PAPERS. [1703-4. 

supply of men for the garison of Deerfeild and Brookfeild, 
& haue also ordered sixty men about Hartford to be in 
redyness to releiue the uper townes if y e Enemy make an 
attack vpon them. I desire the Coll 3 letter may be re- 
turnd when you haue perusd it. Cap* Mason writes to 
your Excellency by this post concerning our Indians 
march to Manadnuck in theire way to Eastward, and I 
shall expect your advice about it in your next. 


For her Maj tys Service, For the Honorable John Winthrop Esq r , Governer 
and Comander in Chief of her Maj ty ' Colony of Connectticott, these, 
in New London. 

Hartford, March the 4 th 1703/4. 

S B , — This afternoon our forces returned from the 
county of Hapshire, who give this sorrowfull acco* of 
that action. * About two houres before day on Tuesday 
morning last, some of the enemy got over the garrison by 
the help of a drift of snow blown up ag 8t it, who imedi- 
ately open'd the gates ; by which means the rest entred 
without any oposition, with horrid shouting and yelling 
alarm 'd the sleeping inhabitants and w- fire and sword 
made lamentable desolations. It's judg'd the enemy con- 
sisted of between 3 or 4 hundred, the one halfe or more 
being French. By the best acco*, is suppos'd they kil'd 
about 49 persons and captivated near 100 ; the enemy it's 
judg'd have lost near forty besides wounded. They 
quitted the towne between 9 and ten, being persu'd by a 
small party of about 30 men who came first to the relief 
of the distressed, whose courage was more worthy ap- 
lauss then their conduct. Altho they kil'd five, yet ven- 
turing too farr lost nine in the retreat ere they could 
recover the garrison. When the other forces that 

* The well-known Deerfield massacre, which took place Feb. 29, 1703-4. —Eds. 

1703-4.] WILLIAM WHITING. 177 

march'd up came upon the ground, a councill of warr was 
held and by the majority concluded impracticable to 
follow the enemy, the snow being near three foot deep. 
There was no travaling but in their path, therefore to 
venture would but expose themselves without any hopes 
of success \ whereupon that county men return'd, leaving 
only our men in the garrison that night, who drew off 
next morning. Cap* Wells his house w th the persons 
therein safe, as also another that was not forted, where 
were seven men did bravely defend themselves, notwith- 
standing many threatnings, promises and vigorous as- 
saults made by the enemy. They march'd 5 or 6 miles 
that day, as we are inform' d by a captive that made an 
escape from them the first night, who gives this farther 
acco* that his master inform'd him there came 600 in all 
over the lake, whereof 200 were upon some other enter- 
prize and not yet return'd. The Councill of Warr have 
signified this matter to the townes of Symsbury, Farming- 
ton, Waterberrie and Woodberrie, with advice to be upon 
their guard. S r , this covers a letter from Col. Partridge 
directed to your Honour, wherein he refreshes his desire 
of 60 or 70 men to be posted in those townes. Yesterday, 
persuant to your Hon" letter to the gentlemen of the 
Councill, an express was sent to the Deputy Governer re- 
specting the men to be raised in the countys of New 
Haven and Fairfield, that they might be in a readiness to 
march as need should require, but its possible nothing 
will be effected unless your Honour's pleasure be fully 
known in that matter. We are likewise informd some 
men are sent to Albany to advise them of this party of 
Indians, that if possible they may be intercepted in their 
returne. We are, S r , your Honours most humble and 
obedient servants, 

By order of the Councill of Warr, Will : Whiting. 

Mr. Williams his wife and sevn children carryd away. 


178 THE WINTHROP PAPERS. [1703-4. 


For her Majetyes especial Service, To the Honorable John Winthrop 
Esq r , Governour of her Majestyes Colony of Connecticut, N: London. 

Roxbuky, 6 March, 1703 4. 

S B , — I have your letters of the twenty eighth past, for 
which I thank you, and am glad your gentlemen think 
so well of the service as to gratify your Indians, though 
the 12 d per diem is truly too much for them, and am 
contented that they call at Dunstable, at the fort there 
near to Groton River upon the outward edge of that 
town, and have nothing against their scouting to Manad- 
nuck, a party of them as they come along. Though I 
have had two partyes there already on a months time and 
find nothing, they may yet meet something in that cross 
range ; but I am of opinion that there are scarce any 
settlements between Connecticut and Merimack, but that 
they are all gone eastward of Saco River to lodge their 
wives and children more securely. In this article you 
will only let the scout that take the circle be before the 
other party, that they may as near as may bee meet at 
Dunstable without the loss of time, and that there be 
some English men with each party, for fear of a mischeif 
amongst several other partyes I have had this last month 
abroad. Major Hilton with two hundred are newly re- 
turned from Pegwakit and found the fort there deserted, 
and left it standing as I ordered, with sixty or more 
wigwams in it very fit for the receipt of the Moheegs, 
with whom I hope you will send at least twenty English 
men well acquainted with them and their mailers, that 
may have the imediate inspection of them, and I will 
adde thirty more at least, who may be garison in the 
fort when the Indians are abroad. Further, I am per- 
fectly of your mind that they shall not be sent thither 
to keep garrison, but shall be in all projects assisted 
in looking after the enemy, and the fort there shall 
be reformed in the first place, and they may have of the 

1703-4.] JOSEPH DUDLEY. 179 

planting grounds at the fort gate the assistance, of a 
little corn and squashes or what they please. If, on the 
contrary, they should settle on the west side of the Lake, 
I am certainly of opinion they will scarce see an Indian 
this summer. It remayns only that you will consider the 
time of their inarch and advise mee that I may order a 
refreshment for them at Dunstable, and make ready the 
first supply of corn at Barwick which shall go into the 
woods with them, and I think I have run a marked way 
from Neckawanock to the fort that will admit of no 
blunders. I hope your men at Hartford, as well as any at 
Springfeild, will not let the enemy pass from Deerfeild 
without some impression to let them know we are awake, 
though the poor inhabitants were asleep. This march is 
from Mont Real of French and Indians, and I hope our 
fresh men can march as fast as they. I have had out 
this winter: Captain Tyng, with 60 men — 17dayes 

Major Hilton, with 200 — 23 " 
Captain Stephens, " 90— 19 " 
f Captain Bulkley, " 60 — 
L fc Wilder, " 30 — 

Cap* Chesley, " 100 — 

Captain Harvey, " 50 — 
(besides 300 men in garison in the Province of Mayn) ; 
and all these companyes are between Saco River and 
Conecticut and have yet heard of no Indians, unless 
those that are yet out have any better succes. How- 
ever, the Indians are now sensible that we can walk upon 
rackets and carry our victuals as well as they, and the 
circles that we have taken in the woods make that figure 
that they will scarce lodge so near us another winter. I 
pray to hear when you are marching ; we must now expect 
a \_uieg.~\ ill time upon the breaking up. I beleive it best 
that they march yet upon the snow and ice, which is yet 
very firm in the country. I am, Sf your very humble 
serv', J. Dudley. 

There are now 
out : 

180 THE WINTHROP PAPERS. [1703-4. 


Boston, March 6 11 ? 1703/4. 

Hono 8 ^ S R , — It is presumed your Honour will receive 
an accompt from Col Partridge of the tragedy acted by a 
party of the French & Indians, to the number of 150 or 
thereabout, upon the inhabitants of Deerfield on the last 
of February past, when they entred that town some little 
time before breake of day, the watches being negligent of 
their duty, and were surprized ; the enemy setting fire to 
the houses and killing and seizeing upon the inhabitants 
as they came affrighted out of their houses. They have 
killed in all fifty seven, taken ninety captives, of which 
number is the minister and his family. The fires being 
descried at Hatfield, Col° Partridge posted away a com- 
pany of sixty souldiers, who came to the place about 
sunrise, beat the enemy out of the town, and thirty of 
them were left dead on the spot. And altho' a further 
enforcem* from Springfield came in a short time to them, 
as also your forces, yet no pursuit was made after the 
enemy ; the pretence is the depth of the snow and fear 
least the enemy should kill the captives. About one 
halfe of the town is yet standing and a large house w 1 ! 1 a 
good fort about it, where is Cap*? Wells with a sufficient 
number of men to defend it. And his Excellency will not 
have it slighted ; he had enforced the place with twenty 
souldiers but four days before this mischiefe, and has 
intimation by a captive that is escaped, that another 
party of the enemy to the number of 200 are abroad, 
with intent to fall upon some town on the river, or on 
some of our northern frontiers. Wherefore his Excell c . y 
desires that your men may be continu d sometime for the 
strengthening of Deerfield and Quaboag, whilst ours are 
imployed for the defence of the other parts where the 
enemy may be probable to make an impression ; wherein 
his Excell7 has given the necessary orders, and has com- 

1703-4.] ISAAC ADDINGTON. 181 

manded me to give your Honor this briefe accompt, who 
am, Sf your Hono™ most humble serv*, 

Is^ Addington. 

Govf Winthrop. 


For her Ma tie Service, To if Hono rhle Gouerno r Winthrop at New London, 
w th speed, Sf convay g Sarjeant Dauenport. 

Hono rble S R , — I am sorry that I cannot make matters 
to bear about y e Indians goeing to y e eastward. Y e Fair- 
feild Countie men & our men doe so oppose it, and stick 
not to say y e last Assembly oposed sending any souldiers 
to y e eastward y s winter; and y e mistake ariseth from 
y e gentlemen of Harford sending downe orders to those 
westerne counties to send up 60 souldiers. a captaine & 
leftenant, and blank coinissions, & not a word for whom 
y e commissions were, but supposeing that they had been 
for y e sixty men to go up to Hamshire. If there had 
been the least hint y* they had been to goe w th them y fc 
goe eastward w th y e Indians, you would not haue faild 
of them. I beg yo r Hono rs pardon & remaine yo rs in all 
readines to serve faithfully, 

R : Treat. D. G. 

M : March y e 7, 170}. 


On her Ma* 1 ! 3 Service, For the Honora h \ e John Winthrop Esq r . Governor of 
her Ma: ties Colony of Connecticot, New-London. 

Boston, March 10 t . h 170}. 

Hono bi ; e S R , — The season of the year advanceing, 
wherein the provisions raysed within your and the neigh- 
bouring Governments are usually transported and brought 
about to Boston, and the French of Port Royal in time 

182 THE WINTHROP PAPERS. [1703-4. 

of war endeavouring to supply themselves by comeing on 
this coast to surprize and take the coasting vessells with 
provisions : I am therefore commanded by his Excellency 
to intimate to your Honour that he will have a sloop or 
vessell of war in readiness to attend and convoy the 
coasters from New London about the Cape, if your 
Honour please to take order that they come not single, 
but make up a fleet there, and advise when a number of 
them may be in a readiness to come from thence. I am, 
Hono b ! e S r your Hon ors most humble serv' 

Is A Addington. 


For her Maj lis Service, To his Excellency John Winthrop Esq r Cap*. Gen 1 } 

Sf Govern* in Cheife in 8? for her Maf* Colony of Conitticot, these 

p r sent. 

Hatf'd, March 13. 170f. 

May it please yo r Excellency, — The enclosed gives 
an accompt of o r proceedings under o r p r sent circumstances, 
of w ch intreate yo r candid thoughts concerning things as 
they be. Its w e God sees meete, however there may be 
too much of weakness ; yet I beleive yo r men & o r s had 
will enoff had not their way been barred, & as it were shut 
up ; & hearing yo r Excellency & gentlemen of the Coun- 
sell are to meete this week at Hartford, I make bold to 
p r sent yo r self with the p r sent state of o r affaires as to y e 
p r sent warr. Derefeild is broken as afores d , but 25 fight- 
ing men left; o r Govern 1 " is express in holding that post, 
w ch I setled immediately w n the misscheife done & keep 
still of inhabitants & sould r s 30 men under Capt Wells. 
W fc further ord™ for setling them of y e town & a garrison 
there I expect speedyly. Hatfeild is y e next, being one 
mile & half in length, with 14 garrison houses & but 100 
men of o T own, w°? w n y e spring comes on will mostly be 
improved in y e feilds. The town will be much exposed, 

1703-4.] SAMUEL PARTRIDGE. 183 

neither could they deffend y m selves if all at home & did 
nothing else, y e enemy w n they approach comeing with 
strength. Hadly is und r the like circumstances with 
Hatf d , & y e same number of men something more disad- 
vantaged, inasmuch as help cannot come to y m from y e 
neighbo r ing towns but by crossing y e river. Northamp- 
ton hath 150 fighting men & are compact, yet an enemy 
might do great spoyle upon them. Brook field or Qnabaug 
we keep a garrison there of 20 men ; all w ch lye mostly 
exposed to y e enemy, w cb if they be relieved it is only at 
p r sent from o r low r towns & from yo r selves at Coniticot, & 
so it will be most advantage to us if it be so still ; & now 
y e enemys seem to be bent to do w* spoyle they can & 
have made considerable spoyles already, it seemes highly 
nessessary that speedy care be taken for the secureing y e 
towns mostly exposed, & indeed all y e towns upon y e river 
& those ajacent in yo r Province, w c . h are litle less exposed, 
Waterberry, Wood berry & on Straford River, to w c . h the 
enemy may come. It is gen llie judged it will be a tyme of 
great trouble this next sumer ; o r towns & many others 
that are fronters will need to be strengthened, & running 
armyes moveing most p* of the sum r . O r people are so 
tranceported with the late stroak at DereP that I can 
hardly pacifie them without men to garrison o r towns ; we 
need 100 men at least to be setled in Hadly, Hatf 1 & 
Deref d . The enemy rush in at unawares & do spoyles ; 
in this way we shall dye a lingering death & do no great 
spoyle on y e enemy, but alwayes be upon y e looseing hand. 
Therefore it seemes to me highly reasonable & of nesses- 
sitie that some attaques be made upon y r towns & to fight 
the enemy upon their own ground, w c . h is w 1 ? 1 yo r Excel- 
lency & Hono r s, & I hope o r authorities will consider it 
either by applications to y e Queen's Maj ty for force of ship- 
ping or otherwise to make attaques & subdue Canada; for 
they have been ill neighbo r s to us at all tyms, furnishing 
y e Indians & instigateing of them, & now joyneing with 

184 THE WINTHROP PAPERS. [1703-4. 

them, y* we might expect nothing but blood & spoyle as 
farr as they can go. If we have no help from home we 
are 3 or 4 Provinces united in one cause ; surely we have 
men enoff to prosecute a war in their country by a suffi- 
ciency of men & shipping to bide the place till the work 
be done & o r enemys subdued. I pray God give guid- 
ance to yo r Excellency & Hono r s & all unitedly concerned 
in this great affaire, to whome I desire dayly to comend 
you, & rest yo r much oblidged & service, 

Sam ll Partridge. 

I had expectation of some men from yo r p*s if the 
weather hold, but am lookeing for the weather warm & 
y e rivers breaking ; conclude yo r Excellency & Hono re 
judge theire is less danger then before y e late mischeife; 
if so, I submitt & shall waite. W n y e spring comes on & 
ground dry, o r dangers will grow on. 

Mch : 14. 170f. At y e tyme of y e mischeife done at 
Derefeild we imediately sent a post to Albany, giveing 
them accompt of the mischeife, desireing y m to meete y e 
enemy as they went off. The enclosed coppy of Col 
Schuylers letter is their return. Severall of o r men in 
this county, notwithstanding o r law binding all persons of 
16 y r s of age to abide in the fronteres, yet they pri- 
vately got away into yo r Colony without lycence. I 
entreate that all such men by yo r authoritie may be 
coinanded to return, either by impressing y m for soldiers, 
or otherwise. 


[March 15. 170| .] 

Gentlemen, — It was with much difficulty that I con- 
sented to call you together at this tyme, but the preser- 
vation of her Majestyes intrest, & of the people of this 

1703-4.] FITZ-JOHN WINTHROP. 185 

Collony, made me conclude it absolutely necessary to call 
this Court, that I might confer with you at this danger- 
ous tyme for our preservation. And as it is the first I 
have desired since I came to the Governm*, soe I hope 
you will all concur with me in the reasonablenes of it, 
espetially as it may be an opportunety to awaken you 
from your securety, that you may see yo r danger and 
escape it, the enemy haveing but just now made horrible 
desolations & murthers on our brethren on the very skirts 
of our Government. I must let you know that Coll: 
Dudley, her Maj: Governor of the Mattathusets, whose 
intercourse with me shall be layde before you in our let- 
ters, did desire me (as an assistance he hoped might be 
serviceable to the common intrest) to encourage about an 
hundred of our Indians to goe against the enemy, upon 
certaine conditions w ch he offered to them ; but they 
wholly rejected them & would not stir unles wee would 
allsoe give them 12 d p r day, w ch the Council, upon their 
sence of the gen 1 ! calamity, did unanimously agre to. 
And indeede I thought myself obliged in conscience, jus- 
tice & hon r to concur with them therein, and considerable 
preparations have been made in order to their goeing 
against the enemy ; but, upon farther consideration, I 
have thought fit to put a stop to their proceeding at 
present, and doe wholy submit that affaire to the pleasure 
and direction of this Assembly ; yet earnestly desiring 
that you will readily compassionate the sufferings of y r 
brethren, and I will most heartily concur with you therein. 
There seemes to be a Providence that threatens the peace 
& quiet of the whole country, w ch calls for your most 
weighty consultations & yo r present resolutions, and tis 
noe tyme now to be in love with the doteage of mony 
whilst our whole intrest lyes at stake and the blood of 
our brethren spilt in every quarter. I therefore recomend 
it to you to assist against the publick enemy as becomes 
the honour of this Government. 




For her Majesties Service, To if Hono rhU Majo r Gener n Winthrop, Gou- 
erno r of her Ma tts Colonie of Conecticot, in New London. 

Honour ble S R , — I this day receaved a coppie of o r late 
Court orders to be published to morrow morning w th us, 
& also in y e couutie of Fairfeild if they please, though y e 
people doe expect to receave yo r Honours warrants and 
then they will soon impress and hasten y e sending of their 
men to Hamshire w th what speed they can. Its a great 
way for o r souldiers to march on foot ; I see they will 
stand hard to haue a horse between two of them, their 
clothes & napsacks and other accoutrements, for so long a 
time. If they should not be put upon scouting at all, a 
light burden to them will seem far heavie, and they haue 
been so used to have a horse betwixt two of y m , at least 
up to their quarters. I shall be as spareing as I may, 
although I think it not prudence to discourage o r souldiers 
under our circumstances. And not further to giue yo r 
Hono r trouble, but with my humble service & duty pre- 
sented to yo r Hono r , hopeing by the first to heare from 
you, I take leave to subscribe yo r Hono rs dutifull & obe- 
dient servant, 

R: Treat. D. G. 

Milf™ y 9 23 d of March, 170 J. 


For her MajestyJs Service, To his Excellency Joseph Dudley, Esq. Cap 1 . 
Generall fy Gov*, in Gheif of her Majestyes Province of Mattathusets 
fyc, at Boston. 

New London, March 25 th 1701. 

S R , — I returned hither from the Gen! 1 Assembly at 
Hartford on the 20 th instant, who readily concurred with 
me to send out 100 voluntires for your assistance against 


the Eastward enemy, twelve or more of them to be Eng- 
lish, the rest Indians; and for encouragement to prosecute 
the designe, the Assembly haue left it with me to ad to 
the usuall pay of the English voluntires, w eh I haue ad- 
vanced to eleven shillings per week, w ch is two shillings 
more then wee allow to our pres't souldiers, and hope by 
that help to make vp the number proposed ; and they 
haue agreed to giue the Indians 12 d per day, w ch is the 
same they haue formerly had, and more lately in their 
scout betweene Windsor and Woodstock, & was content- 
full to them. And that the designe may be noe longer 
delayed, I sent for Cap* Mason and to haue his acc e of the 
Moheags that would goe out, concluding with your Ex- 
cellency, by some of your letters, that he had intrest in 
them to move them when he desired ; and yesterday the 
cheif of the Indians were with me and I concluded their 
men were ready to march, but, contrary to my expecta- 
tion, they seemed not free to goe unless wee would giue 
them more wages, w c ? much surprised me that they 
should dare to put such affront vpon the Government 
and our comon intrest; but vpon farther discourse with 
them and makeing them sensible of their behaviour, I per- 
ceive they will take vp with 12 d per day, and the Mo- 
heags will send out 20 men armed, and would advance 
ten more if they had armes, but they cannot be furnished 
here. The Pequots will send out thirty men armed and 
the Nihanticks (a few) will send 4 men armed, and I 
beleiue, if armes could be procured, 20 or 30 more might 
be raised. This is the present state of that affaire, w ? 1 I 
haue endevoured to promote for the publick safety, and 
indeed beyond my power ; and tho the number be short 
of what yo? Excellency proposed, yet if you think they 
may be improved to any advantage, they shall be upon 
their march within two dayes after my receipt of your 
letter, and they shall be at your direction as soone as 
they are in your Government, and I will send both Eng- 


lish and Indians under Cap* Averye's comand, the person 
your Excellency mentioned to me. The Gen 1 ! Court haue 
allsoe ordered sixty souldiers to be sent vp to secure 
the townes of your Hampshire, who will allsoe serve as 
scoutes vpon the fron tires. Mf Secretary Addington 
advised me by the last post that your Excellency would 
send a convoy for the coasting uessells, and I haue there- 
vpon ordered all our uessells to be in this port the midle 
of Aprill. I will wait for your Excellencye's letter by 
the next post, who must not delay at this tyme, and 
am, S r , 

Your very humble serv', J: Winthrop. 


Roxbury, 30. March, 1704. 

S*, — I hope before this comes to your hands your Mo- 
heegs will be marched, and if part of them go by Manad- 
nuck hill, with two or three English men in company, 
and come in to their fellows at Dunstable, I have there a 
refreshment for them and guides to conduct them. I am 
earnestly desirous that at least ten English men keep 
them company, out of whom you will please to recomend 
such as may be officers and governours of them, whom I 
will comission thereto, and have enclosed a leitunant's 
comission for the conductor of the Manadnuck party. I 
earnestly recomend to you the care of the upper towns 
and New Roxbury, which are truly the fronteirs of your 
Province, and pray your gentlemen at Hartford will be 
in earnest for their assistance. I am oppressed with the 
remembrance of my sleepy neighbours at Deerfeild, and 
that all that came to their assistance could not make out 
snow shoes to follow a drunken, loaden, tyred enemy, of 
whom they might have been masters to our honour. L* 
Colone 11 Partridge will soleicit you for a propper number 

1704.] ISAAC ADDINGTON. 189 

for Deerfeild, Hatfeild, Hadly, Brookfeild. I pray your 
favour for your good countrymen. I shall have nine 
hundred men in amies in the severall parts eastward this 
sumer, which will be an intolerable charge ; the tenth 
part of it w T ill secure our upper towns. I ask your pardon 
and am, S r your Honors most humble serv*, 

J. Dudley. 


Boston, ult. March, 1704. 

Hono 6 ™ S B , — His Excellency being very much indis- 
posed, cannot write to yo r Honour by this post as he in- 
tended, and therefore has commanded me, in the most 
pressing manner, to recommend to yo r Hono r . s considera- 
tion the condition of our upper towns in Hampshire upon 
Connecticut River, where the enemy has lately made so 
great an impression. And the probability there is of 
further incursions to be made upon them, and earnestly 
to pray yo r Honour to afford the assistance of eighty men 
from yo r governm* for the enforcement of Deerfield, Qua- 
boag, and Woodstock, w r hich are all frontiers to your 
Colony. And our General Assembly have prayed his 
Excellency to be very instant with your Hono r on that 
head. His Excellency is putting forward an expedition 
with ab' six hundred men, and vessells and boats to at- 
tend them, to insult the French settlements to the east- 
ward, in and about Nova-Scotia, and at the same time to 
disrest the Indians ; and is necessitated to rayse a great 
many more for the guarding of our frontiers on that side. 
It may not be improbable that when the enemy find 
themselves pressed hard in those parts, they may make a 
rote westward and endeavour some strong effort upon our 
towns lying on your river, which if they carry, they will 
easily come within your bowels. I doubt not of your 
Honour's concernedness in this common cause, and readi- 


ness to contribute your utmost to the suppressing of 
these bloody salvages. Therefore shall add no more, 
onely to pray your Honour to believe that I am, with 
great regard, Hono b ! e Sir. 

Your Honours obedient humble servant, 

Is" Addington. 


Boston, 3 April. 1704. 
S*, — I thank your care for the march of your Indians 
and English to Dunstable. I desire you will send the 
whole complement away forthwith, as well those without 
armes as those with, and I shall take care to supply their 
defects of armes as soon as I see them. I pray that the 
English men may not fayle to conduct them and help to 
assist in their management. In this service the English 
shall have all the justice and freindship from mee that I 
owe to the Queens service. I pray there may be no 
further delay in this affayr, nor in that of the sixty men 
for Hampshire. I am S r , 

Your Honors very humble serv*, J. Dudley. 

Governour Winthrop. 


For her Majestyes Service, To the Honorable John Winthrop Esq r ., Gov- 
ernour of her Majestyes Colony of Connecticut. 

Boston, 18 th April, 1704. 

S H , — I understand the sixty men your Honour has 
given mee towards the support of the frontiers of Con- 
necticut River are arrived at Hatfield. I desire you will 
give me the names of the officers to whome you have 
given the command of them, that they may receive my 

1704.] JOSEPH DUDLEY. 191 

commission for the government of their souldiers as auxil- 
iaries in her Majesties service in this Province, without 
which they may not command. 1 am a little surprized 
to find a committee of your General Assembly enter 
upon the direction for their settlem* quarters and method 
of improvement, because T may not admit of it. I very 
well know your General Assembly must consent to the 
advancement of souldiers into the service, but the man- 
agement of them in the service must be with the com- 
manding officers in the parts, and in this province at 
present with my selfe. S? I pray to be understood you 
shall withdraw your troops that you give me for her 
Majesties service when you please, but in this government 
their commission and service must be under the direction 
of her Majesties Commission here ; which I hope will 
surprize no English Governm* that love the Crown. Major 
Mason, Captain Avery and the troop of Indians with them 
were with mee at Dunstable. I there saw them, supplyed 
their defects of armes and cloaths, and they are now at 
Nechawanock, where they shall receive my further or- 
ders. I saw your instructions to Captain Avery and do 
approve them, and am giveing her Majesty account of 
your service. 

I am, Sfj your very humble servant, 

J. Dudley. 


For her Ma fi f Service, For the Hono hl . e John Winthrop Esq* Governour 
of her Ma ty . s Colony of Connecticutt, New-London. 

Boston, April 22* 1704. 

HoNO B ^ E S a , — I am commanded by his Excellency to 
acquaint yo r Honour that the General Assembly of this 
Province have thought it necessary for the common safety 
in this time of war, to pass an order that all Frenchmen 


residing within the Province be registred, and they put 
under such a regulation that if, at any time after, they be 
convicted of holding correspondence with the French and 
Indian enemy, they may without dispute be proceeded 
with as English men should be under the like circum- 
stances, and that all French Roman Catholicks be forth- 
with made prisoners of war. And to desire that the same 
precaution may be used within your government. 
I am S? your Hono™ most humble servant, 

Is? Addington. 


New London, Aprill 22 d 1704. 

My Lord, — The late desolations made vpon her Maj- 
estye's subjects at Deerefeild in the County of Hampshire 
by the French and Indians and the eminent danger that 
her Majestye's subjects are exposed to, moves me to lay 
before your Excellency whether it be not a matter ol 
great importance for the severall Governments in this 
country to forme an expedition to Canada, w ! 1 under the 
direction and influence of your Excellency and the bless- 
ing of Allmighty God, may, I hope, prove a suitable 
meanes to distres the enemy and preserve our country 
from their incursions. If your Excellency please to 
entertaine a favourable opinion of the motion, and I 
recomend it to the rest of the Governments, I shall pro- 
pose such measures as your Excellency shall think suita- 
ble to be taken therein to our Gen 1 . 1 Assembly, w c . h will 
convene the 11 th of the next month, who I doubt not 
will be ready to forward the designe to their utmost abil- 
ity. I haue sent the bearer to wait vpon your Excel- 
lency with this and to receive such advice as you shall 
please to returne. I beg your Excellency's pardon for 
this proposall, w ! 1 is sincerely for the preservation of her 


Majestye's intrest and of her good subjects in the other 
Governments as well as this, and is humbly submitted to 
your Excellencye's opinion by, my Lord, 

Your Excellencyes most faythfull humble serv fc , 

J: Winthrop. 


New London, April 23<? 1704. 

Gentlemen, — I have yo r letter of Aprill 17 th by 
Cap* Whiting & M r Lord, w ch is very acceptable to me, & 
I have convened the Council and laid your letter before 
them for their consideration, and doe conclude with your- 
selues the reasonablenes of formeing an expedition against 
Canada if the other Governments will concur therein, & 
have agreed to a letter w c * I have wrot to the Lord Corn- 
bury to expres our readines to such a designe, & I think 
tis fit it should be sent by a gentleman on purpose, and 
have therefore desired [blank] to make dispatch thither 
and receive such opinion & advice from his Excellency as 
he shall give in the matter. I was thoughtfull upon my 
first sight of yo r letter whether it were proper for us to 
make the first proposall of a matter of soe great moment, 
but upon further consideration I think it may be an evi- 
dence of our early care & regard for the preservation of 
her Majestyes intrest and of her good subjects here (as 
everywhere), and soe consent it may be proposed to his 
Excellency if yourselves are still of the same opinion. 
I have onely to ad my hearty salutations to yourselves 
and am 

Yo r affectionate serv* J: Winthrop. 




To the Honorable John Winthrop, Esq. her Maj : Governour in Cheeffe of 
y e Cottony of Connetticutt, att New London, p r M r Jo : Livingston. 

Albany, the 2i* of Aprill, 1704. 

May it please your Hon r , — Itt was a surprise to 
us to hear from Colonell Samuel Partridge of Hatfield 
what murder & destruction the French & Indians from 
Canada haue committed at Dearfield in New England, of 
which M r John Livingston on his arrival here gave us an 
exact account. Collonel Peter Schuyler, one of her Maj : 
Council for this Province, being upon his Excellency our 
Govern 1 " 3 desyne gone to New Yorke, in whose absence I 
doe make bould to give your Hon r y e trouble of these few 
lines and my opinion of y e Five Nations of Indians : who 
have these severall years, by their propositions to our late 
& present Governour and at other times, enquired for 
their brethren of Virginia, Maryland and New England, 
saying that in former years they used once in a year or 
two to come & renew y e covenant chain, but now none 
of them comes to see us, so that I doubt they will not be 
verry willing in assistance at first against y e Indian enemy. 
And I conceive it would not be amiss (if his Excellency y e 
Governour of Boston thought fitt) to send some gentle- 
men of his government here this summer with some 
presents, to renew y e covenant chain with them, whereby 
encouragement may be given them and persuaded to lift 
y 8 hatchet against y e Onnagongquees or -Eastern Indians, 
which would not only tend to her Maj 9 service but also 
for y e quiet & ease of y e inhabitants of your fronteers. 
These, with my humble respect to your lady, is what 
humbly offers at present from him who takes leave to 
subscribe himself with all sincerity 

Your Hon™ most humble & most obedient servant, 

Johannis Schuyler. 

* Johannes Schuyler (h. 1668 — d. 1747) was youngest brother of Colonel Peter Schuyler, 
and served with distinction in the French and Indian wars. He was grandfather of the 
Revolutionary patriot, General Philip Schuyler. — Eds. 

1704.] CALEB STANLEY. 195 


For her Majesty s Service, To the Honr ahU John Winthrop Esquire, Gou- 
orno r offe her Majeties Collony offe Coneticutt, in New London. 

Harttford, Aprill 26 l . h 1704. 

Honr able S R , — I am comanded by the Committy offe 
Warr for Hartford County to sende the inclosed letter to 
yo r Hon 1 ' from Coll Partridg, with theire answer to him, 
refferring the answer and furder advice to yo r wisdome 
and opinion therein, and by our letter yo r Hon r may per- 
ceiue our present thoughts that there may be no alltera- 
tion offe yo r Hon r s commitions to either of our commition 
officers in that county vntill yo r farther order and consent, 
which we hope yo r Hon r will well delibrate before itt be 
don. Being all but the tender of our service to yo r Hon r , 
remaine yo r humble servts. Signed by 

Caleb Stanly, sen r 

By order offe the Councell or Commity of Warr for 
the county of Harttford. 

Postscript. Hon r able S r , — Itt being somtime longer 
than we expeckted before wee could sende you Coll Par- 
tridges first letter, we have reseaved a second from him & 
have sent that allso to yo r Hon r , and returned him that 
answer that wee were willing all our 60 men should bee 
posted att Deerefeild because of having there officers with 
them, and itt were farr better to haue them togather then 
to bee divided into so many parcells. Or iff they saw not 
reson so to doe, that then they should sende up 40 of 
theire souldgrs that know the woods, with 40 of ours, to 
be able to scout the woods & descover an enemy if possi- 
ble, that none of theire or ower towns bee serprised, iff 
any asault should bee, and the remaining 20 men of ours 
shall bee left 10 att Hadly & 10 att Hattfeild according to 
theire desire. Allso wee haue sent him word, iff all our 
60 men go to Deerefeild yet he shall send 20 men of 


theires to scout with them vntill furder orders from our 
Generall Court and them ; for Coll Partridge sends word, 
as you see in his last letter, that they will apply themselus 
to o r General Court for more men to be sent up to them. 
As for the news from Allbany, you will haue itt better 
than o r selues by M r Liuingstone. S r , our men, Capt Whit- 
ing & Capt Lord, we hope will go in a sutable time to treat 
the Lord Cornbery (because theire Generall Assembly is 
now in being, as M r Liuingston informs us) ; they went 
away about the midle of last weke from Harttford. S r , I 
remain yo r humble serv*, 

Caleb Stanly, sen*. 


New London, Aprill 27< h , 1704. 

S B , — I haue your Excellency e's letter of the 18 th and 
haue enclosed the names of the Cap* and Lie* that haue 
the coniand of the forces for the support of the frontires, 
and they haue my comission for their conduct whilst they 
serve in our Government; but I doe very well know they 
must haue your comission in Hampshire, w ch I concluded 
would be ready for them there. What your Excellency 
mentions of a Comitte that entered vpon directions for 
quartering and improvement of the forces sent thither, I 
suppose to be noe other then their freindly advice vpon 
the request of your officers, which I think might not very 
unsesonably be offered, since it might be need full to haue 
consultation with your officers, as the forces were pro- 
posed to be serviceable in our as well as your Province ; 
and I should be extremely surprised if our officers should 
venture to doe any act of authority within your Province 
without your comission. I shall be very sorry if any 
little mistake should leade to any misunderstanding be- 
twene us, or of our intentions to promote her Majesty e's 

1704.] JOSEPH DUDLEY. 197 

service and the publick safety, but I am sure noe thing 
shall be wanting on my part to observe the stricktest tye 
of freindship and good correspondence with your Excel- 
lency, to secure her Majestyes intrest and the publick 
welfare. I am glad our Volluntires were got to Dunsta- 
ble and since to Nichenanock ; they had my possitiue 
orders to follow & observe your directions as soone as 
they came into your Province. I shall be glad to heare 
of their succes against the enemy, but if they are fruitles 
to your service, they may be best at home. I am S?, 
Your very humble serv fc , 

J: Winthrop. 
Gov? Dudley. 


To the Honorable John Winthrop Esq r , Governour of her Majestyes Col- 
lony of Connecticut, New London* 

Boston, 1. May 1704. 

S R , — I have the honour of yours of the 27^ past and 
have ordered Captain Newbury and Munsons comissions 
to be sent forthwith. I said nothing in my letter refer- 
ring to your comittee but what I had from my officers in 
the parts where they are lodged. I suppose it may be 
over. The Indians you sent mee for the Eastern parts 
are at present very orderly and as well satisfied, tho they 
have yet seen none of the enemy, but are very dilligent 
in scouting as they are directed. I hope Colonel Par- 
tridge will take the same care of Hampshire. I suppose 
the strength there sufficient, if they please to watch and 
scout and take care that they be not surprised. I heartily 
wish you health and am S? 

Your very humble servant, 

J. Dudley. 



For her Maj Ue$ Service, For the Honorable John Winthrop Esq r , Gov r of 
her Majesties Colony of Connecticott, New London. 

Boston, 8 l . h of May 1704. 

Sir, — I have lately a letter from Joseph Shelden and 
Jonathan Remington, inhabitants of Suffield in her Maj- 
esties Province of the Massachusetts Bay, dated from 
Hartford Goale, with a copy of the warrant by which 
they were, taken, signed Nath : Stanley, Assistant ; which 
I have communicated to her Maj ties Councill here, and 
they are all of opinion with me, that the proceeding with 
those persons is very illegal and extrajudicial. Against 
the persons themselves it must needs be so, to take them 
up as criminals and robbers, when if the land were of your 
Province it is but a trespass, and will bear onely a civil 
proceeding by an action at law ; but it is certainly oth- 
erwise, and is, to the gentlemen of this Government, 
unquestionably the right of Suffield, as granted by the 
General Assembly of this Province, upon a line run more 
than sixty years since. And if there be any mistake in 
that line, and you have any challenge upon this Province, 
it must be made before her Majesty, for I have no man- 
ner of power to part with any village, inhabitants, or parts 
of land that have been heretofore under this Government, 
without her Majesties command for so doeing ; nor have 
I power or inclination to submit a decision of that chal- 
lenge upon me to any person whatsoever but at her 
Majesties own direction, least it prove ineffectual for want 
of a just submission thereto, which may be remembred 
has made void former treaties betwixt this Province and 
your Government ; which I am very loath to remember, 
and resolve not to make a new instance thereof. Besides 
that, it is a very unseasonable time, when I have near 
fifteen hundred men in armes in all parts of this Province, 
and am pressed by unhappy troubles with the Indians 


on every side destroying the Queen's subjects ; that my 
neighbours also should take the people of this Province 
captives, is very surprizing, and I beleive will be so 
accounted at home, whither I must send the accompt 
thereof, if I cannot otherwise obtain the quiet of my 
people who cannot be releived by any other method ; 
haveing never intention to submit the tryal of that line 
to My Stanley and the Court at Hartford, being no judges 
of that matter. Nor am I willing to make reprisal of 
your people, whose buisness calls them often into this 
Government. I understand your General Assembly is 
now sitting. I desire you will please to communicate 
this letter to them, and I hope they will have that just 
consideration of the affair as to releive the prisoners and 
send them home, that there be no further complaint 
thereupon. I am, S? 

Your humble servant, J. Dudley. 


Hartford, May 13* 1704. 
Coll. Partrigg : 

S?, — I have reef your's, with the comissions sent from 
Gov! Dudley for Cap* Newberry & L" Munson, and with 
this now return them to you again upon the sad news of 
the enemy's attacking North-hampton this day. I have 
dispatched Major Whiting with all possible speed and 
what men could be gotten together ; have directed him, 
and also Cap* Newberry, to attend your orders and in- 
structions. I am 

Your humble serv*, J : Winthrop. 

The Gen! 1 Assembly here now sitting do not seem to 
be free that Cap* Newberry &c. should receive any new 



For her Map Service, To his Excellency John Winthrop Esq r ., Govern 1 ! fy 
Cap 1 . Gen 11 in S? over her Maj u Coloney off Conitticot these p r sent, or 
to y e Hono rahl Ass sts fy Comittee of Warr in y" Govern rs Absence. Hast, 
post hast. 

Hatfeild, May 15, 1704. 

May it please yo b Excellency & the Hono rable 
Gen^ Co r te, the Comittie for the Warr, &c, — 
The awfull appearences of warr, blood, fire & dessola- 
tions by the coraon enemy moves & shakes o r people with 
such consternation & amazement that its hard for us here 
to sitt quiet under o r p r sent circumstances, the execu- 
tions by the soveraigne hand of the Most High y e enemy 
are p r mitted to do & have done. And the reports from 
Albany of their numb rs resting above us on this river, as 
alsoe the captives some of w c . h that escaped from the 
enemy that came last upon Northampton, enform that the 
Frentch tell y m the enemy in greater numb™ are intend- 
ing speedy misscheifes on Northampton, Hatfield, or 
Hadly (they sayd this last Sabath), w ch God hath p r vented 
hitherto ; but we dayly expect mischiefs manyfold, & are 
so surprized that we day & night stand on our guard, & 
most of o r men keep watch every other night & spend o r 
whole tyme in the day to fortifie & to be in posture of 
deffence ; so that it becomes an extremitie upon us & 
stand in imediate need of releife ; & have in former lett r s 
& now we cannot forbear but make o r humble apply ca- 
tions to yo r selves for a supply of men, as you may judge 
need full for o r releife. At such an exegence & overture 
we thinke if it pleases God to grant a respitt till we can 
have releife from yo r selves we shall account it a great 
favour; therefore entreate you would not demurr on our 
Governm's delay (as some, I hear, pleade) of makeing 
good a like numb r with yo r s in pay in this county, which 
hitherto hath been done, (as alsoe in the reinforcern* of 
Majo r Whiteing now abroad, & doubtless will do y e best 

1704.] ISAAC ADDINGTON". 201 

for their own safe tie), but the seate of the warr being in 
o r Province, & have in other p*s of it at least a 1000 men 
in pay on her Maj tes service. But, however, the matter 
comes to this: with us releife is of absolute nessessitie, or 
we be dayly made a prey to the teeth of o r feirce enemys, 
haveing not strength of o r own to deffend ags fc them. 
Therefore earnestly desire releife, & we apprehend if 200 
men, at least, more than we have be posted here for a 
tyme, till it may please God who sitts King on y e flood to 
allay this storme, o r towns are verry open to y e enemy (& 
they are verry craftie & sudden in their motions, in one 
hour sakeing a place) that to carry on occations (w ch at 
p r sent is almost layd aside with us) & be & make that def- 
fence wee need if a body of the enemy come upon, is 
impossible. Entreate yo r consideration of o r case & doe- 
ing for us as, in yo r wisedome & tenderness, God of his in- 
finite goodness shall guide & stirr you up to do. We 
thinke to p r swade with Majo r Whiteing, who is now out 
with a re-enforcem* of 100 men of o r s, upon his return 
to abide with us till we have return upon these from yo r 
Excellency & Hono rs as to the p r mises. But I would 
not trouble with too teadious, especially broken, dis- 
courses, o r case being known to yo r selves almost as we 
know o r selves, though not so felt but by yo r good simpa- 
thizing with us, w ch we desire thankfully to acknowledge. 
Begging yo r pray rs for us in this tyme of destress, I take 
leave & subscribe my selfe yo r Excellencys & Hono rs most 
humble & afflicted servant, 

Sam" 1 Partridge. 


Boston, May 16 th 1704. 

Hon b ^ Sir, — His Excellency being gone to his Gov- 
ernment within the Province of New-Hampshire, has 
commanded me to intimate to your Honour that, haveing 

26 " 


received intelligences from Albany of the enemy Indians 
makeing a settlement at Coasset, a place near one hun- 
dred miles above Deerfield, with intent to infest the Eng- 
lish settlements upon Connecticut River, he hopes to have 
two hundred volunteers of this Province at Hatfield ready 
to march thither by the last of this month. And desires 
your Honour will please to assist in that expedition with 
some additional forces and some Indians to help them 
over the waters. Your Honour will please speedily to 
signify what may be expected from your parts in this 
common cause, when the enemy are annoying us from all 
quarters. I am, with great regard Sf 

Your Honours most humble servant, 

Is A Addington. 

Govern' Winthrop. 


Hartford, y e 17 th of May, 1704. 

S B , — I haue y? of y e 15 th instant, w ch I haue coihuni- 
cated to y e Gen 1 . 1 Assembly heare, who are much concerned 
for theire Christian friends & neighbours in y* county & 
are willing to afford you what help they can ; but withal 
think they are in a special manner obliged to take care of 
the frontire towns in this Collony on the west side our 
river, some of w ch are as much exposed to y e assaults of 
the enemy as y r townes are, & tharfore they haue thought 
conveinient to order, for the safety of those townes & your 
county, that 150 soldiers be raised out of y e countyes of 
Newhauen, Newlondon & Fairfeild, with such of the In- 
dians as may be obtained to be added to them, to be im- 
proued in ranging & scouting in y e woods in this Colony, 
or in the neighbouring Province, as thare shall be occa- 
sion ; & that those raised in y e countyes of Newhaven & 
Fairfeild shall march to Oneantanuck & from thence to 
y e house of Tunnet, & from thence to Hatfeild ; & those 


raised in the county of New London are to march from 
Norwich to Woodstock, and from thence to Brookfeild, 
and so to Hatfeild, and if it shall be concluded to send 
our men to Cowass, then to raise 50 men in y e county of 
Hartford to joyne the forces of the other countyes for 
that expedition ; otherwise they are to be in readiness to 
releiue your county, or any other places, distressed by 
any sudden assault of the enemie. It is thought not 
conveinient to haue Maj r Whiting and the forces that 
went out of this Goverment under his comand, to tarry 
in your county any longer time then s d Maj r thinks it 
necessary at this time ; for they all left theire buisness at 
a minute's warning, and offered themselues freely for her 
Majestie's service vpon the news of the enemy's approach 
in your parts, & it may discourage them from y e like 
readiness another time, if they are at this time kept away 
longer from theire buisness than necessity requires. I 
saw y r lett r to Majf Pynchon, dated yesterday, who desires 
to know what method we are takeing against the enemy. 
I tharfore desire you to comunicate these lines to him, 
w c . h containes the present conclusions of our Assembly 
about that matter. It is concluded that warrants be im- 
mediatly sent forth from the Gen" Court for the raising 
the before mentioned souldiers with all possible speed, & 
w^euer else may be needfull for your preservation within 
our power shal be promoted by, S? 

Yo r humble ser v . fc , J : W. 


Maj? William Whiting: 

S B , — Att your return from the persute of the enemy, 
you are with all convenient speed to return home with 
y e souldiers under your command, unless the present dan- 
ger of any of the uper towns in the county of Hampshire, 


by a further discovery of the enemies near approach, 
necessitate your stay longer for their relief, & give you 
opportunity of present service against y e enemy. I wish 
you & your company safe & succesfull, & am 

Yo r affectionate friend, J: Winthrop. 

Hartford, May 17^ 1704. 


For her Maj tys Seruice, For the Ho7tora u . e John Winthrop Esq r ., Gouerner 
and Commander in Chief e of the Colony of Connectticott in Hartford. 

Hatfield, May the 17°? 1704. 

S R , — Last night we came in heither haveing persued 
the enemy two dayes without any success. We entred 
upon the track about seven miles below North Hampton, 
and quitted the persuit near five miles aboue Deerf 1 . Do 
judge we march'd near 60 miles in a most hideous, moun- 
tanous and swampy country, fitt only to conceal such 
bloody miscreants. We were joyn'd by Cap* Colton on 
the 14 th instant at night w*! 1 about 100 men. Shall deferr 
giveing a perticular ace! untill I am so happy as to waite 
upon your Honor my selfe. In our returne I went to 
Deerfield to view that post; find them labouring under 
some difficulties and many disco uragem t8 , some whereof, 
w'. h the assistance of Collonell Partrig, shall, I hope, be 
able to remoue. S% we have in the three townes about 
200 men ; considering the season of the year, think it 
best dismiss about the halfe of them and waite your Hon™ 
comand for drawing off the rest, Col. Partrig concurring 
w th me herein. I am ready to conclude upon the tryall 
we have now made that it is uery improbable, if not mor- 
rally impossible, for your Hon r to send men out of your 
Goverment to do any spoyl upon the enemy that do so 
freequently make incurtions on this county. For our 
motions haue been as expeditious as was rationally to be 


expected and yet to no aduantage, so that it appears a 
matter of necesstie that a suffitient number of men be 
posted in these three townes to persue upon any approach 
of the enemy ; w ch is humbly submitted to your Honour's 
wisdome. Our people are in health, only those that 
march' d some thing weary with the fateigue thereof. Sf, 
please to accept the offer of my most humble service. I 
am Sf your Honours most humble and obedient servant, 

Will: Whiting. 

S R , — Just now Col. Partrig prays me lay before your 
Hon r that he can not think himselfe or the county secure 
when our forces are drawn off, w*. 11 out new levyes are 
sent up before, or just there upon. 


Hartford, May 18» h 1704. 

S R , — Coll Partrigg, by letters of the 15 th instant, in- 
forms me that he has advised your Excellency of the 
assault that was made by a party of the French and 
Indian enemy on a small fort a few miles south of 
Northampton, on the west side of Connecticutt River, 
on Satterday morning last. Upon the first notice of 
which, I dispatched away Major William Whiting with 
200 volluntiers to reinforce those parts, who marched 
with some of the forces of Hampshire in pursuit of the 
enemy upon their track till they came aboue Deerfield, 
and then returned, perceiveing by the lodgments that 
the enemy made, that they could not come up with 
them. The enemy made their descent upon Northamp- 
ton by a march down the river, and came within eight 
or tenn miles of the garrison at Deerfield, made a very 
great track and yett were not perceived by the garrison, 
which argues that a carefull scout was not kept from 
that post. This day, while our Assembly is sitting, I 


received the inclosed letter by a post from Woodbury, 
who thereupon unanimously resolved to raise imediately 
what forces the present danger requires for the safety of 
our frontier towns to the westward, and have desired 
me to send an express to your Excellency with the ad- 
vice we have received, and to pray your Excellency that, 
since there is so numerous a body of the enemy as is 
said, on the frontiers in these parts, Hampshire may be 
reinforced with a greater strength than we shall be able 
to draw out for the relief of that county, while the 
frontier towns of our own Colony are exposed to so 
great danger. I am S r , 

Yo r Excellencye's very humble serv*, 

J: Winthrop. 

Gov r Dudley. 


Hartford, the 19 th of May, 1704. 

Maj b Whiting, — Vpon information receiued yester- 
day from Woodberry, from Cap* Minor, concerning the 
enemye's being come ouer the lake & many Indians joyn- 
ing with them (a copy of which I herewith send you) 
the Gen 1 . 1 Assembly think it not safe for you to moue 
home with the forces under your comand, but that you 
continue longer in the county of Hampshire with your 
vollunteires, if they are willing so to doe ; tharfore my 
order to you now is that you pswade your forces to con- 
tinue there longer because of the present allarms, and 
that yourselfe continue with them ; but if they will not 
be pswaded to it (for the Assembly would not force them, 
being vollunteires) then you must act according to the 
orders sent you yesterday. Upon the news from Wood- 
berry the Assembly hath ordered that, instead of 150, 
thare shall be 400 men raised out of the whole Collony, 
and warrants are going forth immediatly for it. And 
when these 400 men are gott vpon the line designed for 


the security of the fronteires, your vollunteires shall re- 
turne. The Assembly desires you to put Coll Partridge 
in mind of sending a scout (if possible) to Cowass, and 
I would haue you let him haue the sight of y e inclosed 
copy of Cap* Minor's letter to Coll: Treat, and so that he 
immediatly sends away a post to Coll: Dudley with the 
letter I haue inclosed to him. I am 

Yo r assured friend, J: W. 

Postscript. I am just now desired by y e Assembly to 
write to you to draw off your forces, or the maj r part of 
them, to Westfeild & to take care that such scouts be 
sent out that may take efectual care to discov r the enemy, 
and that the deputyes horses & furniture w c . h your soul- 
diers had, be forthwith returned. 


For her Maj^J Service, To his Excellency John Winthrop Esg r Govern 1 ". 3? 

Cap 1 Gen 11 in 8? over her Majf Colony of Coniticot in New England, 

these p r sent. 

Hatfeild, May 19. 1704. 

May it please yo r Excellency, — Yo r Excellencys 
of the 17 inst. I rec d , & upon y e p r usall thereof I am much 
surprized to think how much above ail towns upon the 
river we lye open to y e mercyless fury of the enemy, who 
doubtless are weighting for such an opportunitie cruelly 
to sake & utterly to destroy & desolate not only estates, 
but men, woemen & children alsoe. And I must needs say 
notwithstanding, y e provission of p tis to scout from Wood- 
burry to Hatfeild & on the other side of the river from 
Norwitch through Woodstock, Quabaug & thence to Hat- 
feild, is of no securitie to Northampton, Hadly & Hatfeild, 
who lye in y e mouth of the enemy & nevertheless exposed, 
except one day in ten w n these scouts come in for reliefe. 
If no further consideration can be with yo'selffs and the 
Gen 11 Co r te to allow us some strength of men to abide, & 


in o r towns to be ready, at y e sudden approach of the 
enemy with fire & sword to kill & destroy, to be helpfull 
to repell y e force of the enemy, we may een write upon 
o r towns " the Lord have mercy upon us," for we are not 
able to deffend o r selves, nor like to have any help but 
from Coniticot. Indeed o r Govern r speaks of raiseing 
200 men for an expedition for Cowassuck, about a fort- 
night hence, but they 1 be litle releife to us if they come, 
& we may be destroyed before that day. I humbly pro- 
pose whether the improvem* of 50 or 60 men at the West 
River, about 40 mile above us, is not better, there to ob- 
serve y e motion of the enemy, w hr their course & seate of 
their managen^s. As it hath hitherto, so it seemes to me 
to be their setled course they intend for w* mischeifes 
they have yet to doe ; but to have none above us nor 
none in o r towns seemes to me y e dore lyes open to o r 
distruction. The Lord fitt us for his will ! I know he 
can save either with many or few, yet if w* in prudence 
can be & were done, I should have been something en- 
couridged & the people ; but now as much on y e contrary 
down & discouridged. The enemy have begun upon us 
once & againe, & we look every hour for another onsett. 
To maintaine a suteable watch w n we are alone it will 
come to every 3 d night if not 2 d , & how is it possible for 
to carry on their occations ? I pray consider the p r mises 
& if it may be, let us have if it be but 100 men to abide 
with us ; without w ch we are in no hope of safe tie. I have 
fully shewed o r grevance to Majo r Whiteing, who is able 
to give a full narative of the state of this whole matter. 
Pray that it may be further considered & a positive, 
speedy answer given us, that if it cannot be obtain d with 
yo r selves we must imeadiately give accompt to o r gov- 
ernm* of o r nessessitous case & pray for reliefe there. As 
to men ready at Hartford for o r reliefe upon y e approach 
of the enemy, gives y m opportunitie of spoyleing of us & 
before reliefe can be had to make their escape, & the 


p r sute after y m attaines no more than w fc Majo r Whiteing 
& o r reenforcmt hath now experienced, a weary march to 
no purpose. 

I am yo r Excellency s humble serv* 

Sam ll Partridge. 


For her Majes ts speciall Service, To y* Right ffono rble Majo r Gen 1 } Win- 
throp, Gov r of her Majesf Collony of Connecticott these dd r post haste, 
post haste, Cito 8? Cibo, att Hartford. 

Right Hono r able S b , — The ocasion of giving yo r 
Hono r y e trouble of these lynes is y* Majo r Johnson w th 
New Haven County souldiers to y e numb* of 92, accord- 
ing to ord r here at this p r sent at Woodberry, and are here 
wayting for & expecting earnestly furthr ord rs either 
from yo r Hono r or a superior, without w ch both y e Major 
& company cannott further move, and, if not moving, will 
unavoydably create great charge & expence w th out any 
apparent advantage to y e Collony 8 intrest. Uppon w ch 
considerations wee humbly propose y* speedily y e Major 
or company may receive such farth r instructions as may 
bee by yo r pious directions & councill for y e Collonyes 
intrest. W th y e humble request of yo r Honors candid ac- 
ceptance of w* is p r sented, w th y e subscription y fc I am : 
(These officers y* are w th him, viz : Cap* Soule, Leiu* 
Sackett, etc. have no comissions, w th out w ch they cant 
safely act.) Josiah Rosseter. 

Woodberry, y e 24 th May 1704. JOHN MlNOR. 

Wee are doubtfull y* Fayerfield County have not as yet 
received ord rs upon y e ace* of this expedition. Wee have 
about 8 or 10 Weantanock & Potatuck Indians ready for 
y e service ; only want ord rs to fitt y m w th necesarys. 

* Josiah Rosseter, of Guilford (d. 1716), and John Minor, of Stratford, afterward of 
Woodbury (d. 1719), were for many years Representatives. — Eds. 




For her May tys Seruice, For the Honorable John Winthrop Esq r , Gouer- 

ner and Commander in Chiefe of the Colony of Connectticott, tV 


Westfield, May the 25^ 1704. a.m. 

S R , — Your Honours of the 24 th instant I reed yester- 
day and forwarded the same forth w l . h to Lieu* Boreman 
at Hatfield ; haue also laid the proposalls before our 
people here ; haue just now reed answer from Lieu fc Bore- 
man, but neither there nor here doe any appear to list as 
uolunteirs. Its possible if they were at home to know 
their officers and be incouraged by others, some of them 
would list. Our post from Albany is not yet returned, we 
expect them euery minute, but if they come not to-night 
we shall be under some fears whether some mischief has 
not befallen them. We haue put the people here into 
the best posture of defence that we can ; haue made no 
discouery of the enemy. Our men grow so impatient 
and restless that the detaining of them longer may proue 
very prejudicial^ provided there should be the like occa- 
sion. Therefore, if we hear nothing of the enemys mo- 
tion, nor receiue any commands from your Honour to 
forbid it, shall draw off on Saterday next in the morning. 
Col. Partridg has sent a scout to Northfield w*? returne to 
Deerfield this night, and to-morrow sends a scout to the 
West Riuer. We haue some flying reports of the unsuc- 
cesfullness of our people under Cap. fc Auery, who were 
surpriz'd and most of them cutt off after a signall uictory 
gaind upon the enemy ; but it wants confirmation. I 
haue dismist the bearer, Disbrow Spencer, who pretends 
more then ordinary busines at home. Haue not further 
to lay before your Honour, but offers of my most humble 
seruice, and subscribe my selfe & 

Your Honours most humble and obedient servant, 

Will : Whiting. 

1704.] WILLIAM WHITING. 211 


Westfield, May the 25 t . h 1704. about sundown. 

S R , — About two houres after I dispatch'd my last to 
your Hon? by Spencer, the post came in from Albany 
with a le r from Col: Schuyler of the 22? instant, a coppy 
whereof haue inclosed sent you, wherein he intemates 
that he has reed no further intelligence of the enemys 
motion than what he formerly advis'd of; as also the post 
further says that they are of oppinion at Albany that the 
enemy will make frequent incursions upon us this way, if 
some speedie and eftectuall means be not found out to 
preuent them by strengthing our frontiers and some 
forces sent up our riuer to waylay and intercept them in 
their approach. The people at Albany seem to be under 
great securitie, liveing at farmes w^out garrison and not 
willing their Indians should meddle or consern themselves, 
but let us alone to manage the war w th Canada, as they 
have done formerly; yet will advise us of any approach- 
ing danger they shall discouer. Col Schuyler would not 
suffer the Dutch man that agreed w 1 ? Col Partridg to bring 
him a certaine ace* of the fort at Quoassick to proceed, 
pretending it an undertakeing too hazardous for him and 
the Indians to engage in ; so that we are still at an un- 
certaintie as to that matter. I haue dispatch'd a coppy 
of Col Schuylers le r to Col Partrig and w* further intelli- 
gence I haue reed from the post. S% I did conclude it 
necessary to post this to your Honour, that you imedi- 
ately understand the intelligence w ch came, and shall as in 
my last draw off our men on Saterday next unless we 
make any discovery of the enemy, or comands from your 
Honour or the Comittee of Warr at Hartford to forbid it. 
S r , I am your Hon" most obedient serv*, 

Will: Whiting. 

S r , here is an Indian belonging to Albany that came 
with the post, by whom l ers may be conveyed. 



For the Hon bl . e S r Henery Ashurst, Baronet, at his House in S l . John's 
Street, nere Smithfeild, London. 

New London, June y e 5 th 1704. 
Hon bl S R ,— I have reed y rs of Jan y 10 th 170f, together 
with the copies of y r former letters of June 12 th 1703 & 
July y e 25 fc . h 1703. The sevrals conteined in them I laid 
before our Generall Assembly w ch sat y e last month, who 
were sencible of y e good offices you have done for them 
and desired mee to return you their acknowledgements. 
I pressed them very much upon the head of your Agency 
& the terms you propound in y r last, viz. of 100. £ p an. 
for y r self and 30 £ p aii. for a deputy ; but it was an un- 
happy juncture for such a motion, by reason of y e ex- 
traordinary charge wee are at in y e present war with the 
French and Indians, who press hard upon New England, 
while the Province of New Yorke lies undisturbed. They 
have not (it's true) done any mischief within this Colony, 
but in y e Massathusets some places have been cut off this 
spring, and the enemy discovered upon their frontiers 
every week. So that, besides about one hundred of our 
Indians (viz. 30 Mohegans belonging to Owaneco's towns 
and the rest belonging to other sachems which y e Eng- 
lish have set over them) with a small detatchment of our 
English w ch have, at Coll: Dudleys desire, been in y e ser- 
vice ag' the enemy in y e eastern parts of Massathusets 
Province ever since last March & like to continue this 
summer in those parts, — our Assembly have been forced 
to raise 400 English more, principally for the defence of 
y e towns belonging to y e Massathusets Province, in the 
county of Hampshire above us, upon Connecticut River, 
(altho we have afforded that county a garrison of 60 
English in y e beginning of this spring who are still 
there,) and of our own frontiers; which 400 men are 
now out, and in all likelyhood must be maintained in y e 

1704.] FITZ-JOKN- WINTHROP. 213 

service all this summer. But notwithstanding this ex- 
traordinary charge, our Assembly have voted to pay to 
y r order in Boston 100* p r annum during y5 Agency, 
which they hope you will be contented with till they are 
in better circumstances. I wrote to you in my last pac- 
quet (which came with Hallam's papers) that I might 
have a distinct account of the charge you have been at 
for the country ; and also what charge you have been att 
in Hallam's appeall, which our country would never be 
concerned with, but have alwaies been jealous least the 
publique money should be spent in y* case, which Hallam 
has confidently affirmed to them. Had I such a distinct 
account to shew to our Assembly, they would be much 
easyer & more free about their Agency ; therefore I de- 
sire you would send it by y r next. I thank you for your 
great care and pains you have taken for mee about Hal- 
lam's appeall, to which I attribute very much y e good 
issue it is come to. I perceive by y rs y* their Lordships 
made some hesitation about allowing mee charges, bee: 
Hallam represented that I refused to obey the Queen's 
order to bear the charge of the reexamination of his 
witnesses here ; bub that is as great a falshood as can be 
reported, for I was at y e whole charge of both the Pre- 
rogative Courts called at my motion in obedience to her 
Majestie's order (to y e calling of y e last of which Hallam 
did agree) for y e s d examination, and would have p d Hal- 
lam's evidences and all his charge about y e examination 
here, if he would have brought in a bill to y e Court that 
his charges might be taxed according to law; but that 
he refused to do, and therefore I hope I shall not be 
supposed in anything to disobey her Majestie's order. 
Indeed, I did not in my last papers shew that I had de- 
frayed y e charges according to y* order, for I was not sure 
of carrying the case, neither could imagine that he would 
have suggested a matter so false. But I shall, by the 
ships that design quickly for London from Boston, clear 


up that matter and send you undeniable evidence to y° 
contrary of what he has asserted, and must intreat you to 
solicite for my charge to be allowed. The trouble I have 
been at has been great, tho I never had any more of 
Liveen's estate than what was recovered by judgment 
of Court for y e Ministry of New London & y* not half so 
much as y e Will gave to y e use of y e Ministry. All y e rest 
of y e s d Testat? estate, Hallam & his brother with Maj r 
Palmes had, & have in their hands, and I hope it will be 
judged reasonable that I should have some recompence 
for all my trouble & charge. Touching y e Indian memo- 
riall, our Court have done y e best y y could to obtain a full 
& perfect report of y e matter referred to. I sent to 
Owaneco to come to y e last Assembly and to let them 
know who had wronged him, but he excused himself from 
coming bee: Cap* Mason of Stoningtown, whom he es- 
teems his great friend and who indeed with Hallam 
makes all y e trouble, was gone to Boston ; our Court 
therefore appointed some gentlemen on purpose to en- 
quire into y* matter, which, by reason that Owaneco de- 
clined it bee: of Cap fc Masons abscence, cannot be got in 
readiness to send till Octob r next. I shall at present 
only briefly say that as to what Hallam complains about 
New London having got their land from them, you will 
see by a copy of a clause in y e Patent from our Corpora- 
tion to New London (which I send y u herewith) how false 
it is & y t y e Court have done as much as could be to save 
it for them. And as for Colchester, Owaneco has been 
offered mony for his pretencions to land there, (accord- 
ing as was agreed betwixt this Government & his prede- 
cessors with himself,) which he would have complied with 
gladly, if Mason would have suffered him. In short, I 
make no doubt to send you such a report of this matter 
as will silence all the clamours of y t Memoriall. Neither 
are y e Indians belonging to Owaneco, which are about 50 
in all, in y e least disturbed, but are very glad y e country 

1704.] JOSEPH DUDLEY. 215 

takes such care as to prevent Owaneco's & Cap* Mason's 
disposeing even of y e Indians planting-land, as they have 
begun to do, and would, if not prevented, soon dispose 
of all y* is left to them. 30 of Owaneco's men are now 
under our pay in her Majesties service within y e Massa- 
thusets Province, & they went out as cheerfully as ever 
they did, and there is not y e least appearance of what is 
surmised in y e Memoreall, viz: y* there is any danger of 
their goeing off to the enemy ; but y e whole Memoreall 
is a contrivance prepared to continue us in trouble, in 
case the contest of y e Will should happen (as it hath 
fallen out) to have an issue contrary to theire minds. 
When I came from our Assembly a few dayes since, I 
found a brigantine here bound for London, w c . h very 
rarely happens. I thought it needfull therefore to send 
you this hasty ace* and shall send you more fully by the 
ships spedely goeing from Boston, if it be possible for me 
to get ready by that tyme. I am, S r , 

Yo^ very humble serv*, J: Whstthrop. 

The Bill of 68 ft w c . h you drew vpon me, is paid to M r 
Mason's order in Boston. 


For her Maj u ? s Service, For the Honorable John Winthrop Esq., Governor 
of her Maj u ? Colony of Gonnecticutt, New-London. 

Boston, 5. June 1704. 

S R , — I am very sensible of your readiness to assist the 
fronteirs upon Conecticut River & of the justice of it, 
those towns being truly the fronteirs of your Government, 
& I shall never doubt in any occasion wherein you send 
men to that part but you will appoynt them good officers. 
I shall alwayes take them as such, but it is against all 
rules that they should cofnand in this Goverment with- 


out my own comissions. I therefore some time since 
sent blank comissions for your present officers at Deer- 
feild, to be fill d by Colonel Partridge who is the comand- 
ing officer in that county, but find your gentlemen doubt 
of accepting them. I must pray you to direct them to do 
their duty in that matter, for that I may by no means 
give you the goverment of any part of this Province ; 
the assistance of the Goverment of Connecticut will be 
too dear at that rate. I shall alwayes continue my freind- 
ship with your Goverment & will represent to her Maj- 
esty that service, but may not admit of this form. I 
pray to hear from you upon this head, & 

I am S? your very humble serv* J. Dudley. 


New-London, June 8* 1701. 

S R , — I have yo r Exc 11 ?' 8 letter of the 5*. h instant, wherein 
you mention again e the blank coiiiissions sent Coll Par- 
tridg, the comanding officer of the county of Hampshire. 
I proposed that matter to our Gen 11 Assembly, who were 
of opinion that considering what yo r Excellency proposeth 
is wholy new to our men, who have been all way es used 
to serve at Albany and at Hampshire under comissions 
from hence, it would be a discouragement at this juncture 
to make any alteration from the former usage ; espetially 
becaues the 400 men they proposed to raise, and w c ? are 
now in the service, were to be volluntires, who it was 
thought would not soe readely offer themselves for that 
service if a difficulty that they were unacquainted with 
had been put upon them, & the Assembly concluded that 
if our officers had orders while they were in yo r Province 
to be under } T o r Exc 11 ?' 3 directions & to obey such orders 
as they receive from you, it would accomodate the matter 
to yo r content. I have therefore given such instructions 

1701.] WILLIAM WHITING. 217 

to Major Why ting, who has the coniand of our sold r f now 
raised; & who will not faile to be observient of them. I 
can not yet gaine any good acc't of y e enemy es posting 
themselves at Coasset. I have advice from Albany that 
Coll: Schyler was not willing that the Dutchmen who 
agreed with Coll Partridg to goe to Coasset to discover 
the truth of that report should make that adventure, it 
being, as he thought, too hazardous ; soe that unles Coll 
Partridg be sent out to make that discovery, it is yet but 
uncertaine. Wee have now 560 men in pay, and most of 
them in yo r Province, & I haue ordered them to be wholy 
at yo r direction, & tis pity any over-nice point should 
discourage their service, and as it will be impossible in 
our pursuit of y e enemy allwaies to know when wee are 
within the boundes of any one Government, soe wee must 
have liberty to pursue & distroy the enemy in any part 
of the wild ernes, without regard to the line of this or that 
Government (as a wild & salvage enemy). I concluded 
the 200 soldiers mentioned to me by M r Secretary Ad- 
ding ton would be at Westfeild before this tyme to joyne 
our sould rs , who are otherwise there too soone; and if noe 
other designe be proposed but scouting upon the frontires, 
our forces are too great a body. I am, S r , 

Yo r Exc lly . es very humble serv 4 , J: Winthrop. 


For her Maj m speciall Service, For the Honorable John Winthrop Esq r ., 
Gouerner of the Colony of Connecticott, or the Gentlemen of the 
Gomitty of Warr in Hartford, these. 

North Hampton, June y? 9* 1704. 
About 9 in the evening. 

S*, — I haue just now by an express from Albany reed 
ler 3 from Col Schuyler directed to M? Lord and my selfe, 
wherein he advises of some approaching danger ; the ler 8 


218 THE W1NTIIR0P PAPERS. [1704. 

have been sent downe to M r Lord directed to your Hon r 
The case requires some speedy assistance, if possible before 
the enemy make their assault. Our forces are divided 
into the seuerall townes. Your Hon! can well judge 
of the danger, consequently what further supplyes will 
be needfull. I must not enlarge ; am putting our selves 
into the best posture of defence that we can. May the 
Almighty grant us his protection and blessing. 
Your Hono rs most obedient servant, 

Will : Whiting. 

Delays in this case may be dangerous. We are sending 
an express to Boston. Sf let the men that come be well 
provided w th amunition. Our Indians, who are uery chear- 
ful and ready, pray their wives and children may be cal'd 
into Hartf d and secured, and y e able men march hither. 
I am well pleasd w th their intentions to do us service. 
S r as to the forces upon our fronteirs, your Hon r or the 
gen tm of the Comitty of Warr must continue or remove 
as you shall judge necessary. 


New London, June 10* h , 1704. 
S R , — I received a letter this evening at nine of the 
clock, in 24 houres from Northhampton, from Major 
Whiting that comandes our forces vpon the frontires of 
Conecticot River, and therein two letters by an expres 
from Coll: Schyler at Albany, directed to Major Whiting 
& M r Lord, intimateing a designe of the French to infest 
the Plantations of New Hampshire with 200 Christians 
& 300 Indians. The people there are very sensible of 
some approaching danger, & Major Whiting desires some 
farther assistance of sold 1 " 8 , the forces there being divided 
into the severall townes. He allsoe desires that amuni- 
tion may be spedely sent to them, which I must recomend 

1704.] ROBERT TREAT. 219 

to yo r Excellency to furnish, wee haueing none of her 
Majestye's stores, nor is it to be procured here vpon any 
condition. I expected the two hundred volluntires yo r 
Exc 1 ! 7 promised by M r Secretary Addington would haue 
been at Northhampton by the last of May as he men- 
tioned, w c . h would haue been a good recruit against the 
present danger; but heareing noething of their arrivall 
and that those Plantations may not be exposed to danger, 
I ordered the Comitte of War at Hartford to raise 100 
soldiers to be sent vp imediatly for their assistance, 
w c . h shall serve there some little tyme till yo r 200 men 
may reasonably be expected thither, & I hope your 
Exc Uy will supply with amunition. I haue enclosed the 
coppyes of the letters from Coll: Schyler & the Gov! of 
Canada his letter to Coll : Schyler, least they should mis- 
cary from Northhampton. I send this by a gentleman 
of the Council now goeing to Boston, who will wait upon 
your Exc 1 ! 7 and heare any thing you will please to men- 
tion for the publick service. I am S r , 

Yo r Excellencye's very humble serv*, 



To the Hon hle Fitz John Winthrop Esq r , Governour of her Maj He$ Collony 
of Connecticott, in New London. 

New Haven, June 11 th 1704. 

Honourable S r , — Haveing this day rec d from the 
Council of Warr Coll Schuylers intelligence, with advice 
that the forces left att our norwest frontiers are drawne 
off, I have this day met with the Comitte of Safety. In 
this county 60 souldiers are gone and goeing to reinforce 
those parts, which in addition to the forces that are 
now and must be under pay, cannot but greatly weaken 
& impoverish the country here, while the Goverm ts on 
each side of us are at no proportionable charge with us. 


I therefore, \v th the advice of the gentlemen here, have 
thought fitt humbly to advise yo r Honno r that if in your 
wisdom with the gentlemen of the Council with you it 
may seem best, that some suitable persons may be sent to 
his Exelency the Governour of New Yorke, who may 
represent the danger of her Maj tie8 subjects that are most 
exposed and our owne great expences, and crave his 
assistance ; and that also the goverm* of the Massathu- 
sets be urged to expedite suitable and sufficient force to 
repell and dislodge the enemy, w th out which our great 
expences are like to be very mutch ineffectual to answer 
the end proposed. Hono b ! e Sf, wee have desired M r Miles 
to wait on yo r Honn or , who will farther lay before you 
our reasons induceing us thus to sollicite your Honno" 
speedy care in the premises. I pray God direct y u in all 
yo r counsels att such a day as this is, wherein all our 
great interests are in so mutch danger ; and with service 
to yo r self and gent, of the Council subscribe Hon b ! e Sf 
Yo r Honno rs humble servant, 

K : Treat. D. G. 


Boston, June 12 th 1704. 

Hoxo BLE S R , — The hurrys of the service preventing his 
Excellency's writing with his own hand, he has com- 
manded me to acquaint your Honour that besides the 
six hundred men gone forth in the expedition to the Bay 
of Fundey, he has four hundred in the garrisons, three 
hundred and fifty in marching partys on the frontiers7 
and is necessitated to rayse three hundred more forth- 
with to march into the Province of Maine, to add to the 
forces already there, to repel the force daily expected 
from Canada, with the Eastern Indians, of about eight 
hundred men; besides the vessells of war. And to pray 
your Honour's care of the county of Hampshire, which 


lyes frontier to your government, that they may be well 
strengthned, at least for a few weekes next comeing, that 
they may be able to stand the present shock. His Excel- 
lency hopes to send one hundred men thither in a few 
days. I am, Hono b ! e S r , your Hono rs most humble and 

obedient serv* 

Is* Addington. 

Gov? Winthrop. 


New London, June 13*^, 1704. 
Hon 8 ^ S R , — Yo r . s of the ir. h I received this evening & 
am glad of the care you haue taken for the safety of the 
fron tires. Upon the aduice I haue here, haue complyed 
with yo T desires to make tryall what his Excellency the 
Lord Cornbury will doe for our assistance at this juncture. 
The letter I haue writ to the Lord Cornbury I send open 
for your perusall, and if vpon your second thoughts and 
of the gentlemen with you, you appro ue of our applica- 
tion and the manner of it in the letter to his Exc Uy , I am 
content it shall goe, and think it most convenient that 
Cap* Gold should wait vpon his Exc r : y vpon this occation. 
I haue therefore inserted his name, to whom I pray giue 
my respects and let him se it before the sealing. I wrot 
by M*. Christophers yesterday to Govf Dudley for men 
and amunition to be sent into the county of Hampshire 
with all possible dispatch. I hope you will assist Cap* 
Gold in his journy and let me haue as spedy an ace* as 
you can of the answere he brings with him. I thought it 
best to stay your messenger for the post from Boston, 
but he slipt away while wee were at meeting & soe haue 
noething from him. I am, S r , 

Yo r affectionate & faythfull serv*, 

J: Winthrop. 



New London, June 13^, 1704. 

My Lord, — Vpon letters from Albany of the 7 th in- 
stant, giveing advice of the approach of the French & 
Indian enemys upon the frontires of this Collony and of 
the Mattachuset Province vpon Conecticot River, I haue 
been necessitated to reinforce those men that were raised 
before out of this Collony and posted on those frontires 
under the comand of Major W m Whiting. The same 
letters informed me that an acc fc of the enemye's motion 
into these parts was given your Excellency from Albany 
by Coll: Schyler; therefore I will not trouble you with 
that ace*, but considering the extraordinary charge this 
Collony is at, who haue now 700 men in the service 
against the enemy, the gentlemen of the Council here 
move me to pray your Excellency to order a quota from 
your Government to joyne our forces on the frontires for 
the preservation of her Maj : intrest, now the enemy press 
soe hard vpon us. I haue therefore ordered the bearer, 
Cap* Nathan Gold, a gentleman of the Council, to wait 
upon your Excellency on this occation, from whom you 
will receive a more full account of the extraordinary 
charge wee are at ; and considering our people are under 
noe advantage of forraine trade, but subsist and depend 
cheifly vpon their country improvements, it will be im- 
possible for them to assist the Province of Mattathusets 
with soe many troopes, beside the securing their own 
frontires, without the assistance of their neighbors. And 
her Majestye's intrest lying now at stake by the incur- 
sions of a bloody and barbarous enemy, not sparing to 
spill the blood even of women and children in their late 
adventure at Deerefeild, I think it my duty to lay this 
matter before your Excellency and pray that you will 
please to interpose with your assistance for the preserva- 
tion of her Majestye's subjects and intrest. I pray }'our 

1704.] ROBERT TREAT. 223 

Excellencye's credence to the bearer arid that I may 

be preserved in your Excellencyes good opinion, and 

am my Lord, 

Your Excellencyes most faythfull humble serv', 

J: Winthrop. 
My Lord Cornbury. 


Honerable Sir, — Vpon ye inteligence of Coll 11 Skiler 
concerning y e French and Indians desine against y e coun- 
try, Newhaven county hath sent up aboute 68 men and 
Fairfeld aboute 45 men, to reenforse our frontiers, those 
who were there before being drawn off; all which ads to 
our excessiue charge, the thoughts whereof y e people do 
allredy greive under. And this day being present with 
Cap* Gold, M r Curtis and M r Rositer, with whome I haue 
had som discorse concerning y e extreem difficulties y fc 
we are vnder, and from y e litle prospect y* there is from 
all y* we haue yet don of any more advantage than to 
defend our selves, if so much : do ernestly solicit me to 
communicate to your Hon r their opinion of y e necessity of 
som farther mesures to be taken which may be far less 
chargable & much more effectuall. To that we do hum- 
bly offer y e following considerations : l s . fc Whether y e main- 
taining so great a number as we now haue out will not, (if 
it must be continued, or upon euery affrighting report of 
y e enemies designe against us renewed & encresed,) be 
insuportable to y e country and of very litle effect for y e 
destroying of our enemies. 2? Whether our charge & 
trouble in this respect is not likely rather to be incresed 
than abated, (while our enemies sit quiet at home & haue 
such encoragement and aduantage to make spoile notwith- 
standing all we can do, while we only stand upon our 
owne defence,) y e sorrofull distruction of the eastern coun- 
try may teach us easily to determine. 3 d Whether it be 


not necessary, by som means or other, to disturbe their 
quiet at home, y fc they may be forced to imploye their 
men to defend themselves. 4 th Whether under our p r s- 
ent cercomstances it is not rationally impracticable for us 
to go by land, being wholly unaquainted with y e way to 
them. 5 th Whether not very probable that those Indians 
that haue so long professed friendship to us & so often in 
y e last war gave good proof thereof, will if sutably treated 
redyly either go themselues against y e enemie and be a 
means to divert them from us, or joine with such forces 
as might be sent from these Gouernments for that end. 
6 fc . h Whether in order to this it be not advisable that the 
Gov r of Boston and our Gov r boath treat my Lord concern- 
ing this affair, to reminde him of y e necessity of som such 
measures to be taken by land against our common ene- 
mies, since he concludes it not adviseable to attempt any 
thing against them by sea ; and to agree spedily to send 
su table messengers from each of y e Goverments to be 
present with my Lord, or those he shall appoint to treat 
y e s d Indians, & to have his spedie answar what he will do 
in this weighty affaire. 7 th Whether if his Lordship do 
refuse to concern himselfe with Boston and us in this 
business, it be not best for them and us notwithstanding 
to send messengers to treat with y e s d Indians upon this 
account, y* we may y e better know what we haue to trust 
to if they will not joyne with us in this war. And doubt- 
less shall be y e better satisfied to bear y e burthen we now 
do when we find no way to ease it, or be moved y e more 
ernestly to petition y e Queens Majestie for relief in this 
case ; which is the needfull under our present cercom- 
stances from him who am S r , 

Your humble servant, 

R : Treat. D. G. 

Milford, June 13: 1704. 

17)4.] ROBERT TREAT. 225 


For her Majesties Service, To the Hon u . e John Winthrop Esq r , Govern* 
of her Majesties Colony of Connecticot, in New-London. 

Milford, June 17l h 1704. 

S B , — Yesterday came liither M r Eliot, sent from y e 
Committee of War in y e county of Hartford to advise with 
the Committees of this county & Fairfield county how y e 
insupportable charge we are now att may be eased, & 
informs me he is to go from hence to wait upon yo r Honour 
& Councill about it. Upon this occasion severall of the 
principall persons of both y e s? Committes met here & I 
thought it not improper to communicate to them yo r 
Hon" intended letter to my Lord Cornbury for a quota 
to joyne our forces on the frontiers &c, who humbly advise 
not to send it forward at present, but pray your Hon r 
would take into your farther consideration whether it be 
not more adviseable that my Lord be treated in some 
such way as was proposed in my last to you, & are very 
desireous y t y e Moheggs & Five Nations be treated & by 
some meens or other ingaged in y e present warr against 
our enemies. I herewith send your Hon r y e thoughts of 
y e gentlemen above mentioned about y e affairs of y e warr, 
& they desire me humbly to move your Hon r & Councill to 
take them into consideration & as soon as may be to give 
your resolution thereupon. We have this day concluded 
to call home y e forces sent from this county & the county 
of Fairfield upon y e late news, only ten to remain at Dan- 
bury, twenty four at Woodbury & ten at Waterbury, to 
garrison those towns. This, with my hearty prayers for 
yo r Hon rs constant health & prosperity, is y e needfull 
from yo r most humble faithfull serv* 

R : Treat. D. G. 

They think it best y* yo r Hon r & Councill recall as soon 
as may be our men in the service of the Massachusets at 
y e eastward, unless that Government will immediately re- 



inforce the county of Hampshire with a sufficient strength, 
y* our men in that county may be drawn off for y e defence 
of our own frontiers ; & if there be no certain confirma- 
tion of y e last news from M r Schuyler concerning such a 
number of French & Indians is designed against us, nor 
any further discovery of some considerable number of y e 
enemies coming against the county of Hampshire in a 
short time, that then your Hon r would send orders for 
y e greatest part of y e forces in that county to be drawn 


For her Maj tys Service, For the Honorable John Winthrop Esq% Gouer- 

ner and Commander in Chiefe of her Maj tys Colony of Connecticott, 

in Neiv London, these. 

June 20 th [1704]. 

S R , — On Wensday the T^ instant our scout, consisting 
of 3 English and 5 Indians, departed Hatfield about nine 
in the morning with orders to go to Quoasick if possible, 
to bring us certaine intelligence whether there be a fort 
or not, as also to make w fc discovery they could of the 
enemys numbers and motion. (Two of the English men 
belonging to the s d scout left them the 3 d day after they 
went hence, one of them being disabled by a hurt receved 
in his leg, so that one English man and 5 Indians prose- 
cuted the designe.) Yesterday, as I advised your Honor, 
tho uery briefly, they returned hither w th six of the 
enemys scalps and give this acco* of their proceedings, 
viz fc that as they travel'd up the river they saw signes 
where the enemy had been, but on Wensday the 14 th cur- 
rant they discovered three tracks new past along, w eh they 
follow'd to the great river (about 150 miles above this 
place), they being to the eastward when they first saw 
them. Some time after, they spi'd a canoe w^ an Indian 
and a boy a fishing on the west side the river. They 

1704.] WILLIAM WHITING. 227 

continued there till night, concluding there was a wig- 
worn not farr off, w c . h accordingly prov'd true. In the 
night they mov'd downe a hill to the river, or near it, 
w*. h a great care and secrecie. As they came near the 
wigwom, they heard a child cry, which did greatly facili- 
tate their enterprize. Haveing posted themselues con- 
veniently for the designe, waited some time untill they 
had concluded what mesures to take. The Indian Cap* 
(Quioheague) gave the signall : they ran uiolently on the 
wigwom, dischargeing some of their guns, then entring 
with their hatchetts soon dispatch'd four men, 1 lad of 14, 
& 1 child of about 2 year old, and took one squaw captive, 
who, after some short examination, they kil'd and scalp'd ; 
the whole number in the house being nine, two whereof 
made their escape, being favored by the night, tho they 
conclude one of them was mortallie wounded w^ a 
hatchett in the back. They soon quitted the place, 
being in the enemys country and the neighbourhood doubt- 
less alarm'd ; they took three guns w th some other plun- 
der and imbark'd in two canoos, came downe the river 
about twelve mile, by w ch time the day broke, then landing 
agen on the east side, destroyd their canoos and trauel'd 
away south east, comeing near to Manadnuck Hill, took a 
circumferance, came upon the great river agen a little 
above Northfield on the 10 th instant, and came as above 
in hither yesterday. I can gaine no certainety from the 
examination of that squaw, but I think thus much : that 
they are building a fort at Quoasick, that there are some 
Indians now resideing there, especially women and chil- 
dren, the men being gon, some to Cannada to sell their 
captiues, some comeing downe this way to fish, or what 
else she knew not. We know not what to believe about 
it. The Indians are much rejoyc'd at their success, and 
their expectations greatly heightned w^ 100* a scalp. 
Great prudence must be used in rewarding and encourage- 
ing of them ; others are willing to go upon the like ad- 


venture. We are ready to conclude its a matter of highest 
importance to keep out small parties at present, and, as 
Prouidence shall open our way, march w th a united force. 
To day we dispatch'd letters to Gouerner Dudly, ac- 
quainting him w th the state of affairs here. S r , we would 
manifest our thankf ullness to Almighty God for this smile 
on our designes, and pray that all our undertakeings for 
the future of this nature may be alike successfull. The 
Providence seems to carry the greater fauor in it since 
we are confidently perswaded that these are a part of 
those Indians that did the last mischiefe at this towne, 
and that from the household goods they had in the 
wigvvom. This also will furnish your Honour w^ sutable 
presents for the Five Nations, if in your wisdom it be 
thought best to engage them, viz fc the scalps each nation 
one, w cb Col. Schuyler sent me word were acceptable and 
oblidging. S r , I find the post too difficult for me to man- 
age, especially when at such a distance ; were they intire 
should not think it such a burden. Am allwayes thought- 
ful 1 of the event ; we have a subtile and cruell enemy to 
oppose, a large country to defend. May the Almighty 
be pleased to grant me wisdom to go throw what he calls 
me to ! Your Honours direction and coinand I receive w fc . h 
plesure ; shall studiously endeauor to merrit the honour 
you do me. S r , please to pardon my faults and do me 
favor to beleive that I am S r your Honours most humble 
and faithfull seruant, 

Will: Whiting. 

S r , we daylie discover the tracks of Indians we suppose 
to be spies from the enemy ; we are carefull in scouting, 
watching, and warding, to prevent mischief. It hath 
pleased God to bless our endeauors hitherto in that 



New Lond: June 24* 1704. 
12 of y e clock 

Gentlemen, — I rec d this forenoon y e lett r you wrote 
me yesterday, w th two from Maj r Whiting and one of 
Coll: Schyler's inclosed, and hope you have ordered Maj* 
Whiting a reinforcem't according to his desire. I have 
given ord r to y e New Roxbury scout to march forthwith 
to Maj r Whiting at Northampton, and have promised y* a 
fresh scout of fewer men shall march from Windsor to N: 
Roxbury on Monday next, w c . h I must recommend to you 
to give y e necessary orders for without faile, y* that part 
of y e country may not be left naked & y e inhabitants of y e 
frontiers towns there discouraged. I'm very sensible of 
our extraordinary charge, and have considered the pro- 
posal of drawing off y e garrison at Deerfield and calling 
home our forces to y e eastward. As to y e latter, I wrote 
to Capt. Avery by M r Eliot (who went from hence to 
Boston yesterday) to return w th the forces under his com- 
mand, but as to y e drawing off y e garrison at Deerfield, it 
will not be fit to do it at this juncture, nor before some 
farther considerations on y* head be had w*! 1 y e Gov* of 
y e Massachusetts. I have therefore appointed y e Coun- 
cell to meet here on Wednesday next, by 8 of y e clock in 
y e morning, to consid! whether it be not necessary to 
impower a person, or persons, to treat w th Coll Dudley 
and to come to an agreement w th him as to the propor- 
tioning of our standing charge for y e defence of y* frontier 
this summer. If we should withdraw o r forces w 7tb out such 
concertation, and any mischance should happen by y e 
enemies attacking those parts, it might occasion us a great 
deal of trouble, besides y e destruction of our friends and 
neighbours. I have thought it very convenient that M r 
Pitkin or Maj r Chester should be employ* to Coll Dudley 
on the service, and therefore judge it necessary that one 
or both of them should be present at y e Councill here 


next Wensday w th y or farther thoughts about that matter 
and in order to y r undertaking of that service. For we 
cannot promise o r selves to be free from frequent alarms 
in those parts this summer, and unless we come to an 
agreem* w fc . h the Gov r of Boston we shall unavoidably have 
much of y e extraordinary charge put upon us. I shall, if 
the publick affairs will suffer, endeavour to visitt you at 
Hartford aft r y e next sessions of the Councill. 

I am, Gentlemen, yo r affectionate serv* J : W. 

Being in a great hurry, I have directed M* Saltonstall 
to write to Maj r Whiting ; his lett r I have inclosed un- 
sealed, w ch I desire you to seal and send to y e Majy I 
returne you Coll. Schyler's lett r to Maj 1 : Whiting. 


[June 24. 1704.] 
S R , — I have your several letters and thanke yor suc- 
cours att o r upper towns in Hampshire. What M r Secre- 
tary Addington wrote you ab* a supply of two hundred 
men for those parts was by my direction, and it was upon 
the news of the settlem t of the enemy at Coasset upon 
Connecticut River, which Col? Schyler and Lieut. Col 
Partridge both intimated to me they had men out to dis- 
cover ; and if that had been made certain, we had all been 
in fault not to have disnested them. But that news fail- 
ing and no discovery made, and in y e mean time it being 
made most certain that there was a march of the enemy, 
of near a thousand, comeing upon the eastern parts 
(Yorke and Hampshire), I was necessitated to dispatch 
that force thither, but shall yet do what is necessary at 
Hadley, but w^ some losse of time. S', the General As- 
sembly of this Province, now sitting, have offered me 
their very just memorial, earnestly desireing that I would 

1704.] JOSEPH DUDLEY. 231 

move yo r selfe & the Governm* of Connecticott at all 
times to do a propper share of the present hard service. 
I have now eighteen hundred men effective in the ser- 
vice, and I can not abate a man from any part ; and if yo r 
Governm* and Rhode Island were sensible of yo r distance 
and security from the ordinary danger, it would be 
thought by equal judges that the one halfe of the service 
should be supported by yo r . two Governments. But how- 
ever that may be, I hope you will continue to do some 
proportionable service, whereof the covering of Hamp- 
shire shall be a part. I desire also you will, as usual, joyn 
with this Governm* in a renewall of o r friendship with the 
Maquas. The Assembly here have ordered a present of 
two hundred pounds to be made them, and there will be 
two Commissioners appointed for that affayr. If you 
please to joyne in it, I am of opinion this is the propper 
time, and have written to my Lord Cornbury thereupon ; 
and shall attend his answer, and then set the time ex- 
actly. I have ordered the Commissary General to supply 
the necessary ammunition at Hampshire, and hope the 
officers will see it well spent. I heartily wish your health, 
and am, S% 

Yo! very humble serv*, J. Dudley. 

Postscript. Major Fitch has lately by letter advised 
Maj r Taylor that he is master of a scout on that side of 
the country, and that if he may leave one halfe of his 
number at billet in Woodstock, at the charge of this Prov- 
ince, while the rest scout w^ their own provisions, he 
will make that his quarter, and ease me of any further 
garrison on that place. If that have been your direction 
to him so to offer, I shall consider and give order therein. 
You will please to let me know how far the motion is 
agreeable to your own order. 



Newlondon, June 28^ 1704. 

Gentlemen, — The Councill, according to the notice 
which the Govern 1 " gave you in his letter of the 24 th 
instant, is now mett, where it was expected that some of 
the gentlemen of the Councill with your selves would have 
attended, in order to the takeing of some suitable meas- 
ures for the abating of the great charge now lying upon 
us ; but upon theire failing, the Govern 1 " and Councill do 
again refer to your consideration what his Hon r wrote to 
you in the s d letter on that head, and desire you by this 
post to send your thoughts what it may be fitt for us to 
do in that affaire at this juncture. You have here in- 
closed a copy of a letter which the Gov r received from 
Coll: Dudley last Saturday; and it is sent you for your 
opinion on the whole, especially that paragraph concern- 
ing renewing our friendship with the Five Nations. The 
gentlemen of the Councill of Safety in the countyes of 
New Haven and Fairfield, have sent the Govern 1 " theire 
opinion that it ought not to be neglected, and moved ear- 
nestly for it in theire last letters. The Councill here 
agree with them and recomend it to your care to search 
the records and send the Govern 1 : word what our propor- 
tion of encouragement to the 5 Nations of Indians, in 
conjunction with the Massachusetts Province, used to be. 
The Govern 1 " had concluded to visit the frontiers this week, 
but considering the necessity of his Hon rs being here, that 
the treaty with those Five Nations proposed by Govern' 
Dudley may be agreed with him by the stated post, con- 
cerning which (and some other concerns relating to the 
war, which the Council wrote about to Col. Dudley by It* 
Eliot, as you had advice), the Govern 1 " expects to heare 
from his Excelency by the next post, the Councill here 

1704.] WILLIAM WHITING. 233 

have perswaded his Hon r to defer his visiting of you a 
little longer. 

p ord r of the Govern r and Councill, 

Signed Rich d . Christophers. 

To the Comitte of War at Hartford. 


For her Maj tys Service, For the Honourable John Winthrop Esq% Gouer- 
ner and Commander in Chief e of the Colony of Connecticott, these, in 

New London. 

North Hampton, June 28 1 ? 1 1704. 
About 9 at night. 

Honorable S r , — M r Saltonstalls letter of the 24 fc . h 
currant reed on the 26% and according to your Honours 
direction were infore'd by Cap* Wells w^ 60 men. Have 
just now received orders from the Comitty of Warr for 
his drawing off ; shall therefore dismiss him to-morrow. 
On the 25 th instant came in hither 80 men from Boston, 
and Cap' Col ton w^ 100 from the lower townes of this 
county, who will likewise draw off to-morrow ; they can 
by no means be delay'd. Since we make no discovery of 
the enemy our people grow impatient, and from thence 
conclude there is no aproaching danger ; for my owne 
part I verily conclude they will be here ere long. ST, we 
have this day held a councill of warr, Col Partridg pre- 
sideing, to consider what better mesures to take for the 
improuement of our forces for her Maj fc ^ 8 service. It has 
been debated and concluded to march up to Quoasick w fc ? 
500 men, 300 whereof out of our forces in this county, 
and 200 belonging to this Prouince, besides our Indians, 
w cl1 is thought to be necessary for that designe. It was 
thought needfull that y e matter be laid before your Honour 
and Councill, as also before Gouern r Dudly, and humbly 
submitted to your wisdome and conduct. If your Honour 
se cause to countenance and incourage the enterprize, we 



shall not be ready to march in less than a fortnight, in 
w c . h time we shall doubtless se or hear from the Canada 
aduenturers, so shall be able to alter our mesures as your 
Hon r shall judge necessary. To-morrow morning we send 
to Boston respecting this matter; the undertakeing is 
very difficult in respect of distance, viz : 200 miles from 
hence, and also as to the season ; yet, for my owne part, I 
shall account nothing painfull to me that shall be thought 
profitable for my country. S r , I find it difficult to satisfie 
the Indians concerning the scalps ; can hear nothing from 
Boston about it, altho haue wrote Governer Dudly con- 
cerning that matter Doubtless there is some scalp mony 
due to them; have formerly signified this to your Honour. 
Four of the Moheages are returning home ; ours are yet 
well content. If this designe goes forward, we shall want 
great supplyes ; a comiss ry must be sent up w th necces- 
sarys, viz* 3 or 4 p s duffills, shooes, stockings, tobacco, 
briches, shirts, &c ; some cheese. I have not time to 
be more perticular, only offer these generally to your 
Honour, being very desirous this should wait upon you 
before the gentlemen of the Councill returne home from 
New London. I pray your pardon for the rudeness of 
my stile. 

Your Honours most obedient servant, 

Will: Whiting. 


Waterstock, y e 3? July 1704. 

Deare S r , — It was a reall trouble to me that I had 
noe lett r from you by Coll : Hobby. I have writt twice 
to you. I have with a greate deale of pains and interest 
defeated Hallam in a great measure. What you writt to 
me hath had a great waight with me as to the justice of 
the cause. I have received heer this yeare £140. and 
have drawne upon the Connecticott Collony 2 Bills of 


Exchange : one for £68. new English money, payable to 
M r Mason; the other for £140. new English mo: at 4 
months after sight, payable to the use of y e Corporation 
of New England to M r Sewell; w ch I depend upon you 
to se them honoured with exceptance. I am sure the 
charges are great, and deserve more for my paines and 
interest in y fc service. If I had not beene imployed, I 
know how it would have gone. I hope I may yett live to 
serve your countrey more than ever I have done. I am 
sure I shall alwaies have a great veneration for your per- 
son and shall not be easie untill I have done you some 
considerable service. I am yo r sincere freind & faithfull 
se'\ Hen. Ashhurst. 


For her Majestys Service, To the Horfable John Winthrop, Esquire, 

Gov r . of her Majesties Colony of Coneticutt in New England, in New 


Hartford, July 34 1704. 

Honn ble S R , — Yo r Hono r & Councills letter is before us. 
M r Pitkin had attended yo r Hon r in Councill, but it hap- 
ned that there was an alarum the night before the time 
mentioned, that the inhabitants & especially the women 
were in such a fright he could not at that juncture leave 
his family. Wee are of opinion that Gov r Dudley might 
have better considered than to have writt so much con- 
cerning our proportion, when at that day wee think we 
may say no Goverm fc in her Majesties dominions of our 
ability were at the charges we were, — by our computa- 
tion not less than 800 men under pay at one time, & think 
it rises to more than 100 pound per day. Wee hope yo r 
Hon r will take perticular notice & put a memorandu on 
the great charge yo r Goverm* is now under, & that a due 
report may be made thereof and an accompt laid before 
her Majestie, to take off those calumnies our neighbours 


one way & the other have laid on us. Wee have, accord- 
ing to yo r Hon" order, taken pains to serch the records, & 
find in o r treatment, in conjunction with Boston & York 
Goverm's, did bestow as a gratuity 50 ft cash to y e Five 
Nations & was at great charges in sending 60 men to wait 
on the gent n in gen 11 from the Govermts; & do not incline 
to go beyond said sum of 50 ft , & not meddle in sending 
souldiers to Albany, only a gent m or two & some to wait 
• &c. As to Major Fitche's scout, hope that yo r Hon r will 
regulate that matter & order a number far short of what 
hath been, men that in their ranging may be very care- 
full in their trust. Concerning the charge or proportion 
we bear, wee are of opinion to bear the charge that our 
Gen 11 Court or yo r Hon r is the ocasion or rise of. but dont 
incline to be oblidged to any proportion with our neigh- 
bours, haveing more charge than wee are able well to go 
through, in dischargeing the wages of the souldiers wee im- 
ploy. Wee have from Major Whiting that Cap* Newberry 
labours under great difficulty, hath by some means lost 
his comission. We think it better for Boston to supply 
that post if they will have it maintain*; our men are 
there without the enjoym* of the publick worship, & cant 
perswade any of the yong scollars to goe thither and un- 
dertake that care. Wee chuse that they be at some of 
the other townes if they continue in the county of Ham- 
shire, that yo r Hon r will please to send a comission if they 
stay ; or, if the designe to Quohass goe forward, its 
thought Cap* Newberry & company may doe well if im- 
proved in that expedition. Should have been glad to 
have seen yo r Hon r in Hartford to have managed the 
present difficulties, but the season being so extreame hot, 
fear it would prejudice yo r Hon rs health to travell ; but 
hope shall have the hapiness to wait on yo r Hon r when 
the season & yo r publick affairs will per mitt. 

Signed p r order of Committe of War, 

Caleb Stanly, Senior. 

1704.] CALEB STANLEY. 237 

We were 50* and Boston Goverm* 200 pound, Anno : 
1694, & that seems to be an equall proportion ; its thought 
they are four times as big as wee. 


These for the Honorable John Winthrop, Esquire, Gov r of Coneticutt 
Collony, in New London. 

Harttford, July 5 d 1704. 

Honrab bl S R , — We having rece d the coppy of Coll 
Dudlys letter & Major Whitings to yo r Hon r , could do no 
less then post itt away with all speede to hasten yo r 
furder resolues to Major Whiting with respeckt to the 
march to Cowasset. And as for the nessesarys hee men- 
tions for the army, espeatially the duff ells, itts not to be 
had with us ; and as for shooes, not many, they having 
impressed up most of the shoomakers out of our county ; 
neither is their leather tanned to make but few. Wee 
expeckt to heare furder from Major Whiting every day, 
and where yo r Hon r will gitt a commisary to go up & 
march with them to Cowasset I know not; neather is 
there any magazeene for him to distribute, without itt be 
to keepe an account who eats the most porke & biskett. 
I wish wee had all things that was nessesary for them, 
for itt will bee a hard & difficult peece offe service. I 
hope they haue som currirgions and those that can phis- 
sick them if sicknes should befall them, for they sende for 
none. The extraordinary heate of the weather is to be 
feered may hassard there health. Hon r S r , I perseeive 
the very sight offe yo r Hon r att those fronteere towns be- 
fore their march would spirret them exseedingly for the 
service. Shall not ad, but to desire the God offe wisdome 
to direckt & prosper you in all yo r wayty conserns. Re- 
main yo r Hon r s most humble serv fc , 

Caleb Stanly, Senior. 



North Hampton, July the lO 1 . 11 1704. 
About three after noon. 

Honorable S r , — I received your Honors of the 6° 
currant, w° h have laid before the Councill of Warr consist- 
ing of the officers belonging to our regiment, as also the 
gentlemen of the committy of melitia here, Col. Partridge 
presideing. Upon the perusall thereof, as also one from 
the Hono rd Deputy Governer and from the Committee of 
Warr at Hartford, have thus concluded, (considering the 
extream heat of the season, the want of chirurgeon, chap- 
lin, duffalls, shooes, and other necessaries,) your Honour 
and Councill not haveing positively directed our marching 
to Quoassick, to delay it for a time untill better provission 
can be made for that expedition, viz* untill the first of 
September next. If your Honour se reason to admitt 
thereof, we beleive the coolness of the season then will 
much facilitate the enterprize. Shall therefore tomorrow 
morning grant libertie to some of our forces to draw off 
from the severall townes, but not to disband without 
special order from your Honour; for if the designe be 
prosecuted its doubtless best to keep the men enrol'd, be- 
ing dismist upon that condition. Further I offer to your 
Honour whether it be not adviseable to leave one cap* 
upon the place to command the forces that shall be 
thought necessary to secure the frontiers. These things 
we lay before your Honour for your approbation, (as Col. 
Partridge hath before Governer Dudley,) as also respect- 
ing Deerfield. If you please to countermand these deter- 
minations, I shall upon receipt thereof submitt to your 
further plesure. S% I shall waite your commands for 
quitting my post, and acknowledge it a favor might I re- 
ceive them on Thursday next, so that we may have time 
to carry off those that are not now dismist to get home 
this week. Upon my returne shall attend upon your 
Honour to render a more perticular acco f . of the state of 


affairs on this side. This with the offer of humble service 
from all the gentlemen present, and especially from, S r 
Your Honours most obedient serv' 

Will : Whiting. 

S E Since my subscribing on the other side, upon the 
importunity of Col. Partridge and the rest of the gentle- 
men of the committe here, we have concluded to stay 
upon the place unless we receive orders from your Honour 
for drawing off; they judging themselves not out of reach 
of the enemys malice and fury, altho we have made no 
discovery of their approach. 


Harttford, July ll d 1704. 

Hon r able S R , — We have here inclosed a letter from 
Coll Skyler and Major Whiting, wherein we perseaive the 
convention was to draw off this weeke and go for Cowas- 
set the first of Sep* next, but are stayed by the news 
from Allbany, which affayr depends much uppon yo r fur- 
der conclutions. And plainly our opinion is that Major 
Whiting and company with the Boston forces should not 
retirn whilst they have beene att Cowasset, for iff once 
they are disbanded or removed downe from that county 
they will never retime againe in time enuffe for that ex- 
pedition. The reason is because by that time the enemys 
come will be ripe and all saved before itt can be de- 
stroyed, and the enemy to make themselves strong to 
keepe that place and the harder to bee driven out. 
Therefore wee humbly propose to yo r Hon r that Major 
Whiting's company may be preparing for theire march 
tenn or 14 days, and that a chaplin and surgeon be sent 
for to Boston, espeatially a currergion & all nessesarys 
with him for the soldgers ; and by that time duffells will 


com from Boston, & we heare tobaco is att New London ; 
plese to send up 3 or 4 hundred wayt, if so, and for other 
things we shall provid them by that time. We allso ap- 
rehend that yo r Hon r should send for more strength from 
Gov r Dadly to march up to Cowasset, or garrison the 
upper townes whilst they march upp to that place, the in- 
habitants being in such feere by the farder newes from 
Coll Skyler. Furder we offer to yo r Hon r s consideration 
that Capt. Newberrys company may be speedily removed 
from Deerfield, being just out off order by reason offe being 
so long without a minister and the poore destressed peo- 
ple with him ; and other inconveniances offe two captains 
in that poore little place that occations som divitions 
amongst them, and itts thought most expediant that 
onely Capt. Welles be cap* in that place, & a Liu* with 
the rest of the forces sent up to garrison there. And 
think itt most propper for the Gov r & gentlemen of that 
Province to settle that post and the affayrs of the same, 
and that our men may not be conserned there ; for we 
have many men & so like to have in that county, which 
is sufficiant for us. Plese to give yo r absolut order about 
Deerfeild, as also that there may bee scouts sent out con- 
taining some English & Indians, one scout affter another, 
untill they can com att certain intellegence whether the 
enemy are setling att Cowaset and have planted there ; 
which scouts will att least, if sent up on boath sids the 
river, descover the great army comming doune uppon the 
English ; and that this bee don with all speede. Our com- 
mitty purpose to endevor to gett a minister for Cowasset 
expedition if yo r Hon r cannot advise better. Being all but 
the tender offe our service to yo r Hon r , from yo r humble 

Signed in the name of the Committys of Warr, 

p Caleb Stanly, Senior. 

1704.] WILLIAM WHITING. 241 


For her Maj ty . s Service, For the Honorable John Winthrope, Esq r . Governer 

and Commander in Cheif of the Colony of Gonnecticott, in Hartford, 


[July, 1704.] 

May it plese your Honour, — From Deerfield by 
Cap* Allyn on Tuesday the 8° currant I wrote your 
Honour ; wherein acquainted w*? all things materiall. 
Dureing our stay there our time was improv'd in assist- 
ing the inhabitants about their harvest, cutting downe in 
three dayes between three & four hundred bushells of 
corne. On Wensday y? 9°. instant I sent a scout back to 
y e West Riuer to se whether any of the enemy had been 
upon our tracks, as also to seek for some horses we left 
there ; they return'd w th out any discovery made, only 
brought in 4 horses. The same day also we* sent another 
scout, consisting of six Indians and two English men, to 
the westward 12 or 14 miles, who return'd w th out any 
intelligence. On Thursday the 10 th , about 11 at night, 
came hither Cap! Allyn w*. h letters from your Honour to 
Col. Partridge and Cap* Levingstone, directing to a further 
persuit of the enemy on the east side Conecticott Riuer, 
and to joyn w th Ma]* Taylor in that seruice. Early y* 
next morning considered what mesures to take persuant 
to the said order ; it was resolv'd best to returne to Hat- 
field to inforce our men and procure necessary provisions 
for our subsistance &c. Imediately thereupon we drew 
off, and at Hatfield held a further consultation, Col. Par- 
tridge being present. It was then concluded to detach 
200 men, including Cap* Levingstons compf, and the 
next morning march towards Wachusett Hill in search of 
the enemys tracks; but before we departed the house, 
came in an express from Boston w* h ler! from M r . Secret 1 ". 7 
Addington w c ? inform'd Col. Partridge that the enemy on 
y*. 8° instant were still hovering about Groton, and that 
Maj r Taylor was then ready to march w*! 1 a force of be- 



tween 3 and 400 men in search of them. We still re- 
solv'd to put our determination in execution, in order 
whereto Cap' Levingstone mov'd ouer to Hadly this night, 
Cap fc Allyn and my comp a to North Hampton. The next 
morning early we detach'd our men and march'd to Hadly, 
but by the imprudence of the inhabitants of that towne 
trading w th one of the Indians for his gun, (whereby he 
procur'd suffitient mony to make a great part of his 
companions drunk, whereby our whole designe was frus- 
trate,) the Indians would by no means be perswaded 
march into the woods, but would returne home. Eleven 
of them gate away privately and went homeward ; we 
were forc'd to waite the returne of their reason. This 
morning we concluded to detach fourty men under com- 
mand of Leiu 1 : Minor to joyn Cap 1 Levingston and that 
they should march to Wachuset or that way, and in case 
no discovery of the enemy our scout to returne in four 
dayes & Cap* Leuingstone to continue his march to Wos- 
ter, Oxford, New Roxbury, Canterbury, & so to Norwich, 
to w c . h the Indians consented. A copie of his instruction 
have enclosed sent you. And whereas Leiu* Wells is 
disabled by sickness to proceed w th the comp a , have there- 
fore ordered John Ashcraft to take the Leiu 11 . 8 post dure- 
iiig this expedition ; haue likewise transmitted a copie 
thereof herewith. We were ready to conclude that our 
marching so long after would be bootless, but are prepar- 
ing bread in case we should receive any further intelligence 
of the enemys motions, that we may be ready to march 
upon y e first intermation thereof. S r , in yours to Col Par- 
tridge you are plesed to give possitive order that Cap 4 
Newbery be drawn off within eight dayes, but have not 
directed by what means the garrison shall be supported, 
whether by our men or by some from this Province, altho 
I conclude your Honour intends they be reinforc'd by this 
Gouerm 4 . If our men draw off before a fresh supply the 
people will likewise draw off, and thereby the whole intrest 

1704.] WILLIAM WHITING. 243 

be lost, w c . h will greatly encourage the enemy, and a place 
of considerable importance be abandon'd to their fury and 
rage. Col. Partridg did upon our comeing from Deerfield 
send express to Gouern 1 : Dudley to signifie to him your 
Honours determination therein and to express an answere 
on Wensday next. S% our people are importunate to go 
home. I am not capable of giving y m answere untill your 
Honours further plesure be known. The defence of the 
frontiers is in my opinion (w^ submission) a matter of 
great importance. Their sufferings will weaken us ; if 
they are not enabled to provide for the winter they must 
draw in and thereby we shall be expos'd. It has pleas'd 
the Almighty to spare them in defeating y e designes of our 
enemys, in which mercy we pertake uery largely. 1 pitty 
their forlorne state, being every houre expos'd to the in- 
curtions of a mercyless enemy. These things S r I account 
my selfe in duty bound to lay before your Honour, altho 
I question not but they haue frequently been the subject 
of your meditations. I haue one request to ask for my 
selfe, or to refresh my former of the like nature, that is, to 
be released from my post, especially since I can be no 
wayes servicable to my country herein. I pray your 
Honour to consider it, and if the state of my owne affairs 
be not sufficient to prevaile, let the generall good be so 
farr consulted as to supply the post w'J 1 another. Cap' 
Levingstone giues his duty to your Honour upon his de- 
parture from Hadly this morning, chearfully undertaking 
this enterprize ; all things succeeding will be at New Lon- 
don by Saterday night next. I shall not trouble your 
Honour further, altho there are many things worthy your 
notice might I be fauoured w'. h an opertunity to lay them 
before your Honour. Plese to forgive my failings and be 
assur'd that I am S r your Honours most humble and 
obedient seruant, 

Will: Whiting. 



Roxbuky, 26 July 1704. 

S?, — I am so earnestly urged & very justly by the Cen- 
erall Assembly of this Province, who have nineteen hun- 
dred men & about twenty vessells in the service, to move 
you that the upper towns on Connecticut River may be 
secured by your forces, those places being truly your own 
fronteir, that I am surprised to see the impatience of your 
people, & especially the soldiers themselves there at this 
time residing, to do any duty there. The affair of the 
march to Coasset is lost this time, & I think it no great 
matter by a scout of twenty men to make it certain in 
ten or twenty dayes time whether there be a Coasset or 
no ; & if that were done, should you judge a month hence 
most convenient for that march, I would then send up 
100 men to joyn in that march, which is all that can be 
thought reasonable on the part of this Province ; & we 
all know your numbers & powers capable to support the 
security of those towns in the mean time, & your near- 
ness for that service. I desire earnestly that you will 
think so too & dispose your people accordingly. I have 
not yet my Lord Cornburyes answer referring to visit of 
the Maquas, but shall imediately express it when I have 
it. You will please to remember that I have one man of 
warr sloope with thirty men, Coffin comander, wholly in 
the service & security of your victualers. I wish you 
health & am S r 

Your very humble servant, J. Dudley. 


For her Maf l/$ Service, For the Honourable John Winthrop Esq r ., Gouerner 

and Commander in Cheife of the Collony of Connecticott, in New 

London, these. 

N: Hampton, July 28* 1704. 

Honorable S r , — I presume the intelligence brought 
us by a Frenchman on the 23. ins! has been long since 

1704.] WILLIAM WHITING. 245 

sent to your Honour. On the 24 fc . h the man being brought 
hither upon further examination continues the acco' he 
gaue at Deerfield, viz 1 that they came out of Mont Royall 
w th 340 Indians and 140 French, under command of Sheu- 
aleir Bocoor, that they had been out one month and eight 
dayes, and that they left their first canooes w c ? they came 
out in at a small fort standing upon a river corneing out or 
runing into the lake on the other side the mountaines, at 
w c !* fort there is 5 Frenchmen, besides 9 Indians they left 
w*? their canooes, and that the signe to be given at their 
returne thither is a leaf in each mans mouth ; from which 
place they trauel'd seven dayes ouer the mountaines ere 
they came to Connecticott Riuer; that upon the 22 d instant 
about nine in the morning they lodg'd their canoos three 
mile above the West Riuer and march'd from thence 
toward the mountaines ; before noon he deserted from the 
rear of the army when they had march'd about three 
miles from the canooes; from thence he shap'd his course 
downward, but corneing to the West River chanc'd to meet 
\v th one of their scouts of whom he enquired the way after 
the grand Armado ; they directed him up that river, by 
w 6 ! 1 means he would certainly cross their tracks ; accord- 
ingly he went up the river untill about three afternoon, 
then altered his course agen and in some time fell upon 
our road to Deerfield, where he arriu'd the next day 
about ten in the morning, when fireing his peice alarm'd 
the garrison, who seing of him call him to them, to whom 
he made his honour and gaue y™ an acc e of an aproaching 
enemy, w ch was posted to Col. Partridge and from him to 
me, and from me to Hartford the same day. He also 
informes me that he is a native of France, borne in Lan- 
guedock, came out of that country to England w 1 ? his 
father and mother when he was about twelue years old, 
and that he hopes his parents are still there. Some time 
after went in to Holland, from thence back to England 
w* the Prince of Orange, and thence into Ireland, 


and thence into Flanders, where was taken a prisoner, 
there remain'd one year ; for his engageing in the 
English intrest was sent a servant to Cannada, where 
he has been this five years, not improu'd as a soldier 
but at his occupation, that is bakeing bread, and now 
comanded on this service ; that there is one more Prot- 
estant in the army, to whom he did not communicate 
his intentions. The reasons that perswaded him to this 
undertakeing were these : the abhorrance he hath to their 
relidgeon and practices, the hopes of gaining his ovvne 
libertie, his affection to the English intrest, and to pre- 
uent our destruction. The acco fc giuen by the Maquaw 
and this from the Frenchman agrees in euery step as to 
their motions from Canada hither; the people are differ- 
ently perswaded about him, the generality think him 
upon designe ; for my owne part, I can't conceive of their 
pollicie in giveing us this notice, time must determine ; 
however, haue secur'd him in chaines. On Munday and 
Tuesday last we were in hourly expectation of them ; on 
Tuesday a small party discovered them selues to the gar- 
rison at Hatfield. Our scouts haue been out daylie 10. 
15. 16. 18 miles westward; from Deerfield yesterday about 
12 miles ; no discouery made. The deserter still stands 
to his first information and obserues thus, his leaving 
them put them upon altering their course, (its possible) ; 
however, offers to go w th the scout now ready to march 
for the West River upon that discovery, and in case they 
find it not true he submitts himselfe to loose his life ; yet 
have not thought it convenient to venture him. Since 
the place he mentions where the canooes ly is so notable, 
we conclude they may be found ; 20 men under comand 
of Leiu* Benj a Wright, who are directed to make a cer- 
taine, possitiue and speedy discovery of the truth hereof, 
just gone. He can give us no ace* of Coasset, as we can 
understand. I am uery willing to gaine a certaine knowl- 
edge of the truth of this newes ere Cap* Wells returns. 

1704.] WILLIAM WHITING. 247 

Cap* Ally is drawn back to his post. Another scout of 
four men gone away northwest as far as they can to-day 
and part of too-morrow, then returne, in case they dis- 
couer nothing before. I am inclined to think the enemy 
are in our quarters ; we have posted the intelligence to 
Boston lest the enemy shape their course eastward. I 
have not further at present worthy your notice ; shall 
advise you of all matters of moment; haue delay'd now 
in hopes of makeing a certaine acco fc . of the enemy, S r , 
Your Honours most humble servant, 

Will: Whiting. 

Note. — Fitz-John Winthrop filed with this letter two others, addressed 
by the same writer to the Committee of War on the two following days. 
On the 29th Major Whiting wrote : — 

" Yesterday ere they went seven mile from towne to the westward 
our scout heard a gun, and in some short time saw a young beast 
comeing towards them wounded in two places, whereupon the} 7 return'd 
hither, adviseing us thereof. Upon w c ? imediately we dispatch'd 20 
men on horseback to y e place, under command of Cap* Hollester. 
They found the steer, but noe signes of the enemy es being there, altho 
we conclude their scouts made the shot. This morning we sent out 
another scout with possitive charge to take a large extent ; moreover 
twenty of our Indians w* two Englishmen have been ranging seven or 
eight mile westward and northward, who are return'd w th out any intel- 
ligence. The Frenchman (Peter Newgate, in English) is plesant 
under his chaines and still is stedfast in his affirmation, and much 
admires the}' make not their assault, since the}' had scarcely three 
dayes provision when he left them. He gives me something new upon 
every examination, discourseing with all imaginable freedom. They 
have three fryars with them and about 20 boyes w* bows and arrows ; 
that they have no permission to make spoyle on Albany, but any part 
of New England, intermating a truce between Canada and Albany." 

On the 30th Major Whiting wrote : — 

" Our daylie scout about the towne found another beast wounded 
in the woods. Just now came in our scout from the West River, who 
confirmes the ace* brought us by the Frenchman. About four mile 
above the river they came upon the track of the enemy, very plaine 
and large, bending to the westward, w ch they followed for some time, 
when they descern'd they had return'd in the same road. Our people 


came back also to the great river, where they found the place the}' had 
laid their canooes, but had taken them all away save one and passed 
over Conecticott River and landed agen in a meadow on the east side, 
hailing up all their canooes, all but two w^ the}' left at the shore side. 
Our men not judging it safe to swim over to make further discovery, 
return'd w* all speed. We are ready to beleive that the Indians be- 
longing to the canooe left on this side are those that make spoyl upon 
our cattle. Its most probable this man deserting from them has been 
the means of altering their mesures. AVe shall strengthen Hadly w ,h 
all speed and hold a councill of warr to-morrow morning to concert 
the most proper methods to be taken for the destruction of the enenry. 
If we draw off our whole forces and march up the river, we shall leave 
the townes naked. We are not certaine but they may still come 
downe on this side the river. Shevalier Bocoor, their generall, is an 
experienced eomander and will improve all his French pollicie to 
trappe us." 


Boston, ult. July, 1704. 
S R , — This morning before day a considerable number 
of the enemy set upon Lancaster in the county of Midle- 
sex, where besides the inhabitants I have a company of 
musqueteers, & presuming upon the notice given by the 
French deserter at Deerfeild that the enemy would give 
mee the go-by there, I had ordered two hundred men 
more to the s d Lancaster on Saturday evening, who I hope 
will be there this evening, & God can give us success if he 
pleases. That I pray of you now is imediately to direct 
your forces upon the fronteirs to march into the woods 
upon their track and lay wayt for them in their return; 
they cannot be above 200 men, so that the force at Hadly 
must needs be enough to meet them. I have no notice 
but of an half hour of their assault of the first garison 
next the woods ; what impression they may make I know 
not, but have within the line the great towns of Concord 
and Sudbury all ready to march and gone before this 
time ; but doubt not they may be intercepted weary in 
their march homeward, & it is impossible to miss their 

1704.] WILLIAM WHITING. 249 

track if you cross to the northward. I have no opertunity 
to Hadly ; if you please to express this letter to C 1 ! Par- 
tridge, let him march of company in the county what he 
can possibly in this conjuncture, & this is his order for the 


I am S r your humble ser*, J. Dudley. 


[No date ; last of July, 1704.] 

S% — I wrote your Honor on y e . 28 th , w c . h hope came to 
your hands according to time, wherein I advis'd of all 
things materiall ; since which haue constantly giuen acco* 
to the gentlemen of the Committy of Warr at Hartford, 
with desire it might be transmitted to your selfe, of w* has 
hapen'd since, viz* the discouery of the enemys tracks 
and canooes at the place assign'd by the deserter, altho 
they haue return'd from the westward and pass'd ouer 
Connecticott Riuer just across. This intelligence we 
gain'd on the 30 th instant at night. Yesterday a councill 
of warr was held at Hadly, Col. Partridge presideing; dei- 
vers things were debated, that if possible the most proper 
method might be taken in this juncture. I propos'd that 
our whole forces might unite and march in persute of 
the enemy. It was resolu'd on the negative, concluding 
it not prudence to leave the townes naked unless cer- 
taine intelligence were gaind where the enemy was ; we 
can not yet determine on w c . h side the river they are. 
Shevalier Bocour is an old commander and will doubtless 
use all his French pollicie to trick us. Whatever shew they 
haue made of passing the river yet we know not, but they 
may be still on this side. It was propos'd that we should 
encamp in the field, that being in a body we might the 
better march to the releife of any place where the attack 
should be made. It was also resolved on the negative. 
Other things were offer'd, but at length thus agreed and 



concluded nemine contradicente, that our scouts should be 
continued euery way, and especially one from Deerfield to 
goe in Albany road 25 or thirty miles westward, whereby 
certaine discovery may be made whether any part, or the 
whole, of the forces was come below that line ; as likewise 
another from Hadly 25 or 30 miles towards Lancaster, to 
make the same discovery; and that euery comp a remaine 
at their respective posts untill further order or some dis- 
covery of the enemy be gain'd, then to march w th our 
whole strength ; in mean time to assist the inhabitants 
about their harvest, wherein they have made some con- 
siderable progress. This S r , was thought to be the most 
proper method to be us'd for the publique safty. On the 
30 th instant, about one in the morning, four men travel- 
ling between Hadly and Springfield were shot at by fiue 
Indians, slitely wounding three of them. Cap fc Col ton 
was imediately dismist from Hatfield, and all our men in 
a readiness to march to their releife in case any body of 
the enemy had been there. S r , I have according to the 
utmost of my power and skill endeavored the preserva- 
tion of the whole, therefore must beg leave to lay before 
your Honour some unfair dealling (at lest, in my opinion). 
I suppose Maj r Pynchon, upon the alarm giuen them by 
those five Indians, might conclude the whole army to be 
there, for I find the people in each towne belieue y m 
selues in the greatest hazard and argue the same strongly. 
Howeuer, it seems not so agreeable w th the practice of the 
enemy to alarm by a small party first, when they intend 
an attack on that place, but rather to draw the forces 
that way to facilitate their designes elsewhere. But Majf 
Pynchon adviseing the Committy of Warr at Hartford of 
that rencounter, they imediately (what number of those 
gentlemen were present I know not) did send an order to 
Cap' Wells, enclosed to Maj r Pynchon, to speed w th his 
company to Springfield, a copie whereof have enclosed 
sent to your Honour, as also a copie of Maj r Pynchons to 

1704.] WILLIAM WHITING. 251 

Cap* Wells directing him in his motions, in both w ch there 
is not the least mention made of my name, from whence 
I fairly conclude my stay here is wholy needless, since 
the superiour command is put into other hands. Further- 
more the messengers that brought the letters to Cap* 
Wells came in to y e garrison in the night, where I quart r , 
of whom I enquired w! newes : they reply'.d none, con- 
cealed the matter from me (I suppose being directed 
thereto, but for what reason I can't conceiue); when the 
day came on, went to Cap* Wells and delivered his orders, 
and some time after, I came at a sight of it. S r , I can 
w^out vanitie affirm to your Honour, and that in the 
presence of all thats sacred, that I have done my utmost, 
and am freely willing to venture my life when God shall 
call me to it, for the good of my country, and cant but 
resent such a slite put upon me, especially since I have at 
all times paid a ready obedience to the commands reed, 
from your Honour, or orders reed from them. I have 
formerly intimated to those gentlemen the inconveniency 
I found in things of that nature : a cap*, w*? 100 men 
w th out any instruction to attend such orders as he should 
receive from me is, in short, in equall comission w fc . h me ! 
We haue just now detach'd 30 men for another scout 
to the West River to follow the tracks and make what dis- 
covery they can. We are in hourly expectation to hear 
of them either by our scouts or that they make an onsett 
somewhere ; am uery desirous to try my chance w th them 
in the field, but when that matter shall be determined, 
shall solicite your Honour for a release from my post, that 
some more capable person may supply my place. S r , I 
would alwayes maintaine a lively sence of the duty I owe 
your Honour & zealously imbrace all oppertunities to giue 
manifest proofs thereof; and pray God Almighty to be- 
stow upon you his cheifest blessings. 

Your Hono r ? most obedient servant, 

Will: Whiting. 



Boston, August 4 th 1704. 

Hono b " Sir, — His Excellency our Governour being ab- 
sent in business has commanded me to acquaint your 
Honour that on Munday the 31 8t of July past, early in the 
morning, the enemy in a numerous body of three or four 
hundred (being the same that came from Mont Real) 
insulted Lancaster, one of our frontiers in Middlesex, 
furiously assaulting six or seven garisons at once ; but 
finding the inhabitants on their duty and well provided 
to receive them, and auxiliaries from the neighbouring 
towns comeing in speedily to their assistance, they were 
obliged in a few houres time to draw off, haveing made 
no further impression on the town than the burning of 
some few deserted houses, killing four of our men ; three 
whereof were slain in a skirmish they had with them on 
the open field, in which it is concluded the enemy suf- 
fered a greater loss, besides what they suffered from the 
garrisons. They also kiPd some cattle, of which they got 
onely one meal, tooke no booty at all; in the pursuit our 
souldiers found several plots of blood in their stands. 
They continue still hovering in those woods and keep 
the parts alarm' d ; its uncertain where they may fall 
next, or whether they may not divide and come upon 
several places at once, so that we are necessitated to 
strengthen all the frontiers and keep out a marching 
force. His Excellency desires your Honour will please to 
order Cap'. 11 Avery with the Moheags &c. to Gioton, to 
abide there for some time for scouring of the woods there- 
abouts. They will probably be better contented there, 
being not altogether strangers in those parts, and will not 
be so far from home as before. I am, with all due regard, 
Sr, your Honours most humble & obedient servant, 

Is* Addington. 

Note. — This letter was acknowledged by Daniel Wetherell, of New 
London, under date of August 4, 1704, who informed Secretary Addingtou 

1704.] ISAAC ADDINGTON. 253 

that the Governor was absent in Hartford, and that the members of the 
Council then in New London were empowered to attend to pressing business. 
He added : — 

" The Pequot & Moheag Indians went out last Thursda}' from 
Plainfield, under the command of Capt. Levingstone, by New Roxbury 
into the northern woods with a?design to come upon y e enemy's tracks 
on their return from Lancaster. So y* Capt. Aveiy cant march to 
Groton with them, as y r Hon r mentions. We conclude that, upon rec* 
of y r lett r , the Gov' & Councill at Hartford will ord r a party of our 
English, with some of our Indians y 1 are now upon the river in your 
Province, to march directly through the woods to Lancaster and to 
range in those woods for y e enemy. Last night we had advice here of 
mischief done by y e enemy at Oxford, but conclude you have it more 
perfectly. The report here is y* one young woman is kill d , & 4 chil- 
dren, w ch were gathering hurtle-berries, missing." 

Daniel Wetherell (b. in England 1630 — d. 1719) was a very active man 
in New London, and held numerous local offices. Two letters of his to Gov- 
ernor John Winthrop, Jr., are printed in 3 Mass. Hist. Coll. X. pp. 118, 119 ; 
and another letter of his, to Fitz-John Winthrop, which was overlooked when 
the early selections in this volume were stereotyped, is here appended, on 
account of its reference to the intrigues against Gurdon Saltonstall at the 
beginning of his political career : — 

New London, DecemV 20. 1697. 
Honodrab l . e S?, — I cannot express how thankfull}' I receaved yo r 
lines and the joy of yo r arrivall into America, which is and will be 
also to our whole Collonie as life from the dead. And yo r comeing at 
such a season of the 3-eare, blest with so happy a passage, argues you 
came upon the wings of prayer, which has incessantly been put up to 
the Allmighty God in yo r behalfe in all the congregations of this Col- 
lonie. Honor 4 Sir, yo r appearance in New London will, I doubt not, 
dispell and scatter those clouds of darkness which some persons of 
evill principalis and mortall enimies to our worthy Minister, have 
been late endeavoring and contriveing. I have dispatch* 1 yo r letters 
to the Governo 1 and am assur d y r happy arrivall will rejoyce him and 
make him twenty yeares younger. Wee all pray that yo r Hon r may 
have a favourable journ}' up to us, and as speedily as yo r occasions 
will permit. If wee could know the time, wee would meet yo r Hon r and 
wayte upon 3-011. The season is now sharp, and a veiy deep snow. 
My inke freizes in my pen. Our freinds are all in health & present 
theire service to you. Hono r ? S r , I shall not add, but beg pardon for 
these rude lines, and assure you that I am, 

Y r Honors most humble servant, Daniell Wetherell. 



For the Hon hlt John Winthrop Esq r ., Governour of her Maf* Collony of 
Conetticut, at New London, these. 

London, 10 of August 1704. 
Hon ble S R , — I writt to you by y e last ships & sent you a 
copy ofy e order of her Maj : in Councell confirming y e juge- 
ment about Livings estate, which I hope is safe arrived to 
y r satisfaction. You have undoubtedly heard what a noyse 
Nich : Hallam has made about a lett r alleadg'd to be sent 
by y e Sagemore of y e Mohegins complaining to y e Queen 
of land taken from him by your Colony. It made a great 
deal of clamour, which has at last moved y e ministry to 
send an order from her Maj : to severall gent n there to 
enquire into y fc matter; Gov r Dudley, Messrs. Povey, By- 
field, Brinly, Brinton, Palms, &c. are mention'd in it. 
I doubt not but your Collony will be able to give a sat- 
isfactory account of y t affair. Hallam being baulked in 
y e matter of y e appeal, has procur d 2 other orders: one 
relating to a complaint of Maj r Palms that he is deny d 
to administer upon his dec d wife's estate, who, I presume, 
was your sister ; and another about y e ship y* was Livings. 
He has employ d one Wharton here to be his agent who 
does his bussinesse. As for Sir Henry Ashurst, I have 
seen him but once at court & y* was at my L d Treasurer's. 
I have been following y e court at Windsor for some time 
& have not quite done yett. I haue rec d some money & 
am in hopes to receive y e rest. I haue sent my wife in 
y e 4 ships that are gone from hence to N : York goods to 
y e value of 1100. £ sterl. & can not be ready to get hence 
before spring, no fleet going to y e westward after this 
mast fleet this season. I design to winter in Scotland & 
to come over with y e first fleet in y e spring. I shall 
esteem it a great happinesse if I can be any wise service- 
able to you while I am here. Y e court is now at Windsor 
& most of y e great ones at their countrey houses. This 


goes by M r Adolph Phillips, who goes in the Advice man 
of war & convoys y e mast ships. As for news, we are 
barren, no action having been lately. The male come 
in to day says Tallard has joyn d y e Bavarians & a battle 
dayly expected ; y e armys in Portugall are gone into quar- 
ters of refreshment for wett weather ; Duke of Savoy is 
reduc'd very low by y e French kings forces, its thought 
he must submitt. Some talk as if y e next Parlament 
would revive y* matter of y r charter governm*. 8 M r Pen 
stands in y e gapp, & if y u kept a good correspondence 
with him, I beleeve it would be serviceable to y r Collony. 
I have nothing to ad but my duty full respects to y r lady 
& kind love to our son & daughter. I am, Hon bl S r , 
Your most obed e Servant, 

Rob t Livingston. 

Note. — Major Edward Palmes, who died in 1715 in his seventy-eighth 
year, was a disappointed and ambitious man, who was believed to have con- 
spired with the enemies of Connecticut to take away her charter. In early 
life he had married Governor John Winthrop the younger's daughter Lucy, 
by whom he acquired a considerable estate at New T London. Many years 
after this lady's death without issue, and long after Palmes had married 
again, he brought a suit against his first wife's brothers on the ground that 
she had never received her full portion. He lost his case, but succeeded in 
making himself very disagreeable to Fitz-John and Wait Winthrop; and it is 
believed that it is he who is frequently alluded to in their familiar corre- 
spondence as "Sir Hude," though the origin of this nickname cannot now 
be conjectured. He was also very distasteful to Gurdon Saltonstall, as he 
had actively abetted the Hallams in their efforts to deprive the ministry 
of New London of the Liveen bequest, though he himself had been named 
one of Liveen's executors. At the period of this letter he was engaged in 
what Fitz-John Winthrop and his Council believed to be a most unfair 
attempt to discredit Connecticut in England by representing that she had 
unjustly deprived the Mohegans of their lands. Owaneco, the Mohegan 
sachem, son of the famous Uncas, was a tipsy person in his old age, and 
probably a passive instrument in a scheme of which Palmes and Nicholas 
Hallam were the prime movers, though Governor Dudley was suspected of 
having secretly encouraged it. Before the receipt of Livingston's letter, 
Fitz-John Winthrop had issued the following commission for a court of 
enquiry into the subject ; — 

John Winthrop Esq r , Govern' of her Majesties Colonie of Connec- 
ticut, to Dan 1 Wetherel, Will: Pitkin, Jno Eliott, Rich d Bushnell, 


Will : Ealy and Eleaz r Kimberly Esq" Greeting : Whereas the Gen 1 "? 1 
Assembly of her Majesties said Colonie having reeieved certain infor- 
mation of a complaint by Nicholas Hallam in behalfe of Owaneco, 
presented to the Lords of the Comittee for Foreign Plantations, of in- 
justice done him 03- this Corporation and severall English within this 
Colonie, in taking away and defrauding him of his lands, — in order 
that a full and perfect account of that matter may be obteined and 
prepared to lay before their Lordships, have ordered and enacted that 
a full and ample comission should be given to such persons as they 
should make choice of to hold a court of inquirie in such place or 
places within this s d Colonie as the}' shall judge convenient. And to 
issue sumons or citations to all maner of persons who may be supposed 
to hold an} r of those lands that have been claimed by the said 
Owaneco, to appear before them and show by what means they have 
obteined and doe hold the said lands ; as also to administer such 
oaths and to make such orders as they shall judge necessaiy to enable 
them to make a full and perfect report of the whole matter of fact 
relating to the said claim, whether by Owaneco, or by this Gover™-, 
or by any perticular persons or townes whatsoever ; which said report 
shall be made to the Gen 11 Assembly in Octob r next, that thereby a 
true answer may be given to the aforesaid complaint (as appears by 
their act of May the 11. 1704). And the s d Gen 11 Assembly having 
chosen 3-011 the said Dan 1 . 1 Wetherell, Will : Pitkin, Jno Eliot, Richard 
Bushnel, Will : Ealy and Eleaz r Kimberly, or any four of 3-011, to 
hold the said court, know 3-e therefore that reposing speciall trust and 
confidence in the prudence, fidelitie and circumspection of 3*011 the 
said Dan 1 * Wetherell, Will : Pitkin, Jn° Eliot, Richard Bushnell, Will : 
Ely and Eleaz r Kimberly, I have assigned, ordeined, constituted and 
appointed, and doe 03- these presents assign, ordein, constitute and 
appoint you the said Dan 11 Wetherell, Will : Pitkin, John Eliot, Rich? 
Bushnel, Will : EI3- and Eleaz r Kimberly to be comissioners for and 
in behalfe of the s d Gen rI1 Assembly, 3-ou or any four of you, to hold 
the said court in such place or places within this Colonie as you or 
any four of you shall judge convenient, for examining and enquiring 
into the respective claims and titles, as well of this Corporation as of 
the said Owaneco, or of an3 r other person or persons whatsoever, to 
the right or propertie of any tracts or parcels of land whereof the said 
Owaneco pretends that he is defrauded ; hereby authorizing you or 
any four of you to examine and inquier into the severall titles above 
mentioned, and to suiiion and call before you aii3' person or persons 
whatsoever, and to search records as you shall find requisite for your 
information in this behalfe. As also to take examinations upon oath 
for the clearing of truth in the cases above mentioned. And your 

1704] JOSEPH DUDLEY. 257 

proceedings herein with } T our opinions upon the matters that shall be 
examined by } r ou, you are to state and report unto the s d Gen rl 
Assembly to be holden at Newhaven the 2 d Thursda}^ in Octob r next, 
to the end that impartial justice ma}' be done where it shall appear to 
belong and a true answer may be given to the said complaint. Given 
under my hand &c. J : W. 

Aug. 22. 1704. 


For the Honourable John Winthrop Esq r ., Governour of her Majesties 
Colony of Connecticot, New-London. 

Boston, 14. August 1704. 

S R , — I am glad of the health & welfare of your forces. 
If the scout that first saw the whole number of canoes had 
distroyed them, we had been now certayn to have spoken 
with the enemy in their return. Major Taylor with six 
good companys horse & foot is in the forrest towards 
Conectecut River after them ; went out with hopes to meet 
your forces in the woods, set out on Thirsday last, hope 
he may hold out ten or twelve dayes. Inclosed is copy of 
a letter from the Governour of Quebeck to the Governour 
of Port Royall, gives you a scheem of their intention & 
our expectation. I wish your health better than my own, 
& am S r , 

Your very humble ser fc , J. Dudley. 

Note. — The letter enclosed was not a copy, but a translation in the 
handwriting of Secretary Addington, and is here given : — 

Quebeck, March 15. 1704. 
My dear Brouillan, — I take the advantage of the journe}' of 
Beaubassin and Gordeau towards your parts, whereby I have the 
pleasure to advise of our present posture. And first, I assure } r ou I 
shall do my best to ravage the English on the side of Boston. I sup- 
pose you already know the blow Beaubassin gave them the last fall, 
which was considerable. I have now again a party of 300 at their 
backs, commanded by Mf Roville, a man very proper for such an ex- 
pedition and whom I value much. As soon as this party shall return 
I shall send forth another campaigne. I beleive you will be surprized 



that I alwaies send towards Boston. I have man}- reasons for it, but 
the strongest is that the Court will in no wise have a war with the Iro- 
quois, which I should apprehend and be afraid of if I sent towards 
Albany, & thereby disturb the English and worke a confusion by that 
matter. Until this time the Maquas remain quiet. I shall do all in 
my power to continue it. I thanke God all things go well to this 
time. I shall alwaies keep people in the field, and as soon as one 
part}' is returned another shall set out, which must of necessity be ad- 
vantagious to you. Beaubassin has asked 25 or 30 men of me to 
make some attempt on the side of Boston. I have promised them. 
He further askes leave to rayse some few in your Governm*, & I have 
allowed it in his passport, giveing you account hereof beforehand. He 
has great ideas and I wish he may succeed. I doubt not jou have re- 
ceived the succours you askt from me and that the barque is arrived 
with the flour. We want your news by her early in the spring, or, if 
of great importance, you will express it. I remain, mj- dear Brouillan, 
Your humble servant, Vaudreuil. 

Philippe de Rigaud, Marquis de Vaudreuil, was Governor of Canada from 
1703 till his death in 1725, having previously been Lieutenant-Governor of 
Montreal. De Brouillan, who died in 1705, was a distinguished soldier who, 
before he became Governor of Acadie, had commanded at Placentia. De 
Rouville and Beaubassin were adventurous subordinates. —Eds. 


For her Maj tys Service, To the Honorable John Winthrop Esq 1 :, Gouerner 
and Commander in Chief of the Colony of Connecticott, in Hartford. 

North Hampton, Aug*: 1 19? 1704. a. m. 

S R , — I wrote your Honour yesterday, since which an 
express from Boston with let" from Governer Dudly to 
Col. Partridge signifiing Maj r Taylors returne on y e 15? 
instant to Groton after five dayes fruitless persute of the 
enemy, & concluding their returne ; in w ch there is this 
passage inserted : ' I very well know the Gouenv? of Que- 
becks power and resolution, and that there is no other 
force than this in the woods, and these must returne be- 
fore any other go out. I hope your forces will keep the 
forest to find the enemy in their returne, or to see them 

1704.] WILLIAM WHITING. 259 

well homewards, that you may be at quiet from any thing 
but small parties of sculking rogues, of whom you must 
take care by your good watches & small scouts/ As to 
the releiveing our people at Deerfield he is wboly silent. 
Divers of our men in the seuerall townes are vissited w*. h 
malignant feavers, some hazard us and others newly taken; 
some w th the bloody flux, w c . h I hear of just now from 
Hatfield. D r Hastins is now w* h one Bissell of my comp a 
who is in a dangerous state ; thought best to advise you 
hereof. This comes by Leiu* Munson, who is permitted to 
go home upon some urgent occasion, to returne w fc . h all 
speed. M r Osborns le r under your Honours favor I reed 
this day ; haue dismist y e man, who comes w*! 1 the bearer. 
S r , I hope answere to my last ; many in each comp a labour 
under extreem difficulties in their stay, being so farr be- 
yound their expectation in voluntarily offering themselves 
in hopes of a speedy encounter w th the enemy. I have no 
other way to pacifie them but by laying the case before 
your Honour. We haue 40 men ready to march, under 
comand of Leiu* Marsh, up the river, but the raines pre- 
vent; must delay untell Munday morning early. Our 
scouts that take not so large an extent are dayly out. 
Pardon S T . him who is and desires to be 

Your Honours most obedient servant, 

Will: Whiting. 

S?, I refer your Honour to Leiu* Munson for a perticular 
acco* of the state of Deerfield. 


For her Maj ty . s Service, For the Honorable John Winthrop Esq% Gouer- 
ner of the Colony of Connecticott, in Hartford. 

N: Hampton, Aug 8 .* 21?* 1704. a. m. 

Honorable S r , — I wrote you on Saterday last by 
Leiu* Munson, since which by express from Albany we 


are inform'd of Col Schuylers returne from the Indian 
country, that he has been so successfull in his negociation 
as that considerable benefit will acrew to the common 
intrest. He refers us to the bearer of newes who gives 
this acco*, that the Colonell met w th three Indians in the 
Maquaw country that did belong to the French army 
form'd against us, who gave these reasons for their come- 
ing thither: 1. The scouts they sent to view our quarters 
gave them this acco fc , that we were upon our guard, our 
frontiers well cover'd with men, that they were as thick 
as the bushes; w ch put them under great consternation, 
however thought them selues oblidg'd in point of honour 
to proceed, altho at the greatest hazard. 2. When they 
were sensible one of their comp* had deserted, they were 
confounded and discouraged, imediately resolveing to re- 
turne and accordingly did from their second lodg ; only 
four score of them went to the eastward, hopeing to sur- 
priz some townes on that side, w c . h I suppose were those 
that assalted Lancaster; these there parted from y e army 
and returned that way. Further he adds that the Coll. in 
his travell met w^ other two French Indians to whom he 
presented two belts of wompom, requiring or desireing 
them to lay down the hatchet they had taken up against 
the Goverments of New England, w c . h they receiu'd & will 
returne answere in the fall. Agen, one of our owne In- 
dians that was not a little inclin'd to the French intrest, 
upon his conferance w th them did resolve to go to Canada 
and demand M r Williams of them, w c . h if they refus'd to 
deliver he would forsake their intrest and take up the 
hatchet ag st them. This S r is the substance of the intel- 
ligence, only that the Governor of Canada is willing to 
exchange prisoners by the way of Albany or Onondagoes. 
Thought it my duty to advise you thereof, haue there- 
fore sent down to Cap 1 Allyn w th orders to forward it to 
your Honour. There is one thing that slip'd my memory 
before, that the Commissarys in the countys of Hartford, 


New Hauen, and Fairfield, be directed not to make or 
order any payments to the Indians untell the generall 
acco* be return'd, lest they receiue more then they ought. 
S r , our scout is ready to march up the river. I shall not 
omitt to signiiie to you all things that are materiall. 
S% your Honours most obedient humble servant, 

Will: Whiting. 


Piscataqr. 28 August 1704. 

S R , — I have now concluded, with my Lord Cornbury's 
consent, to send my Comissioners Townsend & Leveret 
from here towards York this day fortnight, being the 
eleventh of September, & desire your gentlemen will 
joyn them in their way, or at York or at Albany, where 
you please, with their present, & I hope they will move 
the Maquas to some advance in the service. I am at this 
distance, but shall the next week return ancl consider the 
business of Coasset ; but with a scout might discover it 
before we advance a great force thither; five or six In- 
dians and two or three English men would make us cer- 
tayn ; which if you please to do I shall be glad. I do 
not expect any considerable force upon your river til the 
last expedition against Lancaster is got to Montreal, & 
then they will return, but may fall into the edge of the 
winter. The next impression will be where I am and I 
am providing for it. 

I am S r your very humble servant, J. Dudley. 

There is no danger upon our towns on Conecticut 
River while your forces are marching to Coasset. 



Boston, 4 September 1704. 
S B , — I wrot you this day sevennight from Piscataqr 
that the gentlemen from this Province for the enterveiw 
at Albany should proceed from hence on Monday the 
11 th instant to Koad lland & from there by water to 
York, in order to go up the river to Albany. I desire, if 
you have not that letter, that you will please to take this 
advice thereof and to order your gentlemen with their 
present to joyn us at York or at Albany; or if you please, 
that it be any ease to your gentlemen, if I have notice of 
it before Monday noon next, our gentlemen shall call at 
New London there to receive them. Every thing is well 
upon our fronteirs at present & I am hastening a new ex- 
pedition eastward & should be glad of fifty of your Mo- 
heegs, & perticularly Jan Philip, who went home with 
that troop with Captain Avery. 

I am S r your humble servant, J. Dudley. 


New London, Sep* 10 th 1704. 

Deare S?, — I have been very happy to heare of your 
health by your letters to Major Whiting, comander of our 
forces upon the frontires, and your favour of a few lines 
thus far by those opportunity es would have been a great 
obligation and advantage at this tyme of publick calamety. 
Our enemyes the French and Indians are thornes in our 
sides and have done great mischeif upon y e townes of y e 
county of Hampshire in y e Mattathuset Province, where I 
have had 400 men. Their late designe upon those upper 
townes with 500 men has been hapily prevented by a 
Frenchman that deserted their army within one dayes 
march of Deerefeild, w c . h we conclude obliged them to re- 
turne in great confusion, except a party that insulted 
Lancaster, where they kild 4 of the inhabitants and then 


retired, & could not be overtaken by the forces from Bos- 
ton, nor by any meanes be discovered by our soldiers on 
the frontires. I have lately received a letter from Gov r 
Dudley that he has obtayned leave of my Lord Cornbury 
to send messengers to the 5 Nations & has desired me to 
joyne with him therein. I have accordingly appointed 
[blank] and M r John Livingston, your nephew, to visit 
the 5 Nations with a small present, such as can be pro- 
cured upon this sudaine, and must recomend them to 
your favour for assistance & directions, and to introduce 
them & their present to the best advantage. I am very 
sensible of your great intrest with the 5 Nations, and your 
capassety to oblige them to take up the hatchet in behalf 
of these Governments, and by their scoutes (as formerly) 
they will be able to give the enemy such a divertion as 
will oblige them to keep at home. And truly I think noe 
better meanes can be proposed for the safety of the county 
of Hampshire &c, most perticularly exposed to their in- 
curtions. I remember in a late treaty with the 5 Nations 
by Collonell Fletcher, and some gentlemen from Boston 
& from this Government, he swept up all the returnes the 
Indians made, w c . h was a dishonor to those gentlemen, 
that they could not shew that the Indians did answere 
their propositions. But I hope you will order otherwise 
now, and that whatever returnes they make, tho' never so 
triviall, be delivered to our gentlemen distinct from what 
are made to the gentlemen of Boston. This being the 
first adventure your nephew makes in a publick capassety, 
I shall be sorry if he should not returne with some succes 
& reputation. Tis much in your power to promote it, and 
I will not doubt your favour to him in what may be to 
his advantage. I wish a good succes to this affaire, and 
with my hearty salutations to your hon r . d mother, yo r self 
& lady, Madam L., yo r brothers & sisters, and where you 
please to dispose of me, I am 

Yo r most affectionate fay thfull servant, J : W. 



Boston, 11 September 1704. 

S R , — I continue to think it very much for the service 
that I might have fifty Moheeges. They cannot spend 
their winter better then to eat my bread & flesh at Neck- 
awanock. I have desired the agents of this Province to 
expect yours at York or Albany, & to treat them as 

I am S r your humble servant, J. Dudley. 


Hartford, Sept 1 ?' 12* 1704. 
Hon b . l S R , — Having oportunitie by the bearer hereof, 
Sam 11 Gilbeer, I thought good to acquaint your Hon r with 
some difficulties we meet with in procuring the present 
for the Albanie designe, and our late order concerning 
the souldiers in Hampshire countie. Money is not to be 
had for the purchasinge of a present without standing 
securitie, and such commodities as are proper for that 
service, viz fc duffils and other cloths, we understand is not 
to be had neither at York nor Albanie. In so much that 
the Albanians talke of fetching such things over land 
from Boston. We have sent to Boston to procure such 
things upon the coun treys creditt, but I doubt too late. 
We are using our best indevour to accomodate the gentle- 
men with money for their expences, that are designd for 
the service, and with the present, but we find it very 
difficult. Cap* Gold that we pitcht upon to be one of the 
comisioners hath accepted, desiring that he may be in- 
formed when and by what way he should be moving for- 
ward with M r Livingston to meet the Boston gentlmen, 
and what his orders are. We had resolved to draw oft 
the greatest part of our forces from the countie of Hamp- 


shire by the midle of the week and had signified the same 
to Coll. Patridge. Whereupon we received a letter from 
him, sign d by him and divers principle men in trust with 
him, signifying their earnest desires of their continuance 
there till the midle of Octob r next, in most affectionate 
termes ; apprehending their danger of the enemy to be 
still very great, so that without assistance from us they 
shall not be able to gett in their Indian harvest ; giving 
many reasons for our souldiers continuance. In comisera- 
tion of their circumstances, we have yielded to their 
desires so farre that we have ordered 75 of our men to 
remain in their countie till further order; 60 of them 
under the comand of Cap* Newbury for the assistance of 
Hadly, Northampton and Hatfield, and 15 for Westfield ; 
and the rest to be forthwith drawn off by Maj r Whiting, 
who is gone up the countrey for that end. I desire your 
Hon r by the first to send to us what advice may be need- 
full, for I am very desirous to be going homeward this 
week ; and am S% 

Your humble servant, E : Treat. D. G. 

Govornour Winthrop. 


New-London, Sep* 20*. h 1704. 
Deare S k , — Your letter fil d me with sorrow for the 
death of our worthy freind M r Troubridg, whose many 
worthy quallifications will have a lasting rememberance 
upon me. I cannot expres my concerne for this my soe 
great berevement, and the publick intrest will greatly 
suffer by his death, as he was a hopefull person for their 
service ; but the curtaine is drawne and wee must submit 
to God's good pleasure, who will have him at home. I 
mourne for his widow and all his relations, who (for his 
sake) will never want my service when I have opportu- 



nety to expres it to them. Yo r recomendation of M r 
Hodson is very just and I will doe what I can for him. 
I have only to pray you to condole with y e mourners in 
my behalf as you have opportunity, & to ad my saluta- 
tions to M r8 Pierpont & where you think fit, and am 

Yo r affectionate freind, J: W. 

M r Pierpont. 

Note. — Rev. James Pierpont (b. 1600 — Harv. Coll. 1681 — d. 1714) 
was long minister of New Haven, and greatly respected in the Colony. His 
three wives bore the honored Connecticut names of Davenport, Haynes, and 
Hooker; while his daughter Sarah married Jonathan Edwards. In the 
letter to which this is an answer Pierpont had communicated to Fitz-John 
Winthrop the death of their mutual friend Caleb Trowbridge, of New Haven, 
and had suggested the latter's brother-in-law, John Hodson, for the vacancy 
in the "naval office." When the first selections were made for this volume, 
some earlier letters from him to Fitz-John were overlooked, and a few ex- 
tracts from them are here appended : — 

New-Haven, 6 Sep' 1693. I was not a little pleased to understand 
3'O r generous readinesse to support from ruin those easy & comfort- 
able liberties w c !' yo r renowned father with much wisdom & labor 
obtained. M/y principall errand is to lett 3*o r Hon r know y l in my 
measure I shall not be wanting to fill yo r sails with a thousand good 
wishes for all wisdom , preservation & success. . . . Next to y% 
my business is to beseech yo r Hon 1- to admit James Redfield to be 
yo r serv 4 w c . h y e country shall allow, that he might serve his sister, 
M rs Davids alias Dixwel, in her husband's estate in Engl?, w c . h , tho 
veiy considerable both in moneys & lands, has yett been little service- 
able to his family. If this will not be inconvenient to 3'or Hon 1 ", it 
will be a singular obligation on y e relict & children of that gentle- 
man & on us that are left trustees in those matters. 

New-Haven, 7*' 24: 1693. I hope y e King's letter will encourage 
yo r IIon r , in that he treats us as a governm 1 , putts us on improveing 
our power in rais g men or money, 3' e greatest articles of governing 
& commands us as a governnV to wait on himself with an ace*. This 
matter has much datnpt o r malecontents, & coming so articulately in 
answ r to prayer, when on o r knees we were asking of God what 30" 
Hon r waits on y" king for, we hope will animate yo r Hon r in negotiating 
& o r good people in praying; & if God will be for us, who shall harm 
us? Losing o r corporation seems a thing o r people are unwilling to; 
but to be annexed to York seems intollerable. If it might not be too 
great boldeness, I would adventure to request one fav r , that yo r Hon r 
would obtain my coat of arms drawn in Engl' 1 by those whose business 

1704.] LORD CORNBURY. 267 

it is. My father brought out of Engl d his seal cutt & was buryed 
with his scutcheons, but o r limners are blundering heralds. I don't 
desire much cost to be expend d , but the true coat, duly embellisht, in 
a frame, & I shall chearfully refund the charg. I am y e eldest of my 
father's, who was y e eldest in his father's, house, who was not fan* 
removed in his consanguinity to y e late Marquess of Dorchester, 
Earl of Kingston & L d of Newark. 

N : H : Jan 17. 1697/8. O r easy circumstances everyday, together 
with the groanings of o r neighb r Governm ts remind us of o r dut}', first 
to God, & then to yourselfe as y e instrument, with all gratitudes to 
acknowledge his undeserved fav rs & your faithful services. It only 
remains that we give yo r Hon r a better reception than o 1 ' neighb™ their 
agents, & beseech yo r Hon rs wise conduct iii directing o r gentlemen in 
y° GovernmMnto such regulations of o r disorders & other safe methods, 
that (thro y e Divine blessing) may make us a quiet & happy people. 
The good success of }o r solicitations att home has prepared o r people 
in these p*. 8 to expect great advantages by your arrival, praying God 
plentifully to reward yo r adventures for o r comfort & that yo r Hon r 
may go forward in o r future succour, that o r Governm* ma} T not die 
with a conceit they have no authority, w c . h has almost ruined all com- 
mand & obedience. 


For Collonell Winthrop, Gouvernor of her Majesty's Gollony of Connecti' 
cut, in New England, — at New London. 

Burlington, 7 ber the 25 th 1704. 
Sir, — Yours of the 10th instant was delivered to me by 
Mr Levingstone at Philadelphia on Saturday last. As 
for your sending to the Indians in conjunction with Coll- 
onell Dudley, I have noe great objection to make to it ; 
only great care must be taken in what is to be said to 
them. Therefore I should have thought that Collonell 
Dudley's messengers, and yours, should have been di- 
rected to comunicate their directions to me that I might 
have seen whether their instructions don't clash with 
what I last said to the Indians. I am very sorry I must 
complain of both your messengers, and indeed if they had 
not brought that letter from you, I would have dealt at 


another sort of rate with them ; but out of respect to you 
I would not. The first, Captain Gold, I should have 
taken care of for his pretending to preach and to cant in 
our streets here. The second, M r Levingston, I would 
have made an example of for seducing our souldiers away 
from Albany last suiiier, when he went up thither under 
pretense of seeing his mother ; upon whose perswasions 
severall of our men have deserted and are gone into your 
government, where they are not only received, but pro- 
tected. I shall be forced to acquaint the Government at 
home with these proceedings, and M r Levingstone had 
best take care how he manages himself upon this journey. 
I have given him fair warning & I hope he will be wiser 
then he has been ; for it is certainly true that nothing 
should have saved him this time from the punishment he 
deserves, but purely the respect I shall always be ready 
to shew you upon all occasions, being 

S r , your most humble servant, Cornbury. 


Albany, y e 3 d of Octob r 1704. 

Hon r . d S R , — According to our last from Fairfeild we 
held on our journy and arived here on Sabath day last at 
noone, not knowing but the Indians wear com in, but 
are not yet, but are expected on the morrow. Wee meet 
with very civill treatment from the gentlemen of Albany 
and have good hopes of an honerable and satisfactory 

* John Livingston, eldest son of Robert Livingston, and son-in-law of Fitz-John Win- 
throp, was then an officer in the Connecticut service, and had accompanied Nathan Gold, 
one of the Assistants, on a mission to the Five Nations, in conjunction with the Commis- 
sioners sent by Governor Dudley. Livingston subsequently saw much active service, and 
kept a journal of the expedition to Quebec in 1710, which is described in Mass. Hist. Soc. 
Proceedings, V. 230-2)4 (1861). After the death of his first wife, Mary Winthrop, he 
married Elisabeth, daughter of Mrs. Sarah Knight, whose travels in New England were pub- 
lished in 1825. lie had no issue by either marriage, and died in England about 1720. — Eds. 

1701.] PETER SCHUYLER. 269 

accomplishment of our negotiations. Through the mer- 
cys of God we are hereto in helth, tho y e bloody flux is at 
New York and in this city. Just now there came in a post 
from y e Senekas cuntrey with a belt of wampum, who 
sayes that their cuntrey was besett by y e feers Indians 
caled Twickwitiks, and sent to y e Mohackes cuntrey for 
relefe. "Wee shall give your Hon r an exackt account of 
all our transacktions att our return, which wee hope will 
be in a shorte time. I have no further to ad, but my 
dutey where itt is dew, and so remain 

Your Hon rs very humble servent, 

Jn° Livingston. 


To the Hono'ble Governo r Winthrop, att New-London } this. 

Albany, Octob r y e 5*. h 1704. 

S R , — I reed y M of the tenth of the last instant by my 
nephew, and had you informed me before y* inteligence 
from me might have been serviceable to you, I should 
have missd no opertunity on y fc ace* According to y r re- 
quest I shall assist Cap* Goold and y r sonn in law w'v the 
best directions I am master of, and you may depend upon 
it that upon all acco* s there will be justice done to y rs as 
well as the Boston Com rs . I wish you all imaginable suc- 
cess against y r enimy, and if in anything in these parts I 
can be serviceable to you, you'll wrong me if you do not 
at all times readily comand, S r , 

Y r most hearty friend & humble Serv* 

P. Schuyler. 

Pray my sincere respects to y r lady, cousine & all 




Albany, y e 11* of Octob r . 1704. 

Hon orble S R , — Haveing oppertunity by Serg* Wakeman, 
who came up with us, thinke it our duty to give your 
Hon r a further account of matters, and are very sory that 
we cannot tell your Hon r that we have had a sight of any 
more of y e Five Nations ; but from y e first castle the first 
messenger hath been gon now 26 dayes, and yet no news 
from him. The Boston gentlemen with ourselves thought 
best to send away a post to know with as much speed as 
possable y e reason of y e delaye, which we did yesterday 
erly in y e morning from Sneckteday, whose returne we ex- 
pect on Fryday next. The ciuill treatment we meet with 
from the gentlemen and people heer makes our aboade 
comfortable, tho chargable ; yet account our selves un- 
happy in that we can no sooner dispach our busines than 
at prsent we have prospect of, yet hope all things will do 
well. It is judged that the reason of the delay is y e ene- 
mies invadeing y e Seneckes & Cayoges cuntry, according 
as in our last to your Hon r by the way of Westfeild. We 
hope that we shall soon be able to give your Hon r a bet- 
ter account and shall not trouble your Hon 1 : further. Coll : 
Schuyler with y e Maj! J: Schuyler and y e Baye gent™ 
give their service to your Hon? and the gent m of your 
Hon" Councill. This from us in helth is all save humble 
service to your Hoir? & Councill. 

S% we are your Hon" most obed fc and hum ble servants, 

Nathan Gold. 
Jn° Livingston. 

Octob r y e 12^ 1704. May itt pleas your Hon! this 
morning a bout five a clock in y e morning our last post 

* Nathan Gold the younger, of Fairfield, was then an Assistant, and subsequently 
Deputy-Governor and Chief Justice. He died in 1723. — Eds. 

1704.] MEMORIAL. 271 

returnd, and brought usy e news y* y e sachemes of y e Five 
Nations will be here within two dayes. Y e last of them 
hence will be here in two howers. 


By the Hon rUe ye Govern 7 " S? Council of Connecticut Colony for the Time 

being, convened in this day of , A Memorial hereby 

ordered to be publisht in y e next Freemen's Meetings in y e several 
Towns, by y e Constables of the same. 

Forasmuch as Almighty God, o r Soveraign Lady y e 
Queen, & this Corporation have continued us in y* station 
wherin we are both advantaged and obliged to inspect as 
well as consult the true & great interests of this Colony, — 

Therefore as in sincere affection, so in faithfulness to 
this Governing we judg it requisite in y e critical juncture 

of o r affairs to observe to v e whole number of freemen 


within y e Corporation dispersed throughout o r several 
towns, that they in all good conscience unto God, her 
Maj tie , themselves, as well as oth r good subjects under 
this Governm*, do very carefully attend their nominations 
& elections of members for y e Gener 11 Assembly from time 
to time, therein carefully calling forth att all times such 
to serve in the management of their great & precious pri- 
veledges, as are most able, faithful, peaceable, & other 
ways best fitted for y e trust ; & that they alwayes take 
care that no elections be returned but of such persons as 
shall be chosen by y e maj r part of the freemen p r sent in 
their respective meetings. That so the true majority of 
y e freemen in this Corporation may alwayes, according to 
charter, by their representatives have the care & man- 
agem* of the afores d invaluable priveledges, w ch are truly in 
the hands only of y e majority of o r freemen. Hereby it 
is to be hoped many occations of complaint shall be taken 


away, much trouble & charge saved, a more generall satis- 
faction given to o r good people, & y e Corporation better 
secured in their charter immunities & great benefits. 

Indorsed by Fitz-John Winthrop: " Memoriall to be published to the 
Freemen "; date uncertain. 


For y*' Hono rble Gouerno r Winthrop, at New London or elswhere. 

Milf rd , Decemb' l rt 1704. 
Hono rb . le S R , — I returne your Hono r man y thanks for 
y e liberty of perusing y e discourses and transactions y t y # 
gentlemen haue had with y e Five Nations of Indeans ; 
w th their seeming welcombs of them and y r presents, w th 
some hopefull appearance of their freindlines to us and 
contrary to o r adversaries in their own way, by makeing 
y e enemies country y e seat of y e wars, w ch if we may be 
p r pared for it timely, and y e God of heaven succeding & 
blessing us in such an vnclertaking, is a likly way & 
hopeful means to carry on y e warr against o r enemies to 
o r aduantage. And we have always need to pray that 
God in his time would cause warr to cease in o r borders, 
or it will be like to be o r undoeing. S r , I pray God con- 
tinue yo r Hono rs good health. I have heerwith returned 
yo r papers of y e treaties w th said Indeans, and haue noth- 
ing of news but what is with yo r Hono r in probability 
already ; saveing y e sorrowfull tideings of y e death of sun- 
dry of my good friends at Newark in East Jarsey, vid fc 
Cap tn Curtis, M r Wakeman, & a daughter & granson Crane 
of mine; w ch makes my heart heavy, & I hope my freinds 
will pitty & pray for me. They dyed of y e feuer & flux. 
I haue not to add but hearty prayers to God for you, 
& humble service to your Hono r , & rest your sorrowfull 
& aflicted freind to coniand. 

K. Treat. D. G. 

1701.] JOSEPH DUDLEY. 273 


For the Honorable John Winthrop Esq*, Governour of her Majesties 
Colony of Connecticutt, New-London. 

Boston, 4° December, 1704. 
S?, — Besides my own just expectation from your Gov- 
ernment of a supply of men for the service against the 
French and Indians, I am now urged by the General As- 
sembly of this Province to take all methods to ease the 
excessive charge the war has brought on them, by obtain- 
ing a just quota of men from your Colony. And accord- 
ingly, w 7 ith the advice of her Majesties Council and the 
House of Representatives, I have desired and impowred 
Wait Winthrop, Nath 11 Byfield, Nath 11 Payne, James Con- 
verse & Sam 11 Lynde Esq rs , or any 3 of them, to visit you 
and lay before you the necessity of your advanceing men 
and money towards the service, wherein the Queen's sub- 
jects of your parts are equally concerned. I have given 
them my own expectation and refer the matter to a free 
conference with you. S r , what I justly expect is one third 
part of the charge of the present war, which I desire may 
be done in a just quota of men to be supported by your 
Government ; and because the county of Hampshire is 
next you and properly your cover and frontier, I shall 
consent that, so far as is necessary there, your forces be 
there improved ; but I must expect that they be as well 
subsisted as their wages paid them. I know not your 
establishment of pay and therefore shall desire your 
share in number onely; and at present for the winter 
quota I stand at eight hundred men for these two Prov- 
inces, besides exigents which will often demand the 
march of five hundred more. It is so very difficult to 
march men to West-Hampshire, that I choos 4 e at present 
to imploy your quota there, where 1 justly expect a shock 
within a short month. I must also insist upon it that 
your officers, whom I shall entertain upon your own 



nomination, receive all directions and orders from my 
selfe during their being within these Governments; with- 
out which there can be no proper service done nor account 
be taken. 

They have also to deliver you her Majestys most gra- 
cious commands in this affayre, which, by the date, you 
will perceive was before I could advise of the service done 
by your forces in West Hampshire. I shall not faile at all 
times to acquaint the R* Hono b ! e the Lords Commissioners 
of Trade and Plantations, that your obedience herein may 
be laid before her Majesty. 

I am S r your humble servant, J. Dudley. 


For her Maj tys Service, For the Honorable John Winthrop Esq r , Governer 
and Commander in Chief of the Colony of Connecticott, in New 

May it please your Honour, — I am desired by 
the gentlemen of the Committee of Warr in this county to 
signifie to your Honor the haszard the frontiers may be 
in by a party of the enemy that are allready come over 
the lake, which advice came first by express from Albany 
to the gentlemen in the county of Hampshire, and the 
last week confirm'd by John Nobles who came from 
Albany hither, who gives this account : that one of our 
Maquaws comeing from Canada happen'd to lodge one 
night with twenty of the French Indians, who inform'd 
him that there was four of their men gone to New Eng- 
land twenty days before, if possible to take a captive, 
thereby to gaine a full acco* of the state of affairs here ; 
and that those twenty were going after upon some 
designe, its thought to provide for an army that is to 
come over this winter, which by the advice is to consist 
of 800 men, which is concluded by the number of snow 

1704.] WILLIAM WHITING. 275 

shooes and Indian sbooes provided by the Governer at 
Mont Roy all, viz* 1600 payr Indian shoos and 800 payr 
snow shooes. S r , the gentlemen here can not but retain e a 
lively sence of the danger our neighbours are lyable to 
and how much our owne safety and welfare is concern'd 
therein. Therefore humbly propose to your Honour that 
a sutable number of men may be rais'd in this Goverment 
and lodg'd in the frontiers, in such number and in such 
place or places as you shall think fitt for the defence 
thereof, least the enemy find our lines naked. Also 
whether these men ought not to be detach'd out of the 
lower countyes, that this be not burdened above mesure ; 
for in case of any discovery made of an approaching enemy 
or sudden attack, we must immediately send to the releife 
of our friends. M r Nobles informes that Monsier Vauder- 
vill, Intendant at Canada, intends to command in person 
this winter, w ch comes also by the fore sd Indian messenger, 
who was at Canada when the last five hundred return'd 
thither. Their commander, Shevilleer Boucoor was put in 
the dungeun, where he remain'd three dayes, then brought 
forth and degraded, his sword taken from him, and the 
Monseir Intendant publiquely resolveing to march him- 
self e the next descent that was to be made. Therefore, 
whether it be not highly necessary that some men may 
be plac'd in garrison in the county of Hampshire, and 
that blank comissions be prepar'd for persons that be 
thought fit to comand, in case of sudden assalt. All which 
is submitted to your Honours wisdome. The gentlemen 
conceive there is sufficient power in your hands to put 
this so necessary a preparatory action in execution. The 
restless endeavors of our enemys should put us upon the 
greater care and watchfullness. S% plese to forgive this 
trouble. I move by the direction of the gentlemen of the 
Committy of Warr. S?, I am 

Your Honours most dutifull humble servant, 

H ARTF0RD> Decern. 5". 1704. WlLL : WmTIKG. 


The 6° currant. 

Last night about sundovvne came hither two men be- 
longing to Westfield, who came from Albany directly, 
that gave this further account: that the Gov r of Canada 
hath summon'd in all his Indians, which puts the Alba- 
nians into considerable fears, and gives us ground to sus- 
pect their designes against us. The persons that came 
from Albany, who came from thence about a week since 
and are now at my house, further inform me that this 
intelligence was brought by one of their Indians the day 
before they came away. Most of the principal gen- 
tlemen were but just come from York and knew not of 
their comeing away. They further tell me they were 
desired to inform the people of New England thereof. 

Will: Whiting. 


Weathersfield, Decern^ ll^'lTOi. 

Honn bi : e S R , — It looks like partiality that this Gover- 
nment should be at such great expence, and so little notice 
taken of it by Governo r Dudley in his prints of encomium 
on the expeditions made by the forces of the Massachu- 
setts & the success they have had against the French & 
Indians, the coihon enemie. His Exelency seems to leave 
yo r Hon™ faithfull endevours for the preservation of her 
Majesties subjects in the Massachusetts Province and in 
this Gover mt wholly in oblivion, as if the haveing 800 men 
at somtimes under pay, & most of the sumer 5 or 600, 
& the charge of about 10,000 pound, were not worthy of 
a word of remembrance ; but it is not otherwise than it 
useth to bee. There are some belonging to this Colony 
& many in the neighbouring Provinces that are readily 
informing against the Goverm* without cause, but back- 
ward in making the least mention of the pains & services 
we undergoe for the securitie of her Majesties good people. 

1704.] JOSEPH DUDLEY. 277 

I hope yo r Hon* will find out the author of that altogether 
groundless falshood, viz* that the Colony's injustice to- 
ward the Moheegs was the occasion of the present warr. 
Doubtless our Agent is well informed that the nationall 
warr reaches us and allways of late years hath been very 
fatall to New-England. If we should keep exactly to the 
rule given by order of his late Majestie in the measure 
of assistance that the Colony is to afford in time of ac- 
tuall warr, in conjunction with the rest of Goverm* 8 , as 
our own just portion, we should not have more enemies 
amongst or near ourselves to seek our hurt than we have 
now. Boston seems to be hard upon this Goverm*, when 
many of the neighbouring Goverm ts concern not them- 
selves about the present troubles, neither in affording 
men or mony when it is due as it is from this Colony. 
S r , I begg pardon for this trouble, wishing health & hapi- 
ness to yo r Hon r . With the tender of hearty service to 
yo r lady, Cap* Liveingston & lady, is the present from 

Yo r Hon rs obedient serv*, John Chester. 


John Winthrop, Usq r , Governour of her Majesties Colony of Connecticutt, 

New London. 

Boston, 12 December 1704. 

S% — The bearer brings you her Majestyes letter refer- 
ring to a complaint of Uncas,* as he has done to my selfe 
her Majestyes Comission of the great seal to examine &c. 
I am a perfect stranger to that affayre, but shall strictly 
obey her Majestyes comands therein & should be glad to 
be prevented any further proceeding by a declaration 
from Uncas & the rest that the matter were ended & 
the complaint taken up. 

I am S r your very humble servant, J. Dudley. 

* Dudley must have known that Uncas was no longer living; and this is probabty a slip 
of the pen for " Owaneco." The Governor's assertion that he was a perfect stranger to the 
affair was not believed in Connecticut. — Eds. 



New London, Dec br 19 th 1704. 
S R , — I haue received your Excellencye's letter of the 
4 l . h instant by Coll: Byfeild, Major Converse, and Mf 
Lynde, who haue delivered to me her Majestye's letter 
of March 30 th 1704, requiring some assistance from this 
Government towards the support of your Province against 
the French and Indians; w c . h I haue comunicated to the 
gentlemen of her Majestye's Council, who had then un- 
der their consideration the present state of yo r county of 
Hampshire, in order to raise some force for their assist- 
ance. The quota of men and mony incerted in your 
letter for this Government is a motion soe very unreason- 
able, that I think it not fit to enter upon any long debate 
with your Comissioners upon that head; however, that I 
may not be wanting to her Majestye's service, and to 
secure her Maj : subjects in that part of your Province 
more imediatly exposed to the impression of the enemy, 
I haue concluded, with the advice of her Majestye's 
Council, to raise two hundred men for their present de- 
fence, — provided they be subsisted at your charge, and 
that your Excellency furnish with one hundred men and 
stores of amunition for the defence of the said county. 
I must allsoe acquaint your Excellency that our officers 
must be comissionated by this Government, but they shall 
be at your direction in your Province, as has been for- 
merly practised and was soe executed in a former war 
with the Indians in the same county. I am extreemly 
surprised at the representation your Excellency has made 
to her Majesty against this Government as refuseing to 
contribute a small assistance when it was desired in the 
most pressing manner ; w ch is a very great hardship, injus- 
tice and discouragement to us and might very well haue 
been spared, considering how frequently wee haue had a 
detachment of dragoones upon the frontires, if not at the 

1704-5.] JOSEPH DUDLEY. 279 

same tyme of your complaint, — and this present yeare 
not onely those forces at the eastward, but allsoe foure 
hundred standing forces in your county of Hampshire 
the whole sommer ; besides the additionall troopes w ch 
at severall tymes were sent up upon the advice I re- 
ceived of the enemyes aproach, w ch did wholy frustrate 
the designe of the enemy. Yet 1 will be allwaise ready 
to lend you what succoures I am able, and when your 
Excellency's troopes shall distinguish themselves by 
assisting or releveing any of our frontires, it shall be 
very justly represented to her Majesty and gratefully 
accepted by S r , 

Yo r Excellencys very humble serv fc , 

Gov r Dudley. 


Boston, January 17'! 1 17-°/. 

S*, — I perceive by your letters, as well as my own 
messengers, that you and the gentlemen of your Council 
are very well satisfyed with what they have ordered for 
the support of West Hampshire, & by the votes & address 
of the General Assembly of this Province that they are 
as unanimous in their opinion that the 200 men sent from 
Connecticut Colony to the service are farr short of their 
proportion. That they justly expect that Connecticut 
Colony subsist their own troopes as well as find them 
amunition ; & truly S r I am of the same opinion, (since I 
have six hundred men in garison in the fronteirs & three 
hundred and fifty now preparing for a march to their 
head quarters,) that it is not half what your Colony ought 
to do. Upon this head I had your very long letter, too 
much to answer this cold weather; only S* I must ac- 
quaint you that I have and shall alwayes do your Prov- 
ince justice in informing her Majesty what you do, as 


well as what in my opinion you ought to do ; & when I 
have account from your selfe or your officers what num- 
ber of men you have in this Goverment, I shall direct 
their service, if they see meet to obey it. 

I am S r your very humble servant, J. Dudley. 


Hartford, Jan^ 18 d 17^-. 

Honrable S R , — By the comand offe the Committy 
offe Warr in Hartford I have sent yor Hon r a few lynes 
of our affayrs since the last letter from yo r Hon r by 
Edward Allyn. That is to say, the 200 soldgers marched 
into the county offe Hamshire are posted, Capt. Fowler & 
his company att Hadly, Capt. Fitch & his soldgers from 
New London att Hadly, Capt. Newbery att Westfeild, and 
Liut Joseph Wakeman & y e Fayrffield company att North- 
ampton ; which they aprehend best for the saffety of that 
county. Capt. Fowler, in his letter inclosed and allso in 
annother letter to Major William Whiting, desirs that 
M r Joseph Wakeman might have a capt. commition ; 
which is left to yo r Hon rs wisdome to resolve, and I shall 
onely say last summer Fayrfeild County looked att them- 
selves much wronged by beeing put into severall places 
to garrison, so that theire Capt. & Liut went home without 
them, to the great discontent of that county ; and now 
putting a Capt. over theire men & keeping them in one 
post would much animate and incorrage them. So the 
Committy of Warr, uppon the 16th of this instant being 
convened, agreed that every captain that shall goe uppon 
any sudden exigent shall have two liutenants ; and 
therefore request yo r Hon r to send up by the bearer four 
or five commitions for liutenants and leave out the 
names to be inserted, or ellse blank commitions that the 
Secretary may fill up & seale, subscribed by yo r Hon T . 

1704-5.] FITZ-JOHN WINTHROP. 281 

We could in no wise prevaile with Major Chester to take 
his comition for those sudden expeditions, and therefore 
we have prevailed with Major William Whiting to accept 
of that place of a major and have a commition for him 
sent up from yo r Hon r , which by yo r Hon r s consent wee 
shall give onto him. Wee allso request y r Hon r to sende 
eight pertiqueler orders unto the several captains now up 
the country & to goe up, to require them to obey the 
Major, to prevent any conffusion amongst them whilst 
under his command. Furder, that yo r Hon r would send 
what instrucsstions yo r Hon r thinks fitt for Major Whiting. 
As allso we feere that there may be great want offe snow 
shooes, iff the enemy should come this winter. What I 
shall fall short of giving yo r Hon r information, I hope 
Major Whiting will make up in his letter. Shall not add 
but the Commitys service to yo r Hon r , and remaine S r yo r 
Hon r s most humble serv fc , 

Signed in the name of the Committy of Warr for 

p Caleb Stanley Senior. 


New London, Feb. [blank] 17-°/. 

S R , — My indisposition the last thre weekes hindered 
my returne to your letter of Jan ry 17 th , wherein I perceive 
your expectation from us is much more than wee are able 
to accomodate, and that your Gen 1 ! Assembly have voted 
a quota for us w c . h I think they very little understand, but 
as being rich themselves they think all the world soe too. 
I see not how wee shall be able to support soe many 
troopes much longer in your service without starveing our 
people. If your Excellency concludes the enemy east- 
ward are yet able to infest those parts, and that there is 
danger of a party from Canada to disturb Hampshire, it 


282 THE WINTHROP PAPERS. [1704-5. 

will be of necessity to apply to the other Governments 
for their assistance, and I hoped before this tyme, by 
your intrest in my Lord Cornbury, some advantage 
would be made of the late treaty with the 5 Nations of 
Indians, who tell you their hatchets are ready when 
Curler (their owne expression) will give them order and 
instructions.* And if that matter were once resolved, it 
would not be difficult to make inticements that would 
excite them to send flying partyes into the enemy es 
quarters ; and they would bring in scalpes & prisoners, as 
1 know they used in the former warr, w ch would frighten 
& keepe them at home, and would be of speciall advan- 
tage to discover any marching partyes that should have 
designe upon any of the Governments. I could not an- 
swere by the same post your letter of Dec: 4:, w c . b sig- 
nefyed yourreceite of her Maj : comission to enquire into 
the complaint made to her Majesty of wrong don to the 
Moheag Indians by this Government. Tis wonderfull 
how soe fallse a representation could be laid before her 
Maj* by any of our people, — a story that has noe man- 
ner of truth in any part of it, and it will be soe under- 
stood by the whole country, and that tis noe thing but a 
designe of some foolish, prejudiced fellowes hereabout to 
make a noise. I must beg your pardon for this scrawle, 
as I doe for my last long letter, w ch I could not in that 
cold wether crowde neerer together, having allwaies a 
blotting pen, w c . h I confes takes up more paper roome 
than is handsome. I am 

Your Excellencyes humble serv 4 , 

J: Winthrop. 

* " Curler" is a corruption of " Corlaer," the official designation which the Five Nations 
gave to the Governor of New York. See Parkman's Frontenac and New France under 
Louis XIV., p. 93, note. — Eds. 

1704-5.] ROBERT TREAT. 283 


For the Honorable John Winthrop Esq r . Governer and Commander in 
Chiefe of the Colony of Connecticott, in New London. 

Hartford, February 6°, 17^. 

S", — This day from the gentlemen of the Committee 
of Warr reed the honour of your commission to com- 
mand the forces rais'd in this county for her Maj^ s service. 
I am much afraid lest my obedience to your Honour has 
put me upon an undertakeing too difficult for me, and 
thereby done an ill peice of service to my country. How- 
ever, am determind chearfully to adventure, if call'd 
thereto. I haue herew th sent two letters from Cap* Lev- 
ingston directed to your Honour, w c . h came to my hand 
this day, as also one to me dated the 31 st past in his 
journey. I must not give your Honour more trouble 
now, but only new assureances of my zeal for your ser- 
vice, and that I am S5 your most devoted servant, 

Will: Whiting. 


To the Hono rble Fitts John Winthrop Esq r , Gouerno r of her Ma tj f Colonie 
of Conecticot ; at New London or else where. 

[March 13. 170f] 

Hono r * le S u , — There is a poor French man y* haue 
been about o r towne some years, and hath had 300 or 
400 pounds in a ship and lost it at sea, cal'd by y e name 
of John Yaull, y* hath a little goods, about 40*, y* he 
brought from Boston & sould at o r towne ; a quiet nann- 
ies man, that thought he had agreed w th M r Gray about 
his entry, who promised him before witness he would doe 
him no harme. And yet he since hath clapt y e brand R 
& seased upon all y fc he hath, & hath not given him time 
enough before the Court to fetch his witness fro Boston 
to ease his matter, as he saith ; and morouer y e listers of 
y e towne have enterd him to pay all rates to Colonie, 
Town and Minister of o r towne, as one belonging to o r 

284 THE WINTHROP PAPERS. [1704-5. 

towns, w ch makes it look y e harder; & this was done be- 
fore seasure. And he saith he tendered y e paying of his 
rates & is yet ready to doe it; and therefore humbly 
prayes your Hono r , if it may be, to have his goods re- 
leased, being a very poor man, or so much you as yo r 
wisdom thinks meet, or else y t he may have time enough 
to procure his witness from Boston. W ch will oblige him 
to thankf ulnes & pray for yo r happines ; w ch w th my hum- 
ble service to yo r Hono r I take leave to subscribe your 
humble servant, 

R : Treat. D. G. 

At y e request of y e poor French man y fc saith he is one 
of y e refugees. 


For her Majestis Sarves, To the Hon rhtU John Winthrop Esq r , Govinar of 
her Majestis Colony in Coneticut. 

Hartford, March 16 : 170|. 

Honor ujell S R , — Yours reed the last night abought 
tenn of the clock, with a lettar inclosed to M r Bucking- 
ham ; & this morning M r Woodbreg & my self ware with 
him & finde him all together indissposed for to preach the 
elecktion sarrnon, notwithstanding all the arguments we 
can use with him ; so that I thinck he will not be pre- 
vailed with to doe it, but he tells me he will write to 
your Honar aboute it.* S r , according to your Hon re ad- 
vise abought drawing off our forces from the county of 
Hampshere, the Committy of War forthwith sent an order 
to Capt Fowler to drawe off all the solgars & that they 
should begine ther march homeward the last Tuseday. 
The most of them came to Hartford yesterday & are on 
ther march homeward this day. We hafe no news by 
them & so I remaine your most humbel sarvant, 

Natii: Standly. 

* Rev. Thomas Bucking-ham, of Hartford, Harv. Coll. 1690. — Eds. 



To the Hono hU John Winthrop Esq r . Governor of her Majesties Colony of 
Connecticott, in New London. 

Hartford, March 21, 1704/5. 

S R , — I received y e signification of your Hon rs mind re- 
specting y e election sermon, & have (tho' with difficulty 
enough) prevailed with M r Buckingham to perform that 
office, & I think you may depend upon him. I am sorry 
to see y e backwardnesse of others in that matter. I am 
glad to hear of your Hon r s health & desire y e continuance 
thereof. My present illnesse of an ague will not suffer 
me to enlarge. I desire your prosperity & am yo r Hon ra 
most humble servant, 


Please to give my service to M r Christophers & M r 
Sal tons tall. 


For the Hon hl . e John Winthrop Esq* , Govenour of her Maj ty . s Collony of 
Conetticut ; at N: London. 

Whitehall, 7 of April, 1705. 

Hon b ^ e S B , — My last to you was p r M r Phillips in the 
mast-fleet, dated y e 10 of August, which I doubt not but 
you have received, since I hear he is safe arrived. And 
now I can only tell you that I find y e court very angry at 
your Colony & Rhode Island. You will receive by these 
ships a long and greivous complaint exhibited by y e 
Lords of Trade & Plantations against your Collony, for 
unlawfull trade, harbouring of pyrates, runnaway soul- 
diers, seamen & criminalls ; denying supplys, dissolvying 
the Queens commission about y e militia, executing people 
without power, denying appeals to her Maj e in Councill ; 
& many other enormities too long to recite here, referring 
y u to y e paper itself sent y u by Sir H: Ashurst. I have 


had severall meetings with him, M r Pen, M r Salstinton & 
Wharton, about this affair last winter, & much adoe we 
had to stave it off till you had a copy sent y u of what 
they had to offer against y u ; but at last it was granted. 
Now, I question whether it will be a surprize to your 
people or no, since y u know your neighbours to y e west- 
ward are none of your well-wishers ; but the thing will be 
this : it will require some proper methods to stop this 
great current, & if y u should send over some person to 
agitate your bussinesse, it will be chargeable & he will be 
quite to seek ; tho he may be reputed a very able & hon- 
est man with you, yet he must be advised by others. 
And therefore my opinion is y fc you commissionate some 
honest gent" that y u may confide in here, to manage y e 
affair. I have nothing to object ag st Sir H : Ashurst, but 
I think he grows ancient, & he will doe well to have a 
good, learned councill y t understands not only y e law of 
England but y e constitution of y r Colony & America. For 
of all y e great bugbear complaints y t I hear against y u , y 6 
principall is for condemning and executing malefactors 
without a power, w h is alleadg'd y u ought to doe by a com- 
mission of oyer & terminer as well as y e citty of London 
(w h might be renewed every three years). I have heard 
y e matter argued very well by Councellor Rob fc West, who 
vindicates y r Collony in y* particular & y* a governm* can- 
not be erected or establish'd without y 4 essentiall part of 
punishing malefactors, provided it be according to the 
laws of England. But I shall not detain you upon these 
points ; the matter is how to defend y r selfs against those 
potent enemys. Now this can not be done without 
money, & I know y r people are neither well stored with 
it nor over-willing to part with it if they can help it ; but 
necessity has no law ; therefore, in my opinion, you will 
doe well to establish a salary upon some honest gent" to 
be y r agent, and direct him to some honest gent n to be 
y r councill, to appear in all matters for y u ; & if y u allow'd 


y e agent 100 a p r aim :, & paid y e councill for what bussi- 
nesse he did, till y e storm is pass'd and all among y u quiet, 
I beleeve y r money would be well bestow' d. But I am 
not to direct, only to advise y u as a frind and a well-wisher, 
tho of another Collony. M r Pen's governm* is not now 
complain'd against, but he is senceible y e stroke is levelled 
ag st all charter governm ts . Now I beleeve nothing will 
be able to hurt you but an act of Parlament, or a fair 
tryall at law in Westminster Hall, & therefore you are 
most to provide against these two, & y r people must not, 
through a supine negligence & lethargik sleep, dream 
they are safe. People here doe not see with their eyes, 
and therefore it will be too late to say, when it 's gone, 
" Who would have thought it ? " Now is y e time for y u to 
provide, & fend off y* blow, but I w r ould not have y u so 
much as mention y fc I give y u any advice about y e matter, 
because people are apt to make a wrong construction and 
interpretation upon anything nowadays. I declare I wish 
N : York well, & so I do my neighbours ; & I am so farr 
from haveing our neighbours brought to y 4 equality of 
hardships y* we lye under in many respects, y* I would 
rather have us equall, free, with our neighbours. As to 
my own concerns, I have not quite done, & I find it 's no 
easy matter to dispatch matters at court now, as things 
are circumstanc'd. We are likely to have a totall change 
in y e ministry, except y e L d Treasurer * & Duke of Marlbor- 
row, who continue greatest favorites. My L d Treasurer 
has order'd a warrant to be prepared for my salary as 
secretary of y e Indian affaires, to be p d out of y e surplus of 
y e [illegible'], but I find some opposition by M r Taylor, one 
of y e clerks of y e Treasury, M r Loundes being sik but 
upon y e recovery. I hope, as soon as he can come to y° 
Treasury, y e dispute will be over ; in y e mean time, I must 
have patience. I design, God willing, to goe down to 

* Sidney, Lord Godolphin, was made Lord High Treasurer in 1702, on the accession of 
Queen Anne, and retained office until his dismissal in 1710. — Eds. 


Scotland & fetch up my son Rob*, & hope to be ready 
to come with Cap 1 Jeffers ; however, y u may venture to 
write to me, & if I can assist y u , I will. Pray give my 
service to M r Salltistsone ; his brother is very well & 
writes to him by these ships. Remember me kindly to 
my sister & daughter, & all frinds, not forgetting M r Noys. 
I am S r 

Your most humble servant, Rob! Livingston. 

Tis thought there will be a change in the Lords of 
Trade & Plantations, both as to y e commission & mem- 
bers ; by y e next I shall give you an acc fc A very good 
frind of mine is like to come in, who I beleeve I can have 
an interest withall. 

Note. — The " M Salstinton " to whom Livingston alludes as in con- 
sultation with William Penn and himself, was a brother of Gurdon Sal- 
tonstall, then in London. " M r Wharton " is the " Counsellor Wharton " 
recommended by Penn in his letter of July 21, 1702, and from whom the 
following letter to Fitz-John Winthrop has come to light since the early 
part of this volume was in type : — 

London, Aug 1 , the 11: 1702. 

Hon d Sir, — The enclosed from M r Penn, as well as this, may serve 
to intimate to yourself and good people of Conecticot my inclinacon 
and readiness to serve them in their affaires here ; which if they think 
fitt to concern me in, I shall not be wanting to give sufficient proof of 
my care for their interest and affecon for their country. Some mat- 
ters I have been lately imployed in, relating to Proprietary and Char- 
ter Govern*.', have given me an insight into the restless endeavours 
and subtil contrivances against them, and have enabled me the better 
to serve them. I cafiot omit acquainting you that, as some persons 
(enemies to Conecticot) are under great expectacon, so others (who 
are well-wishers to that Colony) are under no less feare and apprehen* 
son of the success of a bill intended to be brought in next session of 
Parliament (which is now neare at hand) for the taking awayProprie- 
taiy and Charter Goverm'. 8 . And tho' M r Bass and some other in- 
ferior persons are employ'd and made use of as tools in this matter, 
yet it's apparent they are countenanced and assisted therein by per- 
sons of power and quality. M r Pen, who, from inclinacon as well as 
interest, is a true friend to Proprietary and Charter Governr 48 , has 
since his arival been attack'd almost in evry part and point of his 


Goverm 1 , but as 3'et lias stood his ground and not lost an inch. How- 
ever, both he and the lords of Carolina expect, and are preparing 
against, a general storme the next session, and will unite their interest 
in the defence of the comon cause. Thus much I thought convenient 
to coiriunicate to }' u , with the tender of my service to 3'ourself and 
Colony. I shall hereafter be particuler in my account of all matters 
y* concern them, and doubt not but to give entire satisfacon, and to 
approve myself, Sir, both 3-0" and their 

Most faithfull humble serv* W" Wharton. 

This William Wharton was son of Richard Wharton, of Boston, by his 
first wife Bethia, daughter of William Tyng. Through his mother he was 
related to the Dudleys. For some account of his father, Richard Wharton, 
see a note in the Appendix to this volume. — Eds. 


New London, Aprill 13 th 1705. 

Hon b ^ e S*, — I haue the favour of your letter of the 
7^ instant, w c . h I presently comunicated to the gentlemen 
of her Majestyes Council here, but I perceive by the Bos- 
ton Newes Letter, w cb came to my handes the next houre, 
that the fishing shallops who thought themselves chased 
by the French were mistaken. However, the certaine 
intelligence you have by Cap' Wanton, of the enemye's 
designe to infest these parts, obliges to all methods neces- 
sary for the prevention of their designe, and tis thought 
if a good beacon were set vp at Block Island it would be 
of spetiall service to give notice of y e enemy, both at y* 
island and to these parts, & if yo5 Honf think fit to ap- 
prove thereof & direct yo? officers therein, I shall be 
glad to know the instructions yo r Honf giues them, that 
wee may take the alarm in tyme to be ready for the 
enemy ; and what intelligence I shall receiue from any 
part of y e aproach of y c enemy shall be hastned to you. 
I heartely wish yo r health & hapines & am, S r , 

YoT very humble serv', J: W. 




Gentlemen, — I meet you this day with the greatest 
concerne for your intrest, wh c . h seemes to ly at stake un- 
der the greatest hazardes and difficultyes, and can noe way 
be saved but by God's spetiall Providence, your owne 
unanimity and vigorous resolutions to doe your part for 
its preservation. One of the great designes of our pre- 
dicessors was the happy settlement of this country under 
the libertyes and privileges granted to them by the 
Crowne, w ch they lived to enjoy with a perfect & unin- 
terrupted hapines ; but they are now gon and those bless- 
ings descend to ourselves, and it would be shamefull and 
a stayne never to be recovered, if wee should not leave 
them to posterity. I am very sensible wee have many 
enemyes abroade that contrive all possible meanes to 
distroy our present Constitution, w ch is our great unhapi- 
nes ; but tis much more unhapy if any among ourselves 
who have been bred up under the advantages of the 
Government, whose intrest has been advanced and their 
persons betrusted with considerable posts in the Govern- 
ment, should betray us and our intrest w c . h wee hold in 
trust for posterity. Such persons are fit to be observed 
by the Government as snakes in the grass and vipers that 
gnaw out the bowells of their mother. But that wee 
may not omit our duty to save the libertyes of the coun- 
try, I desire that you will all joyne with me to preserve 
them by such methods as may most reasonably conduce 
thereunto, and wee cannot better express our duty and 
faythfulnes to her Majesty than by preserveing by all 
fitting meanes the priviliges she is pleased to continue 
to us. Let us doe thus and wee shall still be happy, and 
posterity will rejoice in our memory. 



For the Hon™? Jo : Wlnthrop Esq r , Governour of her Maj M . Collony 
of Conetticut ; at New London. 

London, 7 of May 1705. 

Hon b ™ S R , — My last was y e 7* of April, p r y e Gray- 
hound gaily, Cap* Samuel Pain command 1 ; wherein I gave 
y u a hint of y e greevous complaints exhibited against y r 
Collony by y e Lords Commissioners of Trade & Planta- 
tions, and my remarks upon y e same head. These com- 
plaints are seconded with others made by y e Quakers, who 
represent to her Majesty the hard and severe laws made 
by your Collony against their friends, by which it would 
seem you design'd to extirpate that people. It's in the 
title of Heretiks, which is alledged to be printed at Bos- 
ton in 1702. I told y e gent n that showed me y e complaint 
and y e paragraph pretended to be printed against y e Quak- 
ers, y* T beleev'd it to be some old obsolet law which has 
not been putt in execution for many years, & y t I never 
heard that any persecution was rais'd against y e Quakers 
in that Collony, that these things were made use of by y e 
enemies of Conetticut on purpose to irritate y e court 
against her, and I suppose you are senceible you have 
back-friends both on y e right & left hand ; against all 
which I hope you will provide. I perceive there is a 
great deal of work cutt out for y r poor Collony. M r 
Pen is so senceible of y e storm that it's thought he will 
make some composition & resignation, rather than to 
spend his time and substance to resist y e storms y* dayly 
are threatned against his propriety. It will behoove y r 
people to stir themselves now, if they intend to enjoy 
their wonted liberty, for they have many that envy their 
happinesse. S r Henry Ashurst will send you over a copy 
of y e Quakers Remonstrance, by which y u will see how 
things are design'd to be improv'd against y u ; it's thought 
y r neighbour at Boston is at y e bottom of this. Y u must 


have your spys out everywhere to discover who are 
your foes. I wish y e bussinesse had been started sooner; 
I should have been very proud in giving any assistance 
for y e soliciting part to defend y e just rights of your poor 
Collony, where I know many honest, pious & well-rnean- 
ing people reside; but I hope to be comeing away at 
furthest with y e mast- ships in y e fall, for I have gott part 
of my bussinesse done, tho not all, and have sent some 
goods with this ship of Cap* Cumby, as also with y e last 
(Cap fc Pain), so y* I beleeve my wife will be able to clear 
these debts I had contracted for y e publik service. I found 
great opposition here, & tho' I durst not suggest our 
Gov 1 " 8 intrest because of haveiug letters of recommen- 
dation from him to his father, yet I am inform'd it was 
from y 4 corner it came, under y e specious pretence y* y e 
surplus of y e 30 p c ts (out of which I solicited my pay- 
ment) might be apply'd for y e use of y e fortifications at 
New York (& so come into a gentleman's hands who 
would keep it secure enough from me). Y e greatest ob- 
struction I found was amongst y e clerks of y e Treasury, 
for my L d and M r Loundes are intirely my f rinds. But 
all cunning was devised to clogg my warrant, and when 
they could invent no more, they trump'd up my commis- 
sion being from King William dyed with him, & there- 
fore I could not claim any more salary than to the 18 of 
March 1702, by which 300 fc is cutt off. I have also 330* 
due for victualling y e forces in y e Lord Bellomont's time, 
which T can not receive because y e accounts are not made 
up, which have been before y e comptrollers of y e army 
these 12 months. If I had once gott that 630 lb , I would 
scarce trouble myself with y e publik further, for it's a 
miserable thing to solicite y e Treasury for money at this 
juncture, & tho I have had a great deal of trouble & 
charge, yet many tell me I have had better successe than 
some hundreds y k have waited longer. I wish those 2 
ships may arrive safe, w cb will putt my wife in a condition 


to pay every one their own and enable us to goe on with 
our trade ; which if we had minded and not been con- 
cern'd for y e publik, would have been some hundreds in 
our way. I bless God I have had my health well all 
along, & design God willing to goe for Scotland speedily 
& fetch up my son, who is there at y e Colledge. This 
nation is all taken up about chooseing Parlamentmen, 
about w c . h there is such striving as never was before. I 
pray God direct all for y e best; y e heats & annimositys 
increase dayly, & Scotland is very much divided into 
party s. There is great expectations of this summer's 
campaign ; y e grand fleet will putt to sea in a month. I 
hope all frinds with y u are well, to whom give my hearty 
salutations. I am, with great respect, Hon We S% 

Your most obed' servant, EobT Livingston. 

Note. — With reference to the above-mentioned complaints of the Quak- 
ers, it should be remembered that from the outset this sect had been more 
kindly treated in Connecticut than in Massachusetts. This was largely due 
to the affection and respect felt by Governor John Winthrop the younger for 
his half-brother Samuel, a leading planter at Antigua, who had become a 
Quaker under the influence of George Fox, during the latter's residence in 
the West Indies. That Fitz-John Winthrop could not have been in any way 
identified with harshness toward Quakers at a later period is evidenced by 
the following letter to him from Edward Shippen, first Mayor of Philadel- 
phia, and one of the most influential members of the Society of Friends: — 

To Fitz-Jn . Winthrop, Governor of Gonectycott Colonie, 
p r Judge Mumpesson. 

Philadelphia, y e 14. 5£ cal'd July, 1703. 
Esteemed Friend, — I have no way to retaliate thy repeated kind- 
nesse to me upon my journey from Boston to this place but by due 
acknowleidgment. I herd by Jn? Hudson y* thou earnest lately to York. 
I desired him to tell y u y* I should have beene glad if thy occasions 
would have drawn thee this way, y* I might have had once y e opper- 
tunity of seeing y u here at my quarters. I hope thou would not have 
question'd th}' welcomb. I grow old & crase} T , & question wheather 
I may ever come soe far as thy house againe. The bearer hereof, 
Rodger Mumpesson, is lately come from London & hath a coihission 
for Judge of y° Admyralty for this place & all along from hence to y e 


eastward beyond Boston. He hath y c character of a very learned 
man in y e law & hath beene twice a Parlament man. I request thy 
kindnesse & assistance to him, being a strainger in yo r parts ; which I 
shall take as a great kindnesse & as a further adition to thy former 
favours, which I shall be alwayes reddy to acknoleidge & retaliate, 
if thou will but give me an oppertunity. Which with kinde respects 
to thyselfe & faniely, I am 

Thy reall friend, Edwd : Shippen. 


Boston, 14. May, 1705. 
S*, — By a captive late from Quebeck I am assured of a 
great strength of Indians from thence, & where they will 
make their impression we cannot tell. I pray you will 
give orders that a very considerable strength be ready at 
an hours warning to march into West Hampshire ; & if in 
the mean time you will send a small troope of the Mo- 
heegs to joyn with forty of our soldiers & inhabitants to 
see Coassett, I think it may be well, & if it be done within 
ten dayes I beleive it best. 

I am S r your humble servant, J. Dudley. 

I expect Captain Livingston in ten dayes. 

Governour Winthrop. 


New London, May 30^ 1705. 

S R , — I haue yo r Excellencye's letter of the 14 th instant, 
w ch I haue laide before the Gen! 1 Assembly and they haue 
appointed 400 men to be ready at an houre's warning, and 
did allsoe order that a party of Indians and ten English 
should be raised for a present scout to joyne those your 
Excellency appoints at Hampshire. And upon my returne 
hither I sent an officer to Owaneco to informe him of your 

1705.] JOSEPH DUDLEY. 295 

desire of a party of his men, and of the order of the Gen! 1 

Assembly, but he would neyther come to me nor send any 

of his men, pretending it was a busy tyme and that your 

Province owes him 100 1 !* for scalpes the last yeare, & when 

that was paid he would let his men goe upon the designe. 

Thus are the Moheages debauched by the intreagues of 

some late persons and drawne from their service to the 

Government, w ch their duty and intrest did all way es oblige 

them to comply with upon all occations. However, I am 

sending an officer (who I intended to goe with this scout) 

to the Moheagen Indians to gaine, if he can possibly, ten 

of them to joyne with ten more of the Pequots upon the 

designe proposed. I am very much indisposed since my 

returne hither and can onely (as some of my last good 

wishes) desire your health and prosperity, and am 8% 

Yo r Excellency es very humble serv*, 

J: Winthrop. 
Gov^ Dudley. 


Boston, 4 June 1705. 
S B , — I have your letter the last post & should have 
desired the instant advance of the scout, but Captain Liv- 
ingston is happily arrived this evening & acquaints mee 
that there is nobody at Coasset. He has brought with 
him a messenger from M r . Vodril to agree the exchange 
of prisoners & I hope I shall bring it to pass. I was 
much troubled at the last clause of your letter referring 
to your own want of health, I pray God send it you for 
my short time & for the service of your country. 

I am Sf your very humble servant, J. Dudley. 

Note. — Captain John Livingston had been sent to negotiate an exchange 
of prisoners with the Marquis de Vaudreuil, Governor of Canada. He had 
been successful in obtaining the release of some of the survivors of the Deer- 
field massacre, as shown by the following letters : — 



Madam, — I should be guilty of ingratitude if I should forget to 

offer you m}' thanks for your denyal of yourself the desirable company 

of your beloved consort for the sake of poor captives, and I assure 

you I shall never forget your charit}* herein, & hope that God will 

safely return him again & make you mutually joy full & happy. There 

are hundreds here that are obliged to yourself. I hope to have the 

honour of kissing your hand & of a personal acknowledgment of your 

compassionateness herein. I wish you all happiness & am, Madam, 

Your most humble & obedient Servant, 

John Williams. 
Quebeck, April 21. 1705. 


Hartford, May 31. 1705. 
Madam, — I this moment received the joyfull news of jx/ spouse 
and our frinds return from his noble interprise unto the town of 
North Hampton, with 4 of the captivated, viz* 2 of Deacon Shelden 
his children, one of M r Williams children, and a 3'oung woman, wife 
to one of the sons of said Shelden ; also 2 French gen 1 , one of them 
y e 2? person of honnf In yf Governi'. We heartily congratulate his 
safe return so farr and pray that the like favor may be shewn him 
till he shall arrive unto your embraces. Pardon me this scrible, being 
butt a minute afforded me. My sincere regards to his Honn r & Madam 
Winthrope. Accept the same to yf self, from 

Yo r assured friud & humble serv". R" Lord. 

Rev. John Williams, of Roxbury (b. 1664 — Harv. Coll. 1683— d. 1729), 
was the first minister of Deerfield, where he and most of his family had been 
taken prisoners by a party of French and Indians in February, 1704. In 
the retreat to Canada they were horribly ill-treated, Mrs. Williams being 
killed by a bloodthirsty savage because she was unable to keep up with the 
rest. There are few more touching narratives than Mr. Williams's account 
of his captivity and deliverance, which he published under the title of " The 
Redeemed Captive returning to Zion," and dedicated to Governor Dudley. 
Richard Lord, of Hartford, third of that name, was the representative of one 
of the leading Connecticut families, his grandfather having been named in 
the Charter of 1G62. — Eds. 



For the Hon hlt Maf. Gen 1 } Jn° Winthrop Esq r Gov r of her Maj*? Colloney 
of Coneticutt, att New London. 

Boston, y e 20 ,h of June 1705. 

Hon b " S s , — I received your Hon rs lettf p y e post, and 
am glad to hear of your Hon 1 * helth. My spouse arrived 
here y e last Wedensday about 10 a clock att night, and is 
well att present. I have not finist my bussinish with y e 
Gov. and Councell as yett, but bleve itt will be made an 
end of in a shorte time ; for y e French gent n deseyers 
to sett out from hence for Canada a Thursday or Friday 
next. I bleve there will bee no exchange of prisoners, 
for he demandes Basett, and y e Govf wont relese him ; 
which is y e onley thing that hinders. Here is no news 
att present. His Excellency sendes his humble regardes 
to y u , with Cap fc Cortemange & Cap t Vetch, who thanck 
your Honf for being mindfull of them in your lettT to 
mee.* Pray my duty, togeath r with that of my spouse, to 
y r Hon!" and mother, and where itt is dew. And so I re- 

Your Hon" most duteyfull sonn, whilst 

Jx? Livingston. 

If any news presentes, shall send to y r Hon r . 


Lebanon, June 30: 1705. 

Hon bl Sr, — Your Hon" lett r to the Rev d M r Bucking- 
ham was by him communicated to the rev d elders & y° 
messengers of y e churches here assembled in councill (to 
endeavour the healing of those breaches that had been 

* Captain de Courtemanche was Vaudreuil's agent for the exchange of prisoners. 
Captain Samuel Vetch was a yonng Scotch officer, who had seen active service against the 
Jacobites and in the Low Countries, and who had subsequently married a daughter of 
Robert Livingston. In the expedition against Canada, in 1709, he held the rank of Colonel, 
and was afterward Governor of Nova Scotia. He died in London in 1732. — Eds. 



long in this place) ; who do most gratefully resent the 
concern y r Hon r & Councill were pleased to express for 
y e unhappy state of that place, and the speedy applica- 
tion of suitable remedies. And I am commanded by the 
whole Councill to acknowledge y r Hon" favour & season- 
able regard to that dilacerated & distressed people ; and, 
moreover, to add that they esteem it their duty, with 
great thankfulness to God, to reckon it among our great 
privileges to have the hands of the churches so strength- 
ened by the countenance of the civill authority, in the 
service w ch they are called to. The so much unexpected 
success, wherewith y e God of peace has been pleased to 
crown those endeavours w ch y r Hon r did so earnestly recom- 
mend to them, heightens their estimation of so great an' 
advantage as y e encouragement you were pleased to give 
them. The Councill has left it with y e Kev d M r Bucking- 
ham, one of their moderators, to give y r Hon r an account 
of this proceeding in y* affair & success therein, & their 
most humble service to y r Hon r & y e gentlemen of y r 
Councill, w ch is also hereby humbly offered. 
Signed p order of the Councill, 

G: Saltonstall, Clericus Concilii. 
For y e Hon bl Gov r Winthrop. 


Wat: th 7 July 1705. 

Much hon? S r , — I recev d yo ra and the enclosed to 
my L ds Com? of Traid and M r Secretary Hedges. I shall 
not say any more of that, but refer you to the enclosed. 
I will in a few dayes come to London on purpos to watch 
your affaires. I am senceable Dud: & Co. doe complane 
of yo r not sending yo r quota that they may put the mony 
in their pocketts and [three words illegible] . I pray let mee have 
as ample evidence you can about Halam, that wee may 

1705.] PETER SCHUYLER. 299 

doe his busynes at once. Thar is nothing of his com- 
plants but strickes at the Gouverment, and therfor the 
Generall Assembly ought so to take it; and if once you 
are hectored or worried out of yo r gouverment, then 
fairwel to yo r libertyes ! I wish I had this oppertunity 
and all yo r ler 8 & memorialls about the complants of the 
Indians. Itt would possably have silenced all y e other 

COmplantS. I am told [seven lines torn or illegible] . # 

I am yo r reall frind, Hen. Ashhurst. 

I pray be exact as you can in sending me vouchers 
aboutt yo r charges in Hallams busines, and aboutt the 
Indians complant, to be under the seale of yo r countrey ; 
and also instructions about the ship, and a certificat that 
hee hath not paid the charges there, for you must expect 
all the trickes that can be played you. 


To Maj r William Whiting S? Cap* is?: Lord, of the Councill in 

New York, July 9* 1705. 

Gentl?, — I did receive yours of January 16: 170f 
about a month hence, not much sooner, and the reason 
you did not hear from me was not the want of yours, but 
that I had no informacon to give, all being quiet. The 
principal sachems of the 2 castles next to Mount Reall 
in Canada did come down the river with me in order to 
confirm a peace and to stopp all inrodes upon the English 
for the future, which is done. They are the Mohague 
Indians that fell away to the French, and I doubt not but 
in a short time to bring about that they and all their people 
do return to their castles and countrey of their ancestours. 
I have likewise sent a belt to the Onogungoe Indians, 

* Nearly a quarter of this letter is torn or illegible. Sir Henry Ashurst, in his old age 
and when in a hurry, used a peculiar scrawl most difficult to decipher. Fortunately, he 
often employed an amanuensis. — Eds. 


which they have received and promised an answer, which 
is not yet come ; when it comes you shall have account 
of its successe, which, I trust God, will be good. I am at 
great charges in effecting these publick services, and tho' 
Providence has cast them upon me, yet whoever reaps of 
the benefit ought in equity and good confidence to con- 
tribute to that charge. You do well to be always ready 
in a posture of defence. If anything happens to my 
knowledge worthy of your informacon, I shall not spare 
an expresse and to improve my talent in the service of 
my queen and countrey, while I am, Gentle 11 , yo r most 
humble servant, P: Schuyler. 

The names of the 2 castles are Kathnawaga & Kan- 
nossadaga. Pray give my humble service to Governour 


Boston, 9 July 1705. 

S?, — I have reason to expect an impression of the 
enemy with a large number, at harvest if not before, on 
the county of Hampshire, & therefore they will need one 
hundred of your men to reside there constantly, as well 
as three or four hundred in a readiness for an assault. I 
am sending forces at this time to make this Province 
[i// e <7iWe], & you will pardon mee to tell you you will be 
very much wanting to her Majestyes expectation, as well 
as your own security, if I have not your share. I heartily 
wish you health & am S r , 

Your very humble servant, J. Dudley. 


New-London, July 12* 1705. 
S R , — I have yo r letter of the 9 th instant & am sorry for 
the danger of Hampshire. I will presently comunicate it 


to the gentlemen of the Council at Hartford, who have 
orders all ready for the defence of that county upon any 
exegency. But I should be glad if yo r Exc Uy would in- 
forme me the reasons you have to expect the enemy 
there, w eh would very much encourage our people in the 
service. Tis difficult to raise men this busy tyme, being 
not enough for y e harvest. I hope yo r Exc 1 ! 7 will be bet- 
ter informed of the enemy, and that the danger may be 
over. I wish yo r Exc ll . y health & hapines, whatever be- 
comes of, S% 

Yo r very humble serv*, J : W. 


Boston, 30 July 1705. 
$*, — In obedience to her Majestyes comands, I intend 
to be at Stonington on Thirsday the twenty third of Au- 
gust, to hear Owaneco's challenges, & shall be glad to wayt 
on you there. I scarce know how to get thither, being 
very uncapable to ride, but I must obey. I am S r , 

Your very humble servant, J. Dudley. 

GovT Winthrop. 


New London, Aug. 2<* 1705. 
S R , — I have yof Excellencye's letter by this post re- 
specting yo r journy to Stonington, w ch I wish may be easy 
to you. I haue allsoe received yo r letter of the 20*!* of 
July, with the articles against this Government ; and it 
happens very well that their Lord ps were pleased to en- 
close them to yo r self, w ch appeares to me their Lordships 
will lay weight upon vo! opinion about them, and I am 
glad they are fallen into yo r handes, who, as I know you 


can, soe I hope you will certefy their Lordships they are 
wholy groundles. I wish you health & hapines & am 

Yo r very humble serv fc , J: Winthrop. 

Gov!" Dudley. 


Aug. 8 th 1705. 

My Lord, — The duplicate of her Maj: letter of July 
6^ 1704, with aditionall instructions according to severall 
Lawes relateing to Trade and Navigation, & yo r Exc lly8 let- 
ter of the 24* past, with the articles exhibited against 
this Government under yo r Exc lly8 cover, were delivered 
to me by M r Sacket, w ch I will comunicate to the Gen 1 . 1 
Assembly for their answere, as her Maj : comandes. The 
articles, indeed, are great misdemenour, if the Govern- 
ment were guilty of them, but I will not trouble vo! 
Exc ll . y with any vindication of them at this tyme, but pray 
yo r Exc llys leaue to object against the third article relate- 
ing to deserters, &c, soe much to the prejudice of her 
Maj: service; and I may assure yo r Exc lly that, since the 
Government has been in my handes, noe sold r &c. has 
been harboured or protected by the Government, nor 
denyed to any of her Maj: Governm t8 ; but, on the con- 
trary, I have given charge to the Justices of Peace & all 
other officers, as I haue formerly assured j^our Exc Hy , & 
perticulerly upon any notice from the officers of 3^0! 
Exc llys Government, to seize & secure all persons suspected 
to be deserters. My Lord, wee are unhapy to lye under 
the censure of those articles, tho very unjustly, but wee 
are very hapy in our neighborhood to yo r Exc lly & soe 
neere the observation of a person of soe much hon r & 
justice, that I hope yo r Exc n . y will please to certefy her 
Maj : that there may be mistakes in those articles against 
us. I am, my Lord, 

Yo r Exc ,ly8 most obedient faythfull humble serv fc , 

J: W. 

1705.] JOSEPH DUDLEY. 30 


New-London, Aug* 21?* 1705. 

S B , — I understand by yo r Excellencye's letter of July 
30 fc . h your intentions to be at Stonington the 23 d instant to 
heare the complaint of Owaneco against this Govern- 
ment. I have therefore, in obedience to her Majestye's 
comandes, directed & impowred W m Pitkin, John Chester, 
Eliez r Kimberly, Esq rs , Major W? Whiting, M r John Elliot 
and M r Rich d . Lord, to waite upon your Exc n ? y and shew 
the unreasonablenes of these complaints, the unpardon- 
able affront put upon her Majesty by that false repre- 
sentation, and the great trouble to yourself thereby ; and 
I conclude in a short hearing your Excellency will be 
able to represent to her Majesty that those complaints 
are alltogether groundles. The gentlemen shall assist 
yo r Excellency's enquiry in summoning such persons as 
you shall please to desire and in all things elce, reserve- 
ing the hon r and priviliges of the Government. The 
gentlemen will tell you my indisposition, and being such 
as your Excellency has felt I know you will pitty it. I 
shall be very glad if yo r Excellency will please to repose 
here with our poore viands. A short divertion may make 
your returne more easy. I heartily wish your health & 
happines, and am, S r , 

Yo r Excellencye's very humble serv fc , J: Winthrop. 

GovT Dudley. 


Seaconk, 21. August, 1705. 

S B , — I am thus farr on my journey towards your Gov- 
erment, as I am comanded by her Majesty, & hope on 
Thirsday to get to Stonington.* I shall be obliged to ride 

* A letter to Fitz-John Winthrop from his nephew, dated at Stonington on the following 
day, says Dudley was expected there the next night, and adds: "His Excellency has but a 
small retinue w<. h him, but y e Masons have sent Ben-Unkas w th 20 Indians in armes to 
meet him. He has sent Cap* Alford to meet my Lord Cornbury at New London. There 
is w* h his Excellency M r Leveret, his son, Cap* Redknap y e engineer, Menze) r s y e lawyer, 
& four trupers, from Boston; Coll: Byfield, M* Brenton, M r Blagrove, Maj r Codington, 
from Bristoll." — Eds. 

304 THE W1NTHROP PAPERS. [1705. 

on horseback the last dayes stage, which is very dis- 

agreable to my health ; otherwise I should have wayted 

on you at New London before I had proceeded in the 

affayres vnder my care, which I hope therefore you will 


I am Sr your very humble servant, J. Dudley. 


N: Lond: Aug* 29. 1705. 

Honb l S R , — The Commission™ for this Colony who were 
appointed to attend Gov r Dudley at Stoningtown (in obe- 
dience to her Majesties commands relating to his commis- 
sion to enquire into the complaints of Owaneco exhibited 
by Nich : Hallam, viz fc that this Government has wrong'd 
him & y e Mohegan Indians in taking away all the lands 
they had reserved to themselves, & adding them to y e 
towns of New London & Colchester), have this day pre- 
sented in Councill an account of their proceedings therein. 
And by a copy of their lett r w h they wrote y r Hon r from 
Stoningtown (the place appointed by Gov r Dudley for y* 
enquiry), we perceive that they have given you a sum- 
mary acc fc of his managements in that affair. We shall not 
insist upon the scurrilous usage our Com ss . re had from him, 
tho they treated him w th the greatest civility. This is 
no more than what we might expect from him who has 
stuff 'd his letters to the court with such accusations ag* 
this Government, as we perceive by y r letters of Feb : 15 th 
last & March y e 30 th ; especially when so many of those 
who were joyned in commission with him were persons 
whose interest it was to judge in favour of Owaneco, hav- 
ing vast tracts of land w c they hoped thereby to secure to 
themselves. But if there were no such objection ag fc eith r 
Gov r Dudley (who himself holds by deed severall 1000" 


of acres of land und r Owaneco) or any other of y e Com- 
missionr 8 w th him, yet we cannot but think it very far 
from her Majesties most just & gratious intentions that 
he should enquire, much more determine, concerning any 
other lands than those mentioned in Hallams afores d coin- 
plaint ; especially since the complaint itself declares that 
the Indians had disposed of all their other lands to the Eng- 
lish, or the Government here. Whereas Gov r Dudley, by 
writs that he issued out before he opened his commission 
in this Colony, and directed, not to any officers within this 
Government, but to sheriffs of his own appointing (tho 
he had no power in his commission to make any officers), 
did summon some scores of her Majesties subjects in this 
Colony to appear before him & the Commissioners at Sto- 
ningtown, in order to have the titles to y e lands, w c they 
had had & enjoyed, some of y m 30, 40 & even 50 years & 
more, tried & determind of by himself & them ; tho their 
lands & possessions were some of them 10 or 20 miles 
remote from the lands stated in the afores d complaint 
that Owaneco was wronged of. And we could not believe 
it was her Majesties intention that her subjects in this 
Colony should be dispossessed of their freeholds, upon w c 
there had been severall descents, (and severall of them 
were in possession of their s d lands by judgments obtained 
at common law, many years before), by the s d Commis- 
sioners, without any jury, or other manner of process than 
a bare summons to them to submit their titles to y e deter- 
mination of y e s d Commissioners. 

This proceeding of his is so strange & unheard of that if 
we may not secure the liberty of the law for the security 
of our freeholds & determining all controversies concern- 
ing them, but must stand to the pleasure of the greater 
number of the Comss rs , whose present interest & hope of 
future reward will be temptation enough to them to de- 
stroy us and all we have, we shall then be the most mis- 
erable of any Christian people. Nor is it any remedy that 


306 THE WINTHROr PAPERS. [1705. 

her commission grants liberty of appeall to her Majesty 
from their judgment ; for still the matter of fact alledged 
will never be tried by a jury. And, besides, the evidences 
we produce here will be reported home by these inter- 
ested persons our adversaries. Nor is it possible for many 
of her Majesties subjects who have been summond before 
him to carry home such appealls, not being able to give 
the security demanded ; but indeed are very hardly put 
to it to maintain themselves with dayly bread. 

S% you will perceive by our Coihss rs lett r that this com- 
plaint, tho it bears the stamp of Owaneco, is the offspring 
of some few English persons who would ingross into their 
own hands all the lands mentioned therein ; having for 
that end by subtill arts perswaded Owaneco to say & do 
exactly as they would have him ; and who hope to im- 
prove this complaint ag* our charter, as severall of the 
Commissioners themselves are s d freely to declare. That 
this is y e principall thing Gov r Dudley aims at (besides 
the securing his own purchase under Owaneco & the con- 
sideration w c those y fc are advocates for y e Indians here 
have already given him & promised him, as is commonly 
s d ,) y r Hon r needs not to be informed, nor does he very 
much endeav r to conceal it. His son declared to a gen- 
tleman in his company at Stoningtown that within a year 
my L d Cornbury would make 2 of his Commission™ (both 
of this Province & who had shewn themselves with the 
greatest heat ag* the interests of this Government) magis- 
trates of this government ; but we hope he will prove as 
false a prophet as accuser. 

By this means her Majesties subjects here are greatly 
disquieted, and those few Indians that are called Mo- 
hegans are incouraged to behave themselves with great 
insolency, and threaten to enter into those possessions 
of y e English w c they have held quietly above 40 years, 
tho these possessions are not so much as included in 
the afores d complaint, but expresly declared to be dis- 


posed of & granted by Owaneco, or his ancestors, many 
years before. And som Peqviod Indians, who were cap- 
tives in y e Pequod War, & y r posterity, who have since 
that war been very serviceable to y e English, are greatly 
enraged to see their conquered lands, w c the English their 
friends have enjoyed ever since that war, declared to be 
Owaneco's. For so the report is that Gov r Dudley & his 
Commission" have concluded, tho he never declar d any 
such thing to our Comm rs , who staid in Stoningtown till 
he left it & went to Boston. Nor have we as yet rec d 
any such ace* fro him. And tho we question not to keep 
our Indians quiet till her Majesties pleasure herein shall 
be known, yet we are satisfied those who are interested 
in Owaneco's complaint would not regard how much they 
disturbed the common peace to serve their own designs. 

Y r Hon r perceives by this what a ruin it will be to this 
Government if all our settlements & legall establishments 
here must stand & fall by y e judgments of Coms rs that 
are impowred to hear & determine, without any jury or 
legall process. (You are not ignorant what pretensions 
the Duke of Hamilton makes to a great part of this Govern- 
ment & the report here is y* y e Lady Cornbury lays claim 
to another great part, under y e L d Say, an antient paten- 
tee, or proprietor, here.) And if we may not have a fair 
triall in y e law ag fc all such claims, but must have all our 
titles to lands tried & determined by such commissions, 
all we enjoy & hold by grant from the Crown will 
be only during pleasure. But it cannot enter into our 
hearts to imagine that it is her most Gracious Majesties 
intentions to deny her subjects in this Colony the liberty 
of the law, w c they enjoy throughout all her dominions. 
Things being brought by Gov r Dudley to this pass, tho 
we know y* we cannot proceed to joyn any issue upon 
this complaint in England (if he should endeavour to 
have his judg mfc confirmed), yet we thought best to give 
you a briefF account of part of what we should have of- 


fered to him upon that complaint, if he would have heard 
us without obliging us to acknowledge him k his Corns™ 
absolute judges of our freeholds; being exceed g desirous 
that her Majesty might be fully informed (as we promised 
in our lett r to y e L ds Corns™ of March 25. 170| & to the 
R fc Honb. S r Charles Pledges of March 25. 170|), w c acc fc 
is conteined in the papers und r our common seal sent 
herewith. But we can say nothing to shew the falshood 
of w* the opposite party has offered to Coll Dudley, 
bee : we are ivholly strangers thereunto & have had no ace* of 
what they offered to him. This is al we shall trouble 
y r Hon r with at present. With o r hearty sallutations we 
subscribe S r 

Yo r Hon rs humble serv ts , 

The Gov R & Councill of her Maj: 
Colony of Conecticut. 
By theire order signed, 

Eleazer Kimberly Secr y . 

S R Henry Ashurst, Baronet. 

Note. — The foregoing is not in the handwriting of Secretary Kimberly, 
but in that of Guidon Saltonstall. It is a rough draught, with numerous in- 
terlineations and corrections. Several sentences have been carefully obliter- 
ated with a pen, while others seem only tentative. The following rough 
minutes are also in Saltonstall's handwriting (but without date), and are in- 
dorsed by Fitz-John Winthrop " Answeres to Hallam's Memoriall " : — 

It is not a complaint of the Indians any otherwise than encouraged 
b}' some English there upon some ill design. For M r Hallam, before 
his last going from hence to England, openly declared that he would 
now endeavour to do all the mischief he could to the Government, — 
and therfore foreseeing, or fearing, that he was not like to reap much 
benefit by the disturbance he had made in the contest of M r Liveen's 
Will, provided himself with this complaint in the name of the Indians, 
— being abetted therein by those very persons who had encouraged 
him in the former complaint. There has been lately an apparent de- 
sign of some ill-minded persons to engross into their own hands those 
planting fields of the Indians commonly called Mohegan. With these 
M r Hallam has cultivated a very great acquaintance : who, as they 
joyned with him & did him all the services they could in his complaint 
about the afores d Will, so have improved their interest thus gain'd to 


engage him to prosecute their complaints under the name of the In- 
dians. As for Owaneco, it is known how easy a thing it is to prevaile 
with him (who has for man}' years given himself over to drunkenness) 
to sign for the lucre of a pint of rumm whatsoever is desired by such 
as can wheedle him into an opinion of their friendship to him. And 
therfore we can't say but M r Hallam might gain from him some writ- 
ing to countenance any complaint in his name; but that those few 
Mohegan Indians that are now surviving were anyways consenting to 
this complaint is utterly false, for they freely declare their fears that, 
if the Government don't prevent it, Owaneco (with Cap* Mason of Sto- 
ningtown, who is the chief mover of this complaint) will dispose of all 
their planting fields, the best part of which Cap* Mason has advised or 
perswaded Owaneco to lease to a cousin of his for a term of 99 3'ears 
(w ch y e body of those Indians are greatly offended at). The same 
Mason, pretending great friendship to Owaneco, perswaded him to the 
sales of considerable tracts in that very parcell of land annexed to 
N : London town which M r Hallam complains the Court has taken 
from him, notwithstanding the Court did expressly provide for the 
security of the Indian lands within the said town. The body of these 
Indians are so far from being under an}- temptation to go over to the 
enemy, that they have never been more ready to assist in an}' warr 
than in the present. 

It is a false & very injurious representation of the first settlement 
of this Colony to represent that Uncas, father of Owaneco, was 
sachem of the Mohegan Indians at the first coming of the Eng- 
lish, & parted with these lands for a very small & inconsiderable 
value ; and it is utterly fals to say that the Mohegans were a dis- 
tinct nation. Mohegan is the name of a small tract of land, joyning 
to New London River 18 or 20 miles eastward of Connecticut River, 
in which lived the Indians so-called, who were all under the dominion 
of the great Pequod sachem and served him as their naturall lord 
time out of mind ; Uncas being only a great man among the s d Mo- 
hegans, who were a canton of the Pequots (as there were divers others, 
known by the names of Nihanticks & other names) . And tho such 
great men as were principall in y e s d cantons might be stiled, for hon r8 
sake, sachems, yet it is well known that the}' were but subjects to y e 
great Pequod sachem, who had his principall fort within 8 or 9 mile 
of the very place where he allowed Uncas & y e Mohegan Indians un- 
der him to live ; as appears by a record of the Commission" Court, as 
it was anciently called, which was a Court of Enquiry, by Commis- 
sioners from the Collonies of Massathusets, Plimouth, & Connecticut, 
erected mainly to search into, & take cognisance of, y e claims & rights 
of Indians. The parts of this Colony that were first setled were west- 


ward, upon Connecticut River, & remote from Mohegan about 40 mile. 
When the English came to settle those parts of y e country on New 
London (formerly called Pequod) River, they found it under the do- 
minion of the great Pequod sachem and with .him they had conference 
about their settlement. Uncas, having revolted from the great sachem, 
was fled to escape his fury, and he remained out of the Pequod coun- 
try till such time as the great Pequod sachem did perfidiously murder 
some English, w ch occasioned the warr with the Pequods. Which op- 
portunity Uncas gladly embraced to be revenged on his naturall lord, 
& so fell in with the English & joyned their forces with a few men in 
that warr This was the first transaction of the English with Uncas, 
so untrue & void of all colour is the pretence that it was b}' his leave 
that y e English setled this Colon}'. After which warr, the Govern- 
ment allowed Uncas to settle in the country called Mohegan, which was 
the planting ground allowed him formerly b} T the great Pequod sachem. 
The Government also made him a sachem, that is, a captain of a cer- 
tain number of the conquered Pequods, as appears by an ancient manu- 
script of the Colony affairs, wherein is contained the number & names 
of such Pequot Indians as were put under him ; but the Government 
never granted him any part of the conquered Pequot lands, an} T other- 
wise than as they permitted him to improve such parts of y e s d land as 
were necessary for him & the Indians the Government put under him ; 
& they have ever since taken care that such a portion of land be re- 
served to their use. However, true it is that Uncas, being ambitious 
& subtill, and taking advantage from the destruction of the severall 
cantons round about Mohegan, and from the Government's putting 
man}' of the captives under his command, (who were thereby so much 
under his awe that they were afraid to declare against his pretensions,) 
claimed in his own right, and in right of a certain Pequod squaw he 
married, several considerable tracts of land ; and, in process of time, 
several English inhabiting neer Mohegan endeavoured successfulh* to 
advance his interest therein, to the intent they might upon easy terms 
obtain extravagant tracts to themselves. Whereupon, this Govern- 
ment, to prevent inconveniences that might arise, did countenance 
severall towns, as well as particular persons, to give some small con- 
siderations to Uncas & his son Owaneco for the right the}- pretended, 
or rather, to quit their claim ; and this notwithstanding the Govern- 
ment had prudently, in the year 1670, obtained an absolute grant, or 
resignation, from Uncas, of all lands he pretended to (wherein Mo- 
hegan lands are particularly named), reserving onh T to his own use 
the ground then improved by him in planting ; which grant, or resig- 
nation, Owaneco, the present complainant, in the year 1684 ratifies & 

1705.] WILLIAM WHITING. 311 


Hartford, Sep*, the 17? 1705. a. m. 

S B , — I receiv'd the fauour of your Honours letter by 
Morton with all thankfullness, and blush when I consider 
that I can by no means merrit that honor. On Tues- 
day last we had our election for Assembly men, and be- 
hold the old one ! Nickolls and Wadsworth have for a 
considerable time been endeavoring to insinuate into the 
freemen here the unreasonableness of our proceedings at 
Stonington, that your Honour and Councill had no power 
to comissionate us thereto, that it is only perticular rights, 
that the Goverment is not in the lest concern'd, nor ought 
to bear any part of the charge (nay, haue promist that 
they shall not), that we might and ought to haue stood 
a tryall at that court, that no mony shall be rais'd, nor 
agent sent hence. These things, with many others, are 
by those persons suggested to the unthinking world who 
wander after the beast and consider nothing but the save- 
ing of their mony. S r , I thought best to intemate these 
things to your Honour, that by your wisdome such a 
mischeife may be prevented as is hereby most euidently 
threatned to the Goverment. By such means they raise 
themselues, altho it most directly tends to the loss of our 
charter and privelidges therein ; but if that go, my priu- 
elidge as an Englishman is above their folly and mallice. 
S r , with submission, if your Honour doe not exert your 
authority and push on the cause w th the greatest uehe- 
mence, it will not succeed. Pray pardon me herein. My 
regards to your Honour and zeal for my country moves 
hereto. I do most earnestly desire your Honour may be 
continued as a further blessing to this people, and that 
your paines and endeavors may be crown'd w th success. 
I will not say one word more, but that I am, Honourable 
Sf, your most humble and obedient servant, 

Will : Whiting. 


S r , theres one thing I quite forgott, viz* the le r reed, from 
M r Burr, and w* your Honour mentions in yours I have 
communicated to the gentlemen. It's thought necessary 
that the order of Councill respecting that affair be sent 
up by the first, and likewise that your Honour would plese 
further to incourage the gen*, therein concern'd to pro- 
ceed thereupon by all due methods, that the matter may 
be prepar'd to be laid before the Generall Court, as you 


Know all men by these presents, that we, whose names 
are hereunto subscribed, haue made, ordayned and con- 
stituted, and doe by this instrument make, ordain, consti- 
tute and appoint, our louing kinsman, M r John Gallup 
of Stoningtown, to be our true and lawfull atturny, for 
us and in our name and to our use, to ask, demand, sue 
for and recover, from any person or persons whatso- 
ever, all or any part of our lands at Plainfeild or Cantur- 
bury, on both sides the river of Quinabauge in the county 
of New London in the Collonye of Conecticott, which 
were conveyed to our hon d father by Jems and Ma- 
shanshowet, sachems of the Quinabaug countrye, as by 
deeds from them dated the 2 d and 5 th of Novem br in the 
year 1653, as also any other lands contayned in said deeds, 
and (perticularly) to answere the action now depending 
between Isaac Shepard of Plainfeild and us, at the next 
Court of Assistants at New Haven, and to prosecute the 
same ; as also to sue any person or persons for trespas don 
on said lands, and to make one or more atturnyes under 
him, ratifying and confirming whatsoever our said attur- 
ney shall lawfully doe or cause to be don in and about 

1705.] PLAINFIELD PATENT. , 313 

the premises. Given under our hands and seales in New- 
london this second day of Octo br 1705. 

J: Winthrop. 
Witness: W: Winthrop. 

Jn? Livingston. 
John Smith. 

Cap* John Levingstone and M r John Smith person- 
ally appeared before me and made oath that they saw 
Govern? Winthrop and Maj: Gen 11 Wait Winthrop signe 
and seale the within instrument to which theire names 
are subscribed as witnesses. 

Richard Christophers, Assist 

New London October 2 th 1705. 

Note. — The great tract of land which John Winthrop, Jr. gradually- 
acquired (1653-1659) at Quinabaug proved a troublesome possession to his 
sons. In the preceding volume of selections from these papers are two let- 
ters from Wait Winthrop (1695-6) in which he complains bitterly of the 
maltreatment of tenants at Quinabaug by Major James Fitch "and some 
rude fellows of desperate fortune." From that period until the deaths of 
both the Winthrop brothers, their correspondence contains occasional ref- 
erence to legal proceedings in connection with this property, the precise 
boundaries of which were in dispute. John Gallop the younger, of Stoning- 
ton, frequently acted as their agent. His father, a distinguished officer in 
the Pequot War, had married Hannah Lake, niece of Mrs. John Winthrop, 
Jr. In October, 1700, the General Assembly having previously authorized 
Fitz-John Winthrop to give ( ' a name to the new plantation at Quinnabaug" 
and to appoint a brand for their horses, he chose the name " Plainfield" 
and appointed the " horsbrand" to be a triangle. Six years later the Assem- 
bly granted the following patent: — 

To all persons to whom these presents shall come the Governo 1 " and 
Company of her Majesties Colony of Connecticutt, in Generall 
Court assembled, send greeting : — 

Whereas wee the said Governo r & Company, by virtue of Letters 
Pattent to us granted by his Royal Majesty Charles the Second of 
England, &c. King, bearing date the twenty third day of Aprill in the 
fourteenth year of his said Majesties reign, Anno : Dom : 1663. have 
formerly, by a certain Act and Grant passed in Generall Assembly Oc- 
tober the 10^ 1706, given and granted to Wait Winthrop Esq r , Joseph 
Coitt, clerk, John Gallopp, Ben Addam Gallop, William Gallop, Henry 
Stephens, Peter Crery, James Dean, William Marsh, Steph : Hall, 



Thomas Stephens, Nathaniel Jewell, Joshua Whitney, Berjamin 
Palmer, Thomas Hopkins Junf, John Gallopp Jun r , John Smith, 
Ebenezar Harriss, John Fellows, Mathias Button, Edward Spaldin, 
the heirs of Thomas Peirce deceas d , John Spaldin, Jacob Warren, 
Edward Yeomans, John Yeomans, James Kingsbury, Joseph Spaldin, 
Timothy Brie, Benjamin Spalden, Thomas Williams, Samuel Shepard, 
William Douglass, Joseph Parkhurst, Samuel Howe, Isaac Wheelar, 
Ephraim Wheelar, Peter Crery Jun r , and to their heirs and assigns, or 
such as shall legally succeed or represent them or either of them for 
ever, a full and legall property in a certain tract of land now com- 
monly called and known by the name of Plainfield, lying and being 
within the Colony aforesaid, to us by the said Letters Pattents granted 
to be disposed of as in the said Letters Pattents is directed, and bounded 
as hereafter follows ; — and the said Wait Winthrop, Joseph Coitt, John 
Gallopp, Benaddam Gallop, William Gallop, Henry Stephens, Peter 
Crery, James Dean, William Marsh, with the other persons above 
named, who are at this present time by virtue of the afores d Act and 
Grant proprieto" of the said tract of land, having made application to 
us for a more ample confirmation of all their property in the said tract 
of land, which they are now in the possession of by a good and suffi- 
cient instrument, and we being sencible that the whole native right 
is purchased by the present proprietor and inhabitants of the said 
Plainfield : — Therefore know yee that wee the said Governo r and 
Company in Generall Court assembled, by virtue of the afores d Letters 
Patents, and for divers good causes and considerations pursuant to 
the ends of said Letters Pattents as thereunto moving, have given, 
granted and confirmed, and by these presents do further fully, clearly 
and amply give, grant and confirm unto the aforesaid Wait Winthrop, 
Esq r , Joseph Coitt, John Gallopp, Benaddam Gallopp, William Gal- 
lop, Henry Stephens, Peter Crery, James Dean, William Marsh, and 
all the aboves d persons at this present time proprietors with them in 
the tract of land (now being in their full and peaceable posession and 
seizen), and to their heirs and assigns, or such as shall legally succeed 
or represent them or either of them, forever, the afore 8d tract of land 
comonly called & known by the name of Plainfield, lying in the Colony 
afores d , and bounded as followcth, that is to say: — the southwest corner 
beginning at Quinabaug River in Norwich line, where said line crosseth 
the river, thence one mile and a quarter east and by south to an old 
dead tree with a heap of stones about it, marked with the letters N : 
and P: P:, which is Norwich north oast corner; thence an east line 
up a fair rising hill, so cross a mire}' swamp, being bounded partly by 
Norwich, partly by Preston, and partly by the Volunteers land, six 
miles and three quarters in bredth, to a great heap of stones lying on 


a flat rock on the east south east side of a boggy meadow, which 
heap of stones is the south east corner of said township ; from thence 
north to Greenwich path through cragged ledges of rocks, then half a 
mile east by the said path to a heap of stones ; from thence north, 
crossing Providence old road ; thence by marked trees north to a fair 
white oak tree standing in a rocky gully with a great heap of stones 
about it, being about half a mile north east of a large fresh meadow, 
which white oak tree is the north east corner of Plainfield township, 
being seven miles and a hundred rods in length ; from thence a west 
line a little to the southward of Hyams his fort in a rock, thence west 
over short hills and barren plains a litle to the northward of a fresh 
meadow, then west to Quinabaug River, to an oak tree on the brink 
of said river, which is the north west corner of Plainfield township and 
is a line tree stated by those gentlemen appointed by the Generall 
Court to settle the bounds of Plainfield, being three miles and a half 
from the north east corner to the northwest corner, and from said tree 
oliquely, as the river Quinabaug runs, to the place abovementiol, where 
Norwich line crosseth Quinabaugh River ; — together with all and sin- 
gular the messuages, tenements, meadows, pastures, comons, woods, un- 
derwoods, waters, fishings, and herriditaments whatsoever, being parcell 
of, belonging, or any wa} 7 s appertaining, to the tract afores? ; and wee 
do hereby grant and confirm to the said proprietors their heirs and as- 
signes, or such as shall legally succeed or represent them, his or their 
severall respective proprieties in the said premises given and con- 
firmed, according to such allotments as they the said present proprie- 
tors have already made or shall hereafter make of the same, to have 
and to hold the said tract of land, with the premises afores*, to them 
the said Wait Winthrop, Joseph Coitt, John Gallop, Benaddam Gal- 
lop, William Gallop, Henry Stephens, Peter Crery, James Dean, Wil- 
liam Marsh, and all other the above mentioned present proprieto" of the 
said tract and premises, their heirs and assignes, or such as shall legally 
succeed or represent them, forever, as a good, sure, rightfully perfect, 
absolute and lawfull estate in fee simple, and according to the afore 8 ? 
Letters Pattents after the most free tenour of her Majesties mannor of 
East Greenwich in the countj- of Kent, to the sole, only and proper 
use and behoof of the said Wait Winthrop, Joseph Coitt, John Gallop, 
Benaddam Gallop, William Gallop, Henry Stephens, Peter Crery, James 
Dean, William Marsh and the rest of the afores? present proprietors, 
their heirs and assignes, or such as shall legally succeed or repre- 
sent them, forever, in mannor as afore"?, reserving only to her present 
Majesty our Soveraign Lady Anne of England &c. Queen, and her 
successo r . s forever, one fifth part of all gold and silver mines or oar 
that hath been or shall be found within the premises so granted and 


confirmed. And further, wee the Governor and Company the afores d 
tract of land and premises and every part and parcell thereof hereby 
granted and confirmed to the said Wait Winthrop, Joseph Coitt, John 
Gallop, Benaddam Gallopp, William Gallopp, Henr} T Stephens, Peter 
Crery, James Dean, William Marsh, and the rest of the present pro- 
prietors thereof, their heirs and assignes, or such as shall legally suc- 
ceed or represent them, to their own proper use or uses (in the man- 
ner and under the limitations above expressed) against us and all 
and every other person or persons lawfully claiming b} T , from or un- 
der us, shall and will warrant and forever defend by these presents. 
In witness whereof wee have ordered this present instrum 1 to be 
signed by His Hon r the Governo 1 " of this Corporation and b}- the Secre- 
tary of the same, as also that the seal of this Corporation be affixed 
hereunto this seventeenth day of December in the fifth }'ear of her 
Majesties reign, Annoq : Domini one thousand seven hundred and 
six. J : Winthrop, Governour. 

Signed and sealed by order of the Gov r and Company in Generall 
Court assembled. Eleazar Kimberly, Secret 1 ? 

A true cop}^ of record, 

Test: George Wyllys, Secretly. 


For the Hon hle John Winthrop Esq r . Governer and Comander in Chief of 
her Maf JS Colony of Conecticott, in New Hauen. 

Boston, October the 15? 1705. a.m. 

Honorable S R , — The sence of my duty urges me salute 
you, altho here is nothing worthy your notice. As to the 
Stonington affair, I find persons differ in opinion as in our 
Goverment. Some think it a false step, others a true one ; 
some say we have lost, others say we haue gain'd. Some 
of y e thinking men of the age, upon the perusall of the 
writings, judg we haue taken proper mesures in that mat- 
ter, but are likewise of opinion that if we raise not mony 
and doe not send home an Agent, we shall be greatly want- 
ing to our intrest. The fleet will be ready to sayl on y e 
5° of November at farthest. S r , T most heartily desire that 
your Honour, the gentlemen of the Councill and Assembly, 


may receiue the Divine conduct, that such methods may 
be concluded as shall most advance our quiet and hapi- 
ness. The gaily came in yesterday ; nothing new from 
the eastward. Peace, health and plenty are throw Divine 
goodnes continued. If I am capable of serveing your Hon- 
our whilst here, shall be proud to receive your commands, 
but lest I should interrupt your Honour in those impor- 
tant affairs now under your hands, shall only make the 
offer of my most humble service and most chearfully sub- 
scribe my selfe, Sf, your Honours most humble and obe- 
dient servant, 

Will: Whiting. 


Roxbury, 21 Nov™ 1705. 

S*, — Williams the bearer brings M rs Veach the good 
news of his arrival this morning from Quebeck, and has 
occasioned an express of mine to Col. Skyler, which I 
have covered to Major Pinchon. It is of great concern 
& hast, & the messenger doubts of finding the way to 
Springfeild. If you please to do mee the favour to ex- 
press it, your messenger upon your note shall be payd by 
S*, your very humble servant, 

J. Dudley. 


New London, Nov. 25 l . h 1705. 

Gentlemen, — I haue by the ships lately arrived from 
England duplicate of a letter from S r Henery Ashurst of 
Aprill 30 th , allsoe letters from him of July 7 th and of Au- 
gust 5 th , intimateing his receite of our letters to the Lords 
Comissioners of Trade, and that to S!" Charles Hedges, 
Secretary of State, and wisheth he had had the whole 
story of the Indian complaint by that opportunety. The 
Quakers continue to make loude complaints against the 


act formerly mentioned and haue put in a new memoriall, 
w c . h S r Henery has very well answered, but both too long 
to be inserted herein. He continues to assure you of his 
faythfulnes to your intrest and that, haueing engaged 
herein, he will goe forward ; he ads (as he formerly ad- 
uised you) that he has drawne thre Bills of Exchange 
upon you for 280 pounds, New England mony, payable 
to Cap* Sewall at Boston, w ch I expect to heare of by the 
next post ; and I desire Cap* Nicolls & the Treasurer's 
obligation, w ch was promised to secure the former Bill to 
Cap* Sewall, may be presently sent to me, becaues it will 
be expected the next post. I received the enclosed to 
Major Pinchon, w ch I haue covered to him by an expres 
last night, from Gov r Dudley, who desires me to send it 
forwards with all expedition, there being in it a letter to 
Coll: Schuyler; he writes that their vessell from Que- 
beck was just arrived, w ch occations the dispatch to Coll : 
Schyler and may possibly be of moment. I desire there- 
fore that it may be sent forwards without delay, and let 
the bearer of it take a receite for it. The vessell has 
been six weekes from Quebeck. M r Williams was then 
in health, his son is returned and fiue or six of those taken 
at the eastward, but I heare of noe more. By the next 
post I expect to heare more ; my hearty salutations to 
yo r selves & to the gentlemen Comissioners, who I hope 
got well home. I am 

Your affect: serv fc , J: Winthrop. 


These, for the Honrable John Winthrop Esquire, Gouernor offe her 
Majesties Collony offe Coneticutt, in New London. 

Harttford, No: 28^ 1705. 

IIonora blb S R , — Having an oppertunity, I could do no 
less then to sende a few lyns to pay my respeckts to yo r 

1705.] CALEB STANLEY. 319 

Hon r and to aquaint you that I still go on in my worke 
of a Comisary, & shall do, if I live, untill all the worke 
under my hand bee finished according to yo r advice and 
the gentlemen of yo r Councell in our county ; allthow the 
Generall Court haue ordred other methords for the fu- 
ture, that the severall captains shall give the soldgers 
bills to the Treshurer for the payment of what soldgers 
shall be raysed for her Majeties service. S r , I proposed 
to the last Generall Court att Newhauen to make an ende 
of what worke I haue don since last March, and untill 
all the soldgers & others are payed what is still due unto 
them to finish sayd worke, to do itt for twenty pounds ; 
which our deputy s and Capt Hartt & Capt John Higly, & 
sundry more, informe mee the Court well liked and sayed 
I should go on so to doe & be payed what I desired ; for 
most of the soldgers in our county came home from 
Hampshire in March last, when the former rate was dis- 
posed of & the Treshur could not pay them, so that they 
want orders dayly for theire due from the Collony ; & my 
request to yo r Hon r is that you would plese to sende a 
lyne or two to M r Nathaniell Stanly & M r Wm Pitkin to 
signe mee an order to the Treshur to pay mee twenty 
pounds out of the next rate for my paines to finish sayd 
worke for what is don & shall bee for the yeare 1705. 
Allso, I tooke a greate dele offe payns, by yo r Hon r s de- 
sire, to finde out the charge our Collony had beene att in 
the warr since yo r Hon r was in England, which I sent to 
the last Auditors offe the Collonys accoumpts, to New 
Haven, that was very acceptable to them & helpffull in 
obtaining that accoumpt, which arose to twelue thousand 
pounds or more ; for which I request som satisfaction. 
Iffe yo r Hon r please to leave allso with M r Stanly, Capt 
Hamblin & M r Pitkin, thev will order itt mee. And I do 
humbly propose to yo r Hon r s consideration what neede 
there is of one standing Comisary in time offe warr, to 
keepe all accoumpts that may bee needfull as there may 


be occation for the same ; allthow I do not desire the 
place my self, having don what good I can possibly for 
the Collony my few days in the seuerall cappasetys I 
have beene in. S r , the last year, 1704, our gentlemen 
signed me a bill for my sallery as Comisary and that is 
the reason I desire the same still. Worthy S r , I present 
my humble service to yo r Hon r , wishing you and yo r Col- 
lony all happines & prospirrety, and remain yo r Hon r s 
most humble serv' 

Caleb Stanly Senior. 


For her Maj t$ Service, To y e Right Hono ra * u John Winthropp Esq r , Gov- 
erno r of her Maj ts Coloney of Coniticot, these p r sent ; p r - W? Crocker. 

Hatfeild, Decemb r 12* h 1705. 

Right Hono rable S r , — The occation of these are to ac- 
quainte you that T am comanded by his Excellency o r 
Govern r to make application to yo r self, referring to the 
p r sent hazzords we dayly labour under of an approach- 
ing enemy, for a suteable strength to be in a readyness 
for the releife of these uper towns, upon any intimation 
of discovery made of enemy s ; especiall in the next aja- 
cent towns of yo r Coloney. Wee have but 21 men, besides 
inhabitants, at Deref 1 , 16 at Brookfeild & 3 at Hatfeild ; 
in all 40 men ; & can have no releife in depth of winter 
but from yo r selfs. Therefore entreat yo r especiall care 
for us. We endeavo r to keep a scout out above Dere- 
feild & have a great burthen of it & watching, but w th 
few else but o r own men, & if we neglect a true watch & 
scout we fear betraying as formerly. I intreate, Hono™* 16 
S r , yo r care & directions in these respects, & I take leave 
to subscribe my self yo r humble serv fc , 

Sam 1 . 1 - Partridge. 


If any thing could be done from yo r p fc s to relieve o r 
scouts something, & in the latter end of Jan rie to releife 
or strengthen o r garrissons, this I leave to consideration. 

Note. — It has been thought desirable to omit several similar letters from 
Colonel Partridge, imploring help. The Connecticut authorities were in- 
clined to attribute supineness to some of the Massachusetts towns. John 
Livingston, when serving as a Connecticut officer for the relief of Massachu- 
setts, wrote to his father-in-law from Northampton, Jan. 10, 1705: " Here 
are y e most carelish pepell in y e world; hardly such a thing as a watch in 
y e towne, nor had a scoute all this winter; but yesterday did resolve to send 
one." He intimated his belief that one hundred determined men could carry 
the place by sudden assault. — Eds. 


Dec. 17* 1705. 

Hon ble S R , — By the last post from New York I received 
her Maj : comands of July 28. to appoint a day of Thankes- 
giveing in this Government for a victory obtayned by her 
Maj : armes over the French in the Spanish Netherlandes ; 
and that noe tyme may be lost, I haue appointed the 
27 th instant to be religiously observed by all her Maj: 
subjects in this Government for their thankfullnes to God 
for soe great a blessing. I haue directed the bearer to 
wayt upon you with this account and that the orders to 
the Eoad Islanders westward may by y r direction be con- 
veyed to them in tyme before the next Saboth. I haue 
noe thing of publick consequence to comunicate to you, 
onely a letter from y e Gov r & Gen! 1 Assembly of the 
Mattathusets, insisting upon an antient line setled for that 
Province & complayning of some late violence offered to 
Enfeild & Suffeild by some of our people, w ch upon my 
inquiry has noething in it. Whatever comes to my 
handes of moment shall be hastend to you, and must con- 
clude this letter with my good wishes for yo r health & 
hapines in yo r late choise, w c . h I desire may be a continuall 



blessing to you, to whom & to M r & M rs Andrew pray giue 
my hearty salutations.* I am deare S', 

Yo r most affectionate & faythfull serv fc J : W. 


For her Majesties Service, For the Hono rUe 3Iajo r Gener 11 Winthrop Esq, 
Governor of her Majesties Colonie of Conecticot, in New London. 

Hono rble S R , — I having had some intimations of some 
indisposition & infirmity of body attending, y* you chuse 
not to journey to Harford by land, but rather in your 
pinnace ; \v ch if y* suit yo r Hono r best, I desire it may be 
so & I bear the charge therof my selfe ; although I doe 
not question but y* y e Colonie will freely doe it. I pray 
yo r Hono r y* yo r health may not be ind angered for want 
of it, and I desire Captaine Witherell to take due care 
y* y e Gov r be suited every way to his content in y fc mat- 
ter ; & through my inabillity to write to y e hono rd Capt a 
for that end to se all things necessary be provided, I may 
pray that yo r Hono rs servant may acquaint y e Captaine 
with my desires therin, y t he faile not, or M r Christo- 
phers, if at home, & y e Capt should be out of y e way when 
its to be done ; for I am next to nothing by reason of 
infirmity of gout. If I should get up to Harford, w ch is 
very doubtfull, but doe intend to essay if God willing, & 
pray that God would assist, strengthen & bless yo r Hon- 
our, & all yo r Court & gentle 11 of your Councell, to doe w* 
may be for Gods glory & y e duty & y e good of all con- 
cerned ; & I shall remaine yo r humble & most vnworthy, 
yet faithfull & afectionate freind & servant, 

R : Treat. D. G. 

Milford, y c 22 th of Aprill, 1706. 

* At the mature age of eighty -three, Rohert Treat had recently taken to himself a sec- 
ond wife, the widow Elizabeth Bryan. His daughter Abigail had married Rev. Samuel 
Andrew, of Milford. — Eds. 




[May, 1706?] 

Honourable S% — Tho we cant express our thankfull- 
ness proportionable to the obligations you have layd upon 
us, nor according to the impressions that are made upon 
our affections by the great care, industry and concern- 
ment your Hon r hath skillfully and prudently manifested 
in the management of y e great affairs of this Government : 
yet we hope our sincerity and heartiness in our acknowl- 
edgements of our great satisfaction in that which your 
Hon r hath been so instrumental to effect, or cause to be 
effected for us, we hope will be received by your Honour. 
Thanks be to God, whose the government of the world is, 
that hath in his allwise providence directed unto such 
methods, and provided such instruments, as have pre- 
vented those mischiefs which disaffected and ill-minded 
persons have spared neither cost nor pains to bring upon 
us ! And in that it is to be hop'd we not only escape 
those evils that we might have now felt, had not a gra- 
cious God supplyed us with a leader so watchfull and 
zealously affected to our good and interest, but also those 
mischiefs which our restless adversaries would use utt- 
most endeavours to imbroil us with, had not the effects of 
those endeavours, which have been used, so frown'd upon 
them and blasted their intreagues. And we heartyly de- 
sire you would continue the same watchfull eye for our 
welfare as your Honour hath hitherto been exercising 
for us. 

Ordered by this House that this be offered to our hon d 

Teste: Jon th Law,* Clerk. 

Indorsed by Fitz-John Wintbrop, "From the Gen 11 Assembly. 

* Probably Jonathan Law, of Milford (b. 1674 — Harv. Coll. 1695 — d. 1750), afterward 
Chief Justice and Governor of Connecticut.' — Eds. 




To the Hon hle Major General! John Winthrop, Governer, 8? to the Counsel 
and Assembly of Connecticott Collony. 

Lond: th 21 May 1706. 

Gentlemen, — I have after six months fateague come 
to the end of most of y e trouble your affairs have given 
me. Had I thought I should have had so many great 
difficulties to encounter, so many delays, such great in- 
terest made against me, I would not for a thousand pound 
have engaged in your affairs att the expence of my health 
and my time from my house. Your very business hath 
cost me, that I have laid out, about two hundred and fifty 
pound. I will be bold to say that if I had not engaged 
in itt with extraordinary vigour, your enemies had had 
their will on you. I may say from morning till eleven 
of the clock I have persued your affairs. There was two 
of the greatest dukes in England that attended your com- 
mittee att my request, who never used to appear there. 
Much of the evidence about the Mohegan Indians was of 
no use ; for your denying the jurisdiction of the Court 
(in w c . h you did your duty to your countrey in reference 
to their determining your right,) made all your evidence 
of no use ; being not urged in Dudley's Court, they would 
not hear it. Here you were short in many things : for 
letting Owaneco prove his discent and your recording of 
it before the triall, which must needs be fabulous ; your 
treating with them as independant of you and making 
articles of peace, as if they were a distinct nation from 
you, for reasonable considerations, when I believe they 
were poor and dependant on you. Your treating of them 
as a seperate nation justify ed the Commission, for there 
was no proof that you paid that reasonable consideration 
w r hich Owaneco reserved to himself in reference to the 
lands att Colchester. Besides, a Commission ordered by 

1706.} SIR HENRY ASHURST. 325 

the Queen and Councill passed the Atturney Generall 
and was approved by the Councill of Trade ; you might 
easily believe there would be great interest made to sup- 
port that Commission and proceedings. After many 
delays, by the artifices of some I shall not name, this 
great cause was but this day heard. I had the best 
councill in England, to whom I gave very large fees, five 
guineas att a time when the cause was put off. I had my 
cousin Cooper, my Lord Keeper's brother, and Sir John 
Hollis, and M r Peter King, all great men. You had like 
to have the decree confirmed, because one clause in the 
Comission was that there should be no appeal from Dud- 
ley's decree unto her Ma tte in Councill, unless there was 
bond given to pay the cost, w^ was said to be about five 
hundred and fifty pound ; and you gave me no direction 
to give security, and my councill advised me against it as 
dangerous, in consideration there was so much interest to 
support the decree. But then I thought what fa tall con- 
sequence it would be to you, and so I ventured on it, and 
gave a bond to the Queen of four hundred pound, by w ch 
the Queen might have attached my own estate ; and I did 
this without your order in so great an exegencie to serve 
you. I have sent you inclosed a copy of my petition, and 
my brief. One order of hearing the two petitions came to 
eight pounds, the dark's fees, and because I thought it of 
vast importance, I got the brief drawn by one that had 
been Senior Judg of the King's Bench in King William's 
time, and it took him three days in drawing ; w ch was 
below his dignity to do, and I paid him very well for 
his pains. I hope M r Dudley for his great guilt will be 
turned out of his government. The Lords have agreed 
to null the judgment of Dudley concerning the Indians, 
and a new Commission of Eeview to other persons will be 
appointed. I pray let me know the charge you have 
been att this war by the direction of Dudley, and a true 
state of all your grievances (attested under your seal) 


since Dudley came into New England.- All Dudley's 
designes in all the trouble he hath given your govern- 
ment and M r Winthrop the Governour in severall appeals 
of Hal lam & Palmes, had been all contrived to take away 
your charter. When they saw me oppose that vigorously, 
they brought in a bill last Sessions of Parliament to take 
away your charter; but I made such interest against itt 
with some of the leading men of the House, so that it was 
thrown out att the first reading. I have the vanity to 
say that if you had not employed me, you would have 
been in a sad condition to this day. I told the Lords 
that if the Queen would give me a thousand pound per 
annum, for me and my heirs, to imdergoe the trouble and 
expence I have had (for sixteen years last past) to ob- 
struct the designes and malicious contrivances of one man 
to oppress and enslave N: England, I would not accept 
it ! I have of this date, to support the charge of this suit 
and my agency for the year 1706, drawn three bills of 
exchange for two hundred and seaventy pound N : Eng- 
lish money, for an hundred and eighty pound sterling 
here ; w ch I hope will be all the charges you will be att 
this year, unless I am forct to defend your charter in Par- 
liament, or something extraordinary should happen about 
the new intended Commission of Review, or the hearing 
the gen! 1 complaints against the Colony. Now I hope 
you will discharge me from your employment; besides, it 
is to much fateague for me, and I cannot serve you so 
cheap as another can. If it had been to save my life and 
my all, I could have done no more for you than I have 
done. You see what need you have to walk with circum- 
spection, while you have so cruell, so cunning, so watchfull 
an enemy. The Quakers have been chargeable to you 
and me since my last. I have stopt att present their 
attempts on severall of your other laws. You must get 
for some time some man of interest at court to be your 
agent. There is none of my quality appears before 

1706.] SIR HENRY ASHURST. 327 

them with the name of an agent, tho I am willing to 
serve the Lord Christ in the meanest station. M r Dud- 
ley's complaints against the Colony are not yet heard. 
I know not how soon I may be called to defend them ; 
therefore with great accuracy send me an account of all 
the grievances in particular which you have to complain 
off under Dudley, especially how you were att ten thou- 
sand pound charge about sending the quota of men out 
of your own country, against the express words of your 
charter, for two years last past. I am told he took money 
of the New Hampshire Goverment and made you send 
the men to guard them ; let this particularly be inquired 
into. I pray make all the matters cleer, and also send 
me an account of the satisfaction given to the Indians for 
Colchester ; for I insist upon it that if Dudley was removed 
the Indians would be easie. Cannot you get Owaneco to 
be on your side ? One of the box of papers you put into 
a ship was taken by the French, and if there was any 
papers but duplicats in the box, I had them not. Espe- 
cially send me Owaneco's deed to Dudley of the lands, 
and what they cost him, and wether it was not att a time 
when he was ruining all property in New England. I 
pray thanke those worthy gent. yo r deputies who appear'd 
for you at Stonitowne. They carried itt like wise and 
worthy persons zealous for thar countrey, for w ch caus I 
shal alway honor thar names & memory. I have enclosed 
you the House of Lords memorable votes in reference to 
the oppresing of Carrolina, worthy yo r reading, & I am, 
gentelmen, with much respect, 

Yo r reall frind & serf Hen. Ashhurst. 

Note. — Among the unpublished papers is a voluminous brief used in 
trying this case before the Privy Council, which is copiously annotated in 
short hand, probably by one of the distinguished counsel employed. "My 
cousin Cooper, my Lord Keeper's brother," was Spencer Cowper, a barrister 
of note, afterward a judge, and grandfather of the poet Cowper. " Mr. 
Peter King," then a rising lawyer and member of Parliament, subsequently 
Lord Chief Justice of the Common Pleas and Lord Chancellor, was raised 
to the peerage as Lord King in 1725. — Eds. 



Lond: y e 21 May, 1706. 

Dear Cousen, — I have not heard from you since yo rt 
of 6 Nov r I have this day beene to heare y e case of 
Coneticote Colony in reference to y e Commission granted 
to Dudley, w cb is set aside by y e Lords of y e Councell, & 
referred to y e Queene to order a new Commission. I heard 
y e two private cases betweene your familie & M r Palmes. 
That in reference to y e ship was in your favour ; as to y 9 
other, there is leave to M r Palmes to administ r . You will 
heare from other hands more fully as to these matters ; 
only I must say this, that S r Henry Ashurst hath maniged 
your concernes w th greate integrity & diligence. I designe 
to deliver this letter this evening. Shall write again by 
this shipping. W th service to our relations, rest Sf, 

Y r affection* kinsman & serv' Sam : Reade. 


For the Honr hle John Winthrop Esq r , Gouerner of Connecticut, at New 
London in that Colony. 

Lond: the first June 1706. 

Much hon r . d S r , — I hope my packetts of the 21 of 
the last you have. This is only a short leter to tel you 
one Bridger is comeing to live with you, on pretence of 
making naual stores. I haue no good carracter of him. 
He is a frind of yo r enemies, hath spoken for those In- 
dians, and against yo r charter. 1 hear hee intends to setle 
at New London. 1 thought itt my duty to give }^ou this 
hint of itt, and you may have another leter from mee be- 
for the shipps goe. 1 am euery day at court, attending 
yo r concernes. Remember mee to all my frinds. 

Yo r sinceer frind & serv 1 , Hen. Asiihurst. 

* Samuel Reade, a London merchant, son of Colonel Thomas Reade of the Parlia- 
mentary army, was first cousin to Fitz-John and Wait Winthrop, a:id their frequent 
correspondent. — Eds. 

1706.] DANIEL MASON. 329 


Cap t Mason, — I haue yo r letter, & when I hear from 
Govf Dudley the necessety of such a party of Indians for 
her Majesty e's service as you mention, will doe what I can 
to supply him ; but in the meane tyme the Moheags nor 
noe other Indians must inarch out of the Government 
without leaue. You are an officer in the Government and 
I doe recomend to you to take care in that matter. I am 
Yo r loving freind, J: Winthrop. 

New London, June 11* 1706. 

Note. — John Mason, of Norwich, was a grandson of Deputy- Governor 
John Mason, who commanded in the Pequot War. He and others of his 
family had a pecuniary interest in invalidating the Mohegan land-titles, and 
were more than suspected of being privy to the conspiracy of Palmes and 
Hallam. The two following letters (which found their way to the Winthrop 
Papers some time after) conclusively establish that John Mason and his uncle 
Daniel were deep in Dudley's confidence : — 


For his Excelen ce Collon 11 Dudley, her Maj ty$ Gover r of the Province of 
the Masetusets ; p r M r Thomas Rose. 

Stoningtown, Aprill 13. 1705. 
Honer ble Sir, — Owaneco is now with me and desires me to in- 
forme youre Exellen ce that some of the great men of New London 
have been urging him to sign to a writeing, the which he refused, and 
that he and his people will be readie at all times to observe youre 
Excellen ces advice in all things. He has desired m} T self to be help- 
full in his concerns with some others. M}' bro 8 sicknes & death has 
delayed the time of sending to youre Excellen ce in order to know the 
time and place youre Exellen ce will appoint for youre heareing the 
case. If 3'oure Excellen 068 waitie concerns will permit of a heareing 
before our election in May, it would be exceptable ; but that is with 
3'our Exellen ce . I am a stranger in such waitie concerns. If youre 
Exel. would please to advise which wa}- to cite the opposite to a heare- 
ing, I should count myself greatly oblidged. I am informed they will 
obstruct a hearing if they can. We will have to take care concerning 
the charge. I would have waited on youre Exelenc e , but sicknes pre- 
vents. I have not been out this three weeks. I have sent a faithfull 
trustie friend, who is knowing to the Indian conserns and is capable 
more fully to informe. S r , I am 

Youre Exelenc es most hum bl survant, Dan ll Mason. 




For the Hon hU Coll 11 Dudley, these. 

19 July, 1707. 
Hon ble S?, — I am hartily conserned at the misfortune of looseing 
y e coppy of the letter. It hath occasioned me gr* trouble this morning ; 
but y r son reflected as if he beleived it a contrivance to stifle y e letter, 
or to send it to S r H : A. I abhor the action. There is not y* friends p 
between us. I would goe 1000 miles to serve Coll" Dudley. You was 
pleased to direct me to get my man to coppy it. I accordingly gave it 
him last night to coppy this morning. He took it from me & laid it on 
his writeing-board, & I never saw it since, nor in y e chamber this 
morning but he, nryselfe, & a poore silly laundress. He was up this 
morning ab* to serve a summons on the under- sheriffe of Camb r . Yo r 
sonn charges him w th designe to stifle or send it to S r H: A. I really 
beleive y* he knows not S r H: A., nor of any difference between him & 
yo r selfe. It's an unhappy and unfortunate accident, w c . h I am sorry 
for ; but it 's strange y yt a pap r of y* import you have not kept a coppy. 
It much grieves me for yo r disappoint" 11 . If 3-ou please, you shall have 
my young man's oath of the truth of y e premises. 

Yo r faith 1 . 1 humble serv*, John Mason. 


Boston, June [blank] 1706. 

S R , — I am very much urged by the Assembly of this 
Province now sitting, to acquaint you that besides the 
just expectation that we are in of the French fleet by 
sea, we are every day allarm'd by the enemies scouts 
upon the inland frontiers. We have had three mischiefs 
in tenn days time in the Province of Mayn & eastward 
by the loss of severall people ; and the enemies scouts 
are certainly to the westward in the county of Ham- 
sheir, which is yo r own frontier, as well and more than 
ours. I have one hundred men there in pay, but there 
is absolute necessity of one hundred more constantly to 
reside, besides a good force of two or three hundred to 
march into a distress. It is not less than thirty thousand 
pounds will support this years expence upon this Prov- 

1706.] JOSEPH DUDLEY. 331 

ince, which we are not able to supply, and it will be the 
last mischief to me to be forced to ease my charge by 
drawing in any of the frontiers. I most earnestly desire 
your just consideration of the present distress, and that 
you w r ill send one hundred men to reside at the upper 
towns in a propper proportion ; and if I must feed them, 
I will, rather than lose their service. And further that 
you will lett me be assured of the readiness of a greater 
force to support them ; the first is necessary to save their 
lives till the last comes. Otherwise I only expect your 
people will come to their funerall, as has been sometime 
done heretofore. I desire you will let me have your an- 
swer, that I may know what I may expect from your 
Governm* I have by no means had any service from 
your people for near eighteen months past. I earnestly 
w r ish your health, & am S* your very humble servant, 

J. Dudley. 

Indorsed by Fitz-John Winthrop, " Copj 7 intended to be sent to 


For her Ma ty . s Service, To the Honorable John Winthrop JEsq% Governor 
of her Ma ty . s Colony of Connecticott, New London. 

Boston, 17* June, 1706. 

S R , — Besides what I wrote you last post, I have now 
news from Albany of a great descent intended upon us 
from Quebeck, and preparations made and a new tribe of 
Indians entertained for that service. Our intelligence 
from thence has been often true, and I am more suspicious 
of it at this time because they adde that Shelden and my 
messengers are restrayned to be sure they are not re- 
turned ; nor any letters from them, which I strictly in- 
structed him to send. The time is elapsed that he might 
well have been here, and the French are encouraged by 


their late success at Nevis to make a tryal upon us. I 
most earnestly desire you will not delay a party of one 
hundred men to take their quarters in Hampshire pres- 
ently, as well as a greater force to be in readiness to sup- 
port them. I am at a very great charge to cover the 
Province of Maine and all the frontiers of Essex, Mid- 
dlesex and Suffolk, and pray that I may soon be advised 
of your march, which I shall willingly discharge upon 
better notice. I am S r , 

Your humble servant, J. Dudley. 


On her Majesties Service, To his Excellency Joseph Dudley Esq r , Cap* 
Generall and Govern* in Chief of her Majesties Province of the Massa- 
chusetts Bay fyc ; Boston. 

New London, June 19 th 1706. 

S R , — Your Excellencies letter by the last post, and 
that which came by the post this daye of the 17 th in- 
stant, have been considered in Councill, and in answer 
thereunto I am comanded to signifie to you that a com- 
pany of sixtie men are ordered to march forthwith into 
your countie of Hampshire, and that the Goverment are 
at the standing charge of four hundred men, ready at an 
hour's warning to march for the relief of your townes in 
that countie. Which are so ordered that it will not re- 
quire more than a dayes march to afford them assistance ; 
and that will not be out of season, if your scouts keep a 
good eye upon the enemies motion, in case they intend a 
descent. And it is concluded that this is what we may 
adventure to do at this present juncture, when we are 
alarm'd by sea and in expectation of the enemies fleet from 
the West Indies, and may be necessitated to improve our 
forces for the safetie of our townes on the shore. This is 

1706.] JOHN WINTHROP. 333 

what I am comanded by his Hon T and Councill to acquaint 
your Excellency with. I am 

Your Excellencies most humble obedient servant, 

Eleazar Kimberly, Secr y . 
By order of his Hon r and Councill. 


S R , — I am informed by a letter from Cap* Mason that 
yo r Exc Uy sent to the Moheags for a party of Indians, w c . h 
is quite wrong ; & since that a party of English & Indians, 
w ch one Aserast is said to head, are drawne *out of this 
Government under pretence of service in yo r Province. 
I desire your Exc l ! y , if they should be marcht into yo! 
Province, that they may be made to returne with all 
speed, their service being designed on the sea coasts & 
cannot be wanted in this tyme of danger. I am, S r , 

Yo r very humble serv*, J: W. 

New London, June 27* h 1706. 


For the Honourable John Winthrope F;q r , Gov r of Conecticott, at N: 

London, these. 

[Boston, June, 1706.] 

S R , — Since my last I have pickt up at severall shops 
in towne a parcell of patternes w c . h are inclosed. Here is 
no choise of any thing. Everything very ordinary k ex- 
travigantly deer. It was an accidentall thing I litt upon 
y* camblet, w c . h was very good & very cheap, as times goe. 
As soon as ever I see it at Banister's shop, I thought it 
was y e genteelest thing I had seen anywhere. Yo r Hon" 
cote, my cote, Gov r Dudley's and his son's, took tip y* 
whole peice. Here is no cloths y* are fit for a jacket & 


britches for yo T Hon r , & if there were, they w d be too hot 
for summer ; and no silks but a parcel of slimsey gaudy 
things that yo r Hon r would not like. It is a great fashion 
here to wear West India linnens. I have enclos'd some 
of y e best patternes. They make pretty light, coole waste- 
cotes & britches. Everybody of any fashion weares them 
in summer. Ben Uncas is in towne ; he dined yesterday 
w th his Worship. John Uncas came here some time since 
& made a lamentable complaint y fc he had been sick at 
Dedham for six weeks & more, and had run in debt at y e 
taverne there about nine shillings. He promised if I w d 
give him a shilling, he w d work for yo r Hon r a week, and 
to get ridd of him, I grattified his request. They are 
both very rascalls. Gov r D : has gott a very long letter 
from the Masons & Fitches in behalfe of y e Moheegs, who 
say y fc they are afraid of their lives because Cap* Living- 
stone threatens them every day to bring downe y e Mo- 
hawks upon them, and unless his Excel! ? will write to y e 
Queen to see their greivances remedied, they will goe 
over to y e French, &c. Y e Gov r writt a letter to Mason 
y e other day. The freemen of Connecticott certainly 
intended to act a tragi-comedy this year, to re-elect 
Black- James y e Sagamore of Pigscomscutt,* after all his 
open & scandalous villanies. The Attorney Generall told 
me y e other day y* we should quickly hear it an article 
ngainst y e Charter y* they elected such a scandalous fel- 
low into the magistracy ! Cap 4 Veatch has been absent 
three monthes from this place ; nobody knew where he 
was gon. He returned y e last Thursday, and as soone as 
he came, y e Speaker of y e House of Representatives, by 
ord r & consent of the whole House, sent a messenger for 
him to appear, presently, to give an account where he 
had been, &c. The master of y e vessel tooke his oath 
before all y e court y t he went loaden from here w th pro- 
vition, guns, ammunition, &c. to trade w th y e French & 

* This epithet is apparently intended for Major James Fitch, of Lebanon. — Eds. 

1706.] JOHN" WINTHROP. 335 

Indians along y e coast, and y t he had bartered those com- 
modities vy'f 1 the enemies for furs &c. The deputies made 
M r Boreland (who is also concern'd) give a thousand 
pound bond that Veatch should be forthcoming in a 
week, or elce a prisoner. The deputies are in a rage 
about it and say y fc it put knifes into the hands of those 
barbarous infidels to cut the throats of o r wifes & children. 
It was w*! 1 much difficulty they were p r swaded to take y* 
bond ; most of them were so furious as to have him con- 
fined in y e stone cage, for fear he should get away. A 
lett r from y e Gov r of Canady to o r Gov r was read in y e 
Assembly last week, in w ! 1 was such a passage as this : — 
" S r , you need not wonder, neither can you blame me, 
about y e repeated murders committed upon yo r people by 
y e Indians, w n yo r owne vessels come privately & trade 
instruments of war w*? y e salvages. It is impossible for 
me to keep them in, w n you whet their swords yo r selves." 
I am sorry y 8 accident has hapned about Veatch at this 
time, w n a parcell of resolute rusticks sit upon y e bench, 
who have perhaps some of them had friends or relations 
slain by those heathens. The deputies und'stood that 
Veatch had sent his vessel round y e Cape, to land his 
cargo at M r Murdow's, a Scotchman living at Plimouth. 
They immediately dispatch t away one of y e members of 
y e House w*. b a speciall warrant from y e Gov r to seize her 
(being afraid to trust a common officer), and they have 
seized y e vessel & cargo, found all y e papers, &c. Here 
is a horrid combustion in towne about it. I am very 
sorry & wish he may come off well.* Satterday morning 
arrived y e West India fleete, about 20 saile, w c ? occasioned 
a great allarum, and I was mustered among y e crowd e of 
Bandileers, under y e command of Lieftenant Thos Smith, 
brazier. Yo r Hon r w d have smiled to have seen how I 

* The -writer's sympathy for Vetch was due to his being John Livingston's brother-in- 
law. Vetch claimed that he had been sent by Dudley to further the exchange of prisoners, 
while the Governor's opponents accused him of trying to turn a penny by illicit trading 
with the enemy. — Eds. 


was aceontered, w th an old matchlock blunderbuss w cb 
grandsire Adam anciently used. Maj r Whiting, Cap 1 
Lord, M r Gold, S r John Davie, &c. are in towne. Newes 
Letters are enclosed. My humble service to everybody. 
Yo r Hon" most obedient humble serv*, J: W. 

Note. — For a short biographical notice of the writer, appended to an 
earlier letter to his uncle, see the preceding volume of selections from the 
Winthrop Papers, 5 Mass. Hist. Col. VIII. 571. In later life he became a 
Fellow of the Royal Society, and is now generally identified as "John Win- 
throp, F.R.S." He had an inconvenient habit, at this period, of forgetting 
to date his letters, another of which to Fitz-John (probably several years 
earlier than that just given) contains the following graphic description of 
a regrettable occurrence in Boston harbor : — 

' ' A sad accident fell out here y* last week. Y e Cap* of ye packett- 
boat wanted men, and presently, without any r order or leave from y* 
Goverm*, prest 5 or 6 country-fellows w c . h came to market. Upon w c . h 
complaint was made to y e Leif* Gov r . He forthwith coihanded the 
men on shoar ; but the Cap! would not suffer any body either to 
come on board or to go ashoar, but came to saile. Y e Leif* Gov? sent 
orders downe to y e Castle not to let y™ pass, w c . h they T observed ; for 
when y e ship came up with y e Castle, they haled y™ and told y m what 
their orders were : if they offered to pass, to fire at y m and sink y™. 
Upon y e news of w c . h , y e Cap* let fly his penant and causes his drum 
and trumpets to sound, and went shouting along, bidding y* Engineer 
who was at work at y e fortifications to kiss his bum ! On w cb affront, 
y e Castle fired, and y e shot killed one of his men (and it hapned to be 
one of y e men he had just prest,) & wounded 5 more, but he would 
not bring too for this. Y e Castle fired another shot, w c . h struck y e cap- 
son of y e vessel and beat it all to peices, wounded a great many more 
of his men, one of w ch is since dead. With y*, he dropt anchor and 
came on shoar with what men he had, all armed, with their muskets 
loaden with a brace of bullets, and their cutlashes drawne. As soon 
as ever he came on shoar, there was such a great concourse of people 
gathered, y* they presently disarmed him and his company, and carried 
him before y e Lief' Gov! 1 He askt y e Cap* what these actions meant. 
He told him he had done nothing but what he could answer, and puts 
on his hat and struts about the roome. Coll : Roomer askt him where 
his mancrs was, when he was before y e Lief 4 Gov r . Y e Cap* takes off 
his wooden legg and knocks y e Engineer over y e pate, crying ' Who 
made you a Justice, you German dog?' He is now comitted to goale, 
to be sent home for England in another ship. There never was seen 
such a rash, furious fellow." 


Colonel Wolfgang Romer, the engineer in question, was an officer of some 
distinction, who had been sent from England to repair and improve the for- 
tifications about Boston and elsewhere. He was here as early as 1698, and 
as late, at least, as 1705. Thomas Povey, who succeeded Stoughton as 
Lieutenant-Governor, arrived in Boston June 4, 1702. Under date of July 4, 
in that year, Judge Sewall records in his diary: " It is knowu in Town that 
the Lt. Governor has his Coffiission for Captain of the Castle." Ten days 
later he writes: " A man is killed on board her Majesty's Ship the Swift by 
a Gun from the Castle." This is, perhaps, the incident referred to in Win- 
throp's letter. — Eds. 


On her Ma ty . s Service, For the Hon hU John Winthrop Usq r , Govern* of her 
Ma ty . s Colony of Connecticot, New London. 

Boston, July l! 1 1706. 
HonT S*, — The Governour is very ill at this time and 
his pain forbids him to write, but has directed me to ac- 
quaint your Hon! that he had your letter the last post, 
intimating your dissatisfaction with the march of the 
Moheags this way, and that he is much surprized that the 
assistance of twenty Moheags, at the direction of their 
sachem, & two English men voluntiers, to serve the Queen 
in this Province, should be grievous to you. The Indians 
have often pray'd him, since they have been put by their 
planting and improvem*?, that they might hunt in this 
Province, which he has for three years last past allowed, 
and lately that they might be imployed in the service, 
at the pay and subsistance of this Province. That when 
they so applyed, his Ex. cy directed M r Mason, their pro- 
curator & guardian, to acquaint yo r Honour w th their de- 
sire and his Excellences acceptance of their service, and 
that then they might come when they pleased, he should 
imploy them & pay them English wages. That he has, 
at this time, one thousand men in pay for the necessary 
defence of the frontiers, and is greatly surprized that the 
service of twenty Indians who have a right to dispose of 
their own service, and two English men voluntiers offer- 



ing to keep them company, should be such a breach upon 
you. Especially after her Ma'?' commands that this Prov- 
ince should be assisted by you in all things for the pres- 
ent service. His Excellency thinks he can tell where 
one hundred Massachusetts men are gone into Connecti- 
cot Colony to save themselves from* taxes and service in 
the present war, & admires that two voluntiers comeing 
from your Go verm' should trouble yo r Honour. How- 
ever, if they have broken any law for their offering their 
service here, he remits them to it. Of any other men, 
Indians or English, than the abovesaid twenty and two, 
he knows nothing, and do's not desire any more, since 
it is grievous to your Hon r , and supposes you will take 
yof own just methods to prevent them, nor do's he in- 
tend to entertain any such. His Excellency commands 
me to give his service to your Honour & wishes your 

Hon b . le Sf, your most humble servant, 

Is A Addington, 8. 


New London, July 4 th 1706. 

S R , — I haue your letter of the 1 st of July, w ch consists 
of severall paragraphs, but it is not mentioned that his 
Exce lly has ordered that party of English and Indians to 
returne, that haue soe disorderly withdrawne themselves 
out of this Government. What is mentioned of the In- 
dians being put by their planting & improvements is 
utterly false, they being supported here with the greatest 
care & incouragement. Mf Mason's pretentions to be 
procurator & guardian to the Moheages, w ch you men- 
tion, are idle & impertinent, and does very much debauch 
them & obstruct her Majesty e's service in this Govern- 
ment, & I know noe right they haue to dispose of their 
service, but in their domestical! occations ; and in all their 


motions abroad they are to be directed by the Govern- 
ment, as I presume those Indians are in the Province of 
the Mattachusets. Her Majestye's recomendation to this 
Government for assistance is best interpreted by them- 
selves, who will doe their utmost as they are able, haue- 
ing marched a detachment of sixty men into the county 
of Hampshire, w c . h are now there, and wee striue with 
great difficulty to assist your Province to the oppression 
of our people. What is added in your letter of one hun- 
dred Mattachuset men come into this Government is un- 
knowne here, and I haue ordered that whatever young men 
are found in this Government belonging to the county 
of Hampshire, that they be imediately sent home, and 
if his Exec lly please to point to me any persons that haue 
deserted her Majestye's service, they shall be secured. 
I must insist still that his Exc liy will returne that party 
of English and Indians marched into his Province, being 
more then can be spared from our sea coast. Pray giue 
my service to his Exc Uy I mourne for his illnes and 
heartily w s ? his recovery. I am S r , 

Yo r affectionate serv fc , 

J: Winthrop. 

M* Secretary Addington. 

Note. — A few days later came another of Colonel Partridge's appeals for 
help, enclosing a copy of a letter from Dudley to him, in which the Governor 
notifies him that a party of Quebec Indians had attacked Dunstable, and had 
with difficulty been beaten off. He adds: "We lost nine people & they 
had seven killed. By the carelessness of the officers we were surprised, oth- 
erwise might have killed half their number. The Lord deliver us from sleep 
and cowardice! " Major Whiting having advised further assistance to Par- 
tridge, Fitz-John Winthrop authorizes it by a letter to the Council of July 12, 
in which he says: *' My present thoughts are more in favour of our owne 
frontires, Symsbury and those upon that line, w ch the enemy have an easy 
access to and, being baffled below and Hampshire garrisoned, may make an 
adventure on our side." — Eds. 



For the Gentlemen of the Council Sf Comitte of Warr, at Hartford. 

New London, Aug. 10 1 . 11 1706. 

Gentlemen, — I haue your letter of the 8 th instant by 
M r Biglow and those from Coll: Partridg, and am sorry 
for those persons kild at Hatfeild & Brookfeild. I doe 
well approue of sending those 50 men up the river, and 
tis well directed to range on both sides to North Hamp- 
ton and Hadly, but I doe not agree to the tyme limited 
till a farther consideration of the necessety of it. I comu- 
nicated to the Council at your last meeting here that 
Cap 4 Mason, under colour of a letter from Gov r Dudley to 
the Moheages, haue debauched 20 of them and two Eng- 
lish, to serve at the eastward without any leaue from me; 
but, quarreling among them selves, they came home ; and 
I am informed that an other party of 30 of them upon the 
same acc fc withdrew themselves out of the Government 
two dayes agoe, w ch is fit for yo r consideration as not to 
be indured, and may be of unhapy consequence when 
they finde themselves loose from the Government. Those 
Indians might haue been a proper scout vp the river 
towards Coasset, but that is frustrate now and I am not 
of opinion to send any of our men on that designe, as 
not very probable of succes, nor is it incumbent upon us. 
I shall think it an omition if you haue not complyed w T ith 
my former letter, to lodg soldiers in our owne frontire 
townes, being equally exposed as the county of Hamp- 
shire & as accessable as Brookfeild, where mischeif has 
lately been done. The Council present doe agree to what 
is incerted and think it necessary that you send to me 
one of the Council, or Major Whiting, that wee may con- 
sider these affaires & remit our opinion for yo r concur- 
rance therein ; but if that be difficult, I must otherwise 
heare from you, the tyme limited for the 50 men being six 
dayes too long, & tis tyme to withdraw our other forces, 


if such wayes be used to cut off our help from the Indians 
upon our shore, or to scout aboue us for the incourage- 
ment of our people. I heartely wish your health, and am 
YoT affectionate serv*, J: Winthrop. 


On her Majesty es Service, To the Hon bl . e John Winthrop, Gov r of her 
Maj te . s Colonie of Conecticott. p M r Jonathan Biglow. 

Hartford, August the 13* h 1706. 

Hon ble S R , — We have yours of the 10^ instant to us 
directed. As to the time your Hon r intimates that the 
souldiers sent to range the woods had, it was not to 
excede three weeks; but did not ord r them to keep out 
so long & shall call them sooner if your Hon r orders. In 
answer to the Moheges being so unacountably drawn out 
of the Government, the Councill here resent it very ill 
and would have your Hon r to be very plain with Gov r 
Dudley concerning the same ; and in case such priuate 
intrigues be managed, haveing no liberty fro your Hon r , 
that we must forbear our help in the county of Hamp- 
shire. We do intreat your Hon r no longer to bear such 
indignities. Our scouts that are gone took pilotes from 
Simsbury, which pilotes in theire return on Sabath day 
last came athwart sundry tracks (as is supposed) of the 
enemy, on w ch intimation a party of men went this day 
from Hartford and Winsor to endev r the finding of them. 
We have ordered a scout from Waterbury & Simsbury, 
and shall from time to time take all sutable care for their 
preservation. It is a time of grate hurry in this county 
and especially w th those of your Hon rs Councill, and shall 
submit to such directions as your Hon r sees meet to 
comand, and intreat yo r Hon r to accept of these lines att 
present. We are your Hon rs humble serva tts . 

Signed p order of the rest of the Covnsell p me, 

]N t ath: Standly. 



New London, Aug. 15 T . h 1706. 

S R , — I am surprised yo r Exc lly should yet farther inter- 
medle with our Indians, being informed you haue enter- 
tayned 30 of the Moheags who, with others here about, 
were designed to assist us in this quarter, whilst wee spared 
to your [torn] to garrison yo r townes in Hampshire, and, 
upon the earnest solicitation of Coll: Partridg & yo r other 
officers, wee sent out 50 men more the last week, who 
are now in yo r service. I desire therefore you will pres- 
ently send home those Indians with what English are 
with them, but if I heare not from yo r Exc lly of their re- 
turne by the next post, I will the same minute call home 
all our forces that are in the county of Hampshire, as of 
absolute necessety for the safety of her Majestye's intrest 
& her subjects in this Government. I am S r , 

Yo r very humble seru', J: W. 

Gov r Dudley. 


New London, Aug. [blank'] 1706. 

Rev d S r , — I have the favour of yo r letter of Aug* 14. 
and your intentions to be at Plainefeild the first Wednes- 
day in Sep*, w c . h indeed I understood was agreed to be on 
the same day in October. But your tyme is best and will 
bring everybody thither. I will insinuate noething in 
the matter to be considered. Tis an honest & plane case, 
and will speak for itself. Yet one would think it reason- 
able that yo r selves should discourse those gentlemen who 
formerly proceded in this affaire ; they were persons of 
approved trust & reputation, and tis thought one sees 
farthest when he stands upon others shoulders. My 
brother is in distres for his son, who has been very 
ill these seven weekes, and doubtfull whether he will be 
there, but I will doe all I can to visit you at that tyme. 
Pray give my service to the gentlemen of the Comitte. 


They must force their way into the best accommodations. 
Tis a small-beere country, and I doubt there's little to 
comfort a hard journy. I heartely wish your health and 
a course of succes in all your concernes such as you pro- 
pose, and am sincerely 

Yo r affectionate serv*. J : W. 


N:L: Aug: 22 d 1706. 

Deare Brother, — Tis good newes that my cousin is 
so hopefully recovered, & I hope all the rest of our freindes 
are well. From yo r receite of my letter to the first 
Wednesday in Sep' is about 16 dayes, & if that be not 
tyme enough to prepaire for a day or two's rideing, let 
all Spanyards judg, who are remarkable for their creepe- 
mouse. For my own part, I am tyred with the trouble 
& charge of it, & if anybody will buy my pretentions there 
(w ch may possibly be as good as Major Fitch's), I will take 
the first opportunity to dispose. To keepe great tracts 
of land to stop bottles with (whilst one is ready to starve) 
is very idle & does a publick injury to others that would 
improve them. Tis much that you should take such con- 
tent in poreing & thinking, & forget that tyme is pictured 
(& truly soe) with a little lock before & bald behinde, & 
if one takes not hold of that, tis gon ! Tis the present 
tyme & enjoyments that is best; anything else is not 
worth a T. Tis hard to alter naturall temper & inclina- 
tions, & soe they must be as they will. I doe unwillingly 
trouble you with this letter, it being ready mony & that 
is hard to be got. I have noe faculty to expres a fondnes 
and concerne for anybody, but have an intire affection 
for those where 1 should & that is all I can doe. 

Note. — The last half of this hurried but very characteristic letter is 
missing. Fitz-John was impatient at the interminable Plainfield lawsuit; 
he thought his brother slow in deciding on the proper course to pursue, and 
inclined to make excuses for not coming to Connecticut to attend to the 
matter in person. — Eds. 



For her Map Service, To if Right Hono raUe John Winthrop Esg r , Cap 1 
Gen 11 fy Govern 7 " in Cheife in 8? over her Maj u Colony of Coniticot, 
and to y e Comittee of Warr at Hartford, these p r sent, g the post. 

Hartf* Aug 8 24. 1706. 

Right Hono rable S r , — The enclosed is from Albany, in 
w ch you 1 see the state of affairs there, & although Col 
Skuyler is kinde in his enformation at all tymes and it is 
advantage to us, yet y e account of their managem 48 w th 
the Frentch & Indians seems to be in afinitie, (even as 
Moab & Ainon & Afneleck &c combined togeather,) & have 
we see influences one with another, & thereby let them 
p r tend freindship, yet they crowd the dart of the enemy 
on o r Goverm*s & themselves sleep quietly & do nothing; 
nor will agree in any thing ag st the enemy, but rather to 
harbour them ; in w ch I looke we are in a great snare ; — 
the Indians mostly manageing the warr by comissions 
from y e Frentch & connivences elsewhere, & certaine of 
the freind Indians, as they p r tend y m , have & take oper- 
tunitys to joyne in misscheifes upon us with the enemy, 
unseene to us that suffer dayly &c. I pray a speedy an- 
swer to my last lett r Truely I apprehend the circum- 
stances of matt" as afores d ad mitts of serious considerations 
of the p T mises & some thorough redress; elce as we now 
are infested we may be so p r petually, till by peacemeale 
we be ruined. It is not for me to p r scribe to yo r Hono r s, 
but to pray to God to direct you, & am yo r most humble 
serv* Sam ll Partridge. 

We earnestly desire Cap* Hall & men be stayd here, 
till Indian harvest is over, at least. 

Note. — Enclosed in the foregoing was the following letter from Colonel 
Schuyler to Colonel Partridge : — 

Albany, Aug. 16. 1706. 

S?, — Yo r s of y* 5 th ins 1 w ,h , y e good news of y e D: of Marlboro's 
success therein enclosed, I rec' 1 & am glad to finde that you keepe 


3 r o r selves on yo r guard ; w ch I hope will be y e ready way to keepe 3-011 
from future missfortunes * I have at p p sent no further information to 
give you of y e enemy s motion ; but w n I have any y* is certaine, shall 
certainely give us as tymely notice as I can. The Indians that I for- 
merly used to call Anogwago Indians were not so, but Agnoeticooke 
Indians, who tell us that formerly they have had some difference w th 
New England (upon w ch they did remove & tooke shelter under y e 
Frentch), but now are desirous to come & setle w th us againe. Wee 
have sent severall belts of wampom to y m on that affaire pertieulerly, 
& now they do declare that they have done no mischeife in 30 1 * p*s for 
some considerable tyme last past, & do promise that for y e future they 
will not ; so that I do beleive that it is 3'o r Argonecherin [?] Indians 
that trouble you. Wee have now with us the sachems of the Five Na- 
tions, who w th their attendants are above 150 Indians. They have re- 
newed the covenant chaine w th us & all the English Goverments, 
w ch hath been no small trouble & charge to us ; but I heartyly hope it 
will be of great & good consequence to all o r English plantations, not 
onty for this p r sent tyme of warr, but alwa3 T s for y e future. Wee have 
had here latel3 T the misfortune of haveing an Indian squaw scalped & 
3 children carried away prison's, 03- some of o r own sekulking rogues 
that had taken a negro from hence & run to the Governm* of Canada 
for fear of being used as they deserved ; & we being enformed that 
they were at Cogniwhaga Castle, sent a messenger thither to demand 
the prison's back in 25 days, which accordingly were return d in 20 
days ; but as 3 T et, they haveing not yet been examined, can give no 
further ace*, they arriveing here but jestevda}* w th a flagg of truce. I 
am glad to heare 3-0' prison rs are return d safe home and that M r Wil- 
liams 3 7 o r minister & his family will soone be with 3'ou ; and 30U may 
assure 3'O r self that w*ever news shall at an3 T tyme offer from hence that 
may be serviceable to 3 t ou or y e Governments, shall alwa3's be remitted 
w th all posible speed to you 03- ST 3 T o r most humble serv* 

P: Schuyler. 

In a letter to the Committee of War at Hartford (August 29), Fitz-John 
Winthrop comments upon the two foregoing letters as follows: — 

" Coll : Schuyler's letter was very expressive of his care & regard 
of those townes, but he has made considerable remarkes upon it. I 
can not consent to Coll : Partridge his desire of our sould™ till their 
harvest is over ; and, indeed, I am hurried betwene two great difficul- 
tyes : the wa3 T to doe our part for their preservation, and the excessive 
charge it will necessaryty bring upon us. And I am the less inclined 
to continue our forces, as they seeme to impose upon us, rather than 

* Marlborough had defeated the French at Ramillies, May 12, 1706 — Eds. 



any reall necessity they have of our help, that Government being yet 
full of men and mony ; and they have not yet applied to the other 
Governments for help, who are under the same tye of obligation to 
assist them. I shall as unwillingly consent to raise men for that de- 
signe to Coasset, w c . h to me has noe prospect of success. If, however, 
it shall be agree'd upon as proper for her Maj : service & the publick 
safet}', there are yet severall things to be considered, viz* a cheif officer 
and the way of their suppty of provition & amunition, w c . h must be 
well considered, but does not appear to be of any moment to Gov r 


Aug* 29"? 1706. 

May it please y r Hon*, — Yo re of Aug* 21. came to 
my hand Aug* 22. & I thought it needfull to signify my 
readines to serve y r Hon r & any of y rs w th my old braines 
& bones, being y r . 8 ad aras. I wish we may make you a 
plaine field for y r Hon r to walk in w th out any fitches to 
entangle your feet. S r , we cannot enjoy ourselves in y 8 
wildernes unless we have some imediate influence of y r 
Hon" presence, & it will be the more powerfully opera- 
tive by a close conjunction of y e Rev rd Saltonstall. God 
granting health & ability, I shall not faile, by whose good- 
ness I & my family enjoy a measure of health. By all I 
can learn, I expect a fine hobby will mount our bay jade & 
make him stumble in his second journey to Sewannacuck. 
It is written of the palme that it lives long & cannot be 
pressed down or broken by any ivaite, but, as stubborn as 
it is, I hope it may be blasted. We have no news of our 
determinative Coiiiission, or advance of an High Court at 
Norwitch, of which formerly I heard some whispers. S r , 

• Rev. James Noyes, of Stonington (b. 1640 — Harv. Coll. 1659 — d. 1719) was one of 
the most respected clergymen in Connecticut, for fifty-rive years minister of Stonington, 
and one of the founders of Yale College. He had been appointed one of the committee to 
effect a settlement of the riainfield dispute, and the punning allusions in his letter are to 
this town; to Major James Fitch, who was endeavoring to invalidate the Winthrop titles; 
to Sir Charles Hobby, who was then talked of for Governor of Massachusetts; to Major 
Edward Palmes; and to Wait Winthrop. — Eds. 


I & all mine are at your service, & we have alwayes bene 
so in obsequious bonds, as y l it is not ours to give you, 
but y rs absolutely. But we will adventure to give our 
service to Madam Winthrop, & M r & Mad 1 ? Livingston, 
untill I kiss your hand at Plainefeild. 

Ja: Noyes. 


Boston. 30? 7™ 1706. 

Eight Worshipful, and much Honoured: — It is well 
known to you that you have a body of Indians within the 
very bowels of your Colony, who to this day ly perishing 
in horrid ignorance and wickedness, devoted vassals of 
Satan, unhappy strangers to the only Saviour. It is well 
known to us that eminent servants of God in your Colony 
have addressed these miserables with the offers of the glo- 
rious Gospel ; but they have obstinately refused the word 
of life. We beleeve it is a most sensible matter of affliction 
to you that there should be, for near seventy years together, 
a generation of incureable pagans in the midst of an ancient 
and a famous Colony, — pagans all this while surrounded 
with churches renowned for the profession of Christianity. 
Whether we do it or no, there is infinite reason that we 
should out-do the Roman Catholicks in o r zeal to propa- 
gate the Christian religion. Tho' y e endeavours of your 
men of God for the conversion of the salvages have been 
hitherto so unsuccessful, yett why should you be discour- 
aged ? We beseech you to renew them, repeat them. 
We have promised unto the Honourable Corporation in 
London, who have commissioned us for that affayr, that 
we will be instant with you to do so. Your Colony has 
many persons in it who are full of all goodness, full 
of love to Christ & love to souls. Your ministers are 
lovely examples of that love. Will you please to call 
together a number of your reverend ministers and ask 


them to join with you in proposals for what may further 
be done in this cause of God ? It may be the trouble 
which the enemies of your liberties have lately given 
you, wherein they have used the names of your Indians 
to carry on their troublesome intentions, may administer 
unto you some occasion to enquire what remains to be 
done, that those Indians may not continue enemies to the 
glorious Redeemer of men ! Tho' you can't compel the 
Indians to be of the Christian religion, you may oblige them 
to give the hearing unto a preacher that you shall send 
unto them. If you will find out a suitable, prudent and 
zelous person, who will undertake the noble work of once 
again treating the Indians on the Great Concern, we will 
do the best we can to support the expensive part of the 
matter. You have also some numbers of Indians dis- 
persed here and there in several of your towns, and we 
earnestly desire you to take it into your consideration 
whether nothing may be done towards the further cate- 
chising and christianizing of those who are daily in your 
houses and (which is to be wondred at) know little of 
that God and Christ who is worshipped in your houses. 
We shall give the best assistance we can to all your evan- 
gelical undertakings, and praying the God of all grace 
to direct and prosper them, we subscribe, Syrs, 

Your sincere servants : Increase Mather. 

Peter Sergeant. 

John Foster. 

E DW Hutchinson. 

Penn Townsend. 

Sl§. Stoddard. 

Jer: Dummer. 

Cotton Mather. 

Daniel Oliver. 

E DW Bromfield. 

Samuel Sewall, Seer. 

To John Winthrop Esq r , Governour, and the Council and Repre- 
sentatives in j ,e General Assembly of Connecticut. 

1706.] FITZ-JOH1S' WINTHROP. 349 


N. Lond, Octo-: 3 th 1706. 

Honb l S R , — Y r lett r of May last, giving an ace* of the 
success of y r negotiation for this Gov rmt ag* the most ir- 
regular & unheard of proceedings of M r Dudley & Comss™ 
at Stoningtown in y e Indian affaire, togeth r with the 
petition in y e case & brief, came safe to my hand y e 18* 11 
Sep 4 , which I presently communicated to the Councill ; 
who have an equall sense with me of the indefatigable 
pains you have been at in that affair, which our enemies 
have made so troublesome, and have unanimously desired 
mee to return you in the name of this Government their 
most thankfull acknowledgem ts . I shall have no oppor- 
tunity to make the Gen 11 Assembly acquainted with this 
affair till y e middle of this month, w c . h is y e next session, 
but the mast ships being just upon sayling, the Councill 
has desired mee by this opportunity to observe a few par- 
ticulars on the severall heads of y r lettr, w c . h will be done 
more at large by the Assembly when they meet. 

1 st Your Hon r mentions that our evidence in the Sto- 
ningtown case was of no use bee: of our denying y e juris- 
diction of M r Dudley's Court. As to that, we say that 
if he would have ree'd evidence from us, in order to y e 
laying y e true state of that case before her Majesty, we 
were ready & offer' d him to present it ; but he ordered 
y e matter so, y* unless we would submit all our rights & 
properties, which he would have drawn into controversy, 
to his & y e Comss rs arbitrary judgment, not one witness 
on our part should be ree'd. It was not therefore our 
fault, but his, that they were not ree'd. 

2 A . As to Oweneco's proving his descent & our record- 
ing of it, I must observe that that descent on record was 
never so much as proved by him or offered to be proved, 
or by any one for him. And as for y e recording of it, it 
was an underhand trick of one Mason (the chief cause of 


all this trouble), who privately brought it to an incau- 
teous officer of the Court and got him to enter it upon 
record, there being no mention of it made to y e Court, 
nor the least appearance of an order of the Court for 
recording it. 

3 d As for our making articles with y e Indians as if y y 
were a seperate nation & not dependant on us, it must 
be acknowledged y e Articles of Agreem* are very impru- 
dently worded, and through the weakness or carelesness 
of the scribe may be wrested to such an end, and made to 
look as if they were a distinct nation & not subjected to 
the obedience of the Crown. But in those days, as accu- 
racy of expression or form was not much studied here, 
so neither was the thing itself thought so considerable as 
to require much. Those Indians (who have always been 
very indulgently dealt with by this Government) desiring 
to have something further done for y e renewing antient 
friendships (a ceremony very freq't among them), were 
humor' d therein, for w c . h reason those Articles were written, 
and the Indians had thereby fresh assurance given them 
y t y e Governm fc would still have y* same care of them 
w ch they used to take, and see that they should, by no 
artifices of any man, have wrested out of y r hands such 
improovable lands as were necessary for their support. 
Neither is y r any thing in those Articles but such grants 
of y e Indians to y e Governm* as y y had made many times 
long before, viz : their lands to be disposed of in plantations 
&c. Nor any thing promised on y e Government's part 
but w fc the Indians had been assured of often before. And 
it looks to us very strange y fc they should be supposed 
in dependant, having resigned up themselves to y e care of 
this Goverm* ever since y e Pequod War ; Uncas being 
then made by the Government a chief of y e Mohegan 
Indians, and had a great part of y e captive Pequod prison- 
ers placed under him, whose remains are a principal part 
of y* small number of the Mohegans left at this day. 


Severall of Gov r Dudleys Comss r . s at Stoningtown could 
of their own knowledge have informed him that Uncas 
was by y e English made a chief over y e few Mohegans 
remaining after y e Pequod War, & had half y e Pequod 
prisoners put under him ; therfore no distinct nation. 
But if they were a distinct nation, we do not see that 
Gov r Dudley under that colour can have power, at their 
complaint, to take away the lands of her Majestie's sub- 
jects in this Colony without any triall at law and bestow 
them upon the Indians. 

4^ As to y e reasonable satisfaction the Indians were 
to receive for such of their lands as the Government set- 
tled, that matter in short is thus. The Goverm t had 
been used, long before that, upon y e settlement of new 
places to allow y e sachems some gratuitys, y y freely 
giving y r consent to such settlem't; and tho' Uncas was 
a chief of y r own making, yet they were willing to put 
that respect upon him, w c y y did upon y e pretenders to 
a native right, tho' they knew he had none ; and when 
any new place was setled in that part of y e country 
where by approbation of y e Government he resided, they 
were used to allow y* wonted gratification to be made 
to him. This has been y e practice, the more to engage 
the Indians to steadiness &• to provide for y e support 
w ch y e Goverm* had promised them to take care of. And 
in those Articles of Agreem* y e Governm* did allow that 
reasonable satisfaction to be mentioned, as no more than 
what had been done, or y y ever intended to do and have 
ever since done, even touching y e lands added to Colches- 
ter, w ch is but a small p* of y fc township. For by y e Gov- 
ernmt's order he had 20 ft offered for y e land he claimed 
there ; but he was perswaded by Mason to refuse any 
satisfaction at all & to declare ag't disposing of it, not- 
withstanding in y e Articles it is agreed y* y e Goverm* may 
dispose of y e lands at pleasure. And notwithstandg y* 
great complaint of our denying them reasonable satis- 


faction, it appears y* neith r Mason nor Gov r Dudley do 
intend any such thing, for at Stoningtown Court a Deed, 
pretended to be of antient date (tho never appearing 
on record till the week G vr Dudley sat at Stoningtown) 
wherein Uncas makes over all his lands to y e predecesor 
of s d Mason, without any consent or knowledge of y e Gov- 
ernment (tho long after he had given all his lands to this 
Goverm fc and had been satisfied for them) ; this Deed 
Gov r Dudley declared to be good, & said land to belong 
to y e Masons. So that the design is not to gain satisfac- 
tion to be made to y e Indians accord 'g to those Articles, 
but to gain all y e lands w ch y e Court have taken care 
hitherto to keep for the Indians from them. By w ch 
means they must at last fall into y e hands of this Gov- 
ernm* to support them, when there will not be a foot of 
y e land reserved for them by the Court remaining in y r 
hands for improvem*. 

5 th As to our not giving security to prosecute an ap- 
peal from GV Dudleys Court, it's true we did not. When 
our Corns" there saw what way he intended to proceed in, 
they, having declared ag* it, left him ; nor did we suppose 
y e formalety of an appeal necessary in a case wherein we 
could not conclude but y*, by his invading at such a rate 
y e rights & properties of her Ma ties subjects, he had abused 
her Maj tiea coinisions, by w ch he pretended to act as he did. 
However, yo r generous undertaking for us at such a pinch, 
& giving the security insisted upon, is an obligation upon 
us never to be forgotten. I herewith send you an acc fc of 
the charge we have been at in assisting y e Massathusets, 
w ch I know fals short of w l was expended in y e services 
mentioned about 500 lb , but I had rather come short than 
over do. I have also sent a roll of papers touching y c line 
between Massathuset & us, which for want of a just settle- 
ment has been a very great damage to severall inhabitants 
of this Colony, w th much cost & pains. We at length 
found y* Province inclined to make a settlement with us, 


and things were in a fair way for it at the time of M r 
Dudley's coming over. He soon knock'd it on y e head 
and we can't get him willing to finish it, w ch to y e towns 
y* border upon the line proves a great oppression. The 
box w ch you speak of, y* fell into y e French hands, had in 
it a roll of y e copies of lett" passing between Gov? Dudley 
& this Government, from Novem: 1703 to Aug* 1704. 
All y e other papers in it were duplicates. The design of 
those letters was to show how falsly he has dealt wilh 
us, for, as you informed us, he complaines ag* us, in a 
lett r of his to y e Lords of Trade, dated Feb: 15: 170f, 
that he had sent to Connecticut for men but could get 
none, — whereas by these lett" it appears y', at y* very 
time we were at his desire raising men for his assistance, 
English & Indians, & giving him acc't of it from time 
to time, agreed with him when y y should be ready to 
march ; w ch he knew & did himself in severall lett rs to 
y e Gov r m' acknowledge, and particularly in his lett r of y e 
same Feb: 22 day, does return thanks for our care, — 
at y e same time when he is telling the Queen we refus d to 
lend him any assistance. I have therefore ordered those 
letters to be transcribed again, & you have a roll of them 
in this packet. Here also comes a copy of a Deed or 
Declaration of Trust for a certain tract of land which 
one Cap* James Fitch pretended to purchase of Owaneco, 
a great part of w ch , about half, lies within this Colony, of 
w ch tract you will see G r Dudley holds a 13 th part. It is 
well enough known that the setting Owaneco to be y e 
proprietor of such lands is only under that pretence to 
gain y e land to themselves. And it was very apparent, 
by M r Dudley's managements at Stoningtown, that his 
design was to make that advantage of it. I could not 
procure an attested copy, the originall being kept private 
in y* proprietors' hands, but the copy w ch I send you is 
written after one transcribed by one of the proprietors, 
and I presume G Tr Dudley cannot deny the Deed. The 



Bills of Exchange you drew before these last w cb yon give 
me advise of, now are all paid, and I will take effectuall 
care for the answering of these. This morning I hear 
y t Gov 1 " Dudley informs his friend Mason y* y r is a new 
Commision granted to the Lord Cornbury & some gen- 
tlemen from Virginia & Pensylvania, to hear this case 
again. I suppose he writes what he hopes. If the Gov- 
ernment here must be put to such trouble, I hope w r e 
shall not have such men appointed to examine as have 
declared their ill will to the Government by complaints 
made ag't us ; as you know y e Lord Cornbury has done, 
who also, at y e time of y e setting of y e Commission™ at 
Stoningtown, came down to y e east end of Long Island 
and there waited till Maj r Palmes gott over to him, and, 
as I am informed, joyned with him & gave him what as- 
sistance he could in preparing to manage this particular 
complaint concerning the Indians ag fc us in England, and 
has therein sufficiently declared that he has espoused their 
cause ag* us. I must not forget to observe to you that 
Gov r Dudley, since his being at Stoningtown, has wheadled 
2 Companies of our Indians to come into service in his 
Government (one of w ch , of about 30 men, are now with 
him) without so much as informing mee of it. Whereby 
the Indians are incouraged to cast off y 4 duty & respect 
w c y y have always shewn to this Governm't. I wrote to 
him and shew'd him the mischief of such proceedings, and 
he knows y t upon a line to mee from him the Indians 
might have been sent upon y* service, as heretofore they 
had been, without any such disorder or inconvenience to 
this Government ; but he takes no notice of it, but, by 
means of Mason, did privately incourage y e company of 
Indians now with him to go upon y e service without any 
leave had (as formerly) from this Government, and this 
after I had wrote to him as above ; which I cannot judge 
to be so much for any occasion he has of their service 
as to make y m disaffected to this Goverm'. I also send 


the copies of 2 lett? from Coll. Partridge & M r Stoddard, 
principall persons in y e County of Hampshire, by w ch you 
will see how little reason G vr D< has to complain of our not 
assisting his Province. 


To the Rev d M r . Increase Mather, to be comunicated to the Gentlemen in- 
trusted with the Affaire of Gospellizing the Indians, at Boston. 

Hon*™ & rever d Gentlemen, — Yo r letters of the 30*? 
last past being by o r Hon ble Govern 1 laid before this As- 
sembly, gives us the demonstration of yo r pious cares in 
propagating the Gospel & Kingdom of o r Lord ; as also 
of yo r exemplary faithfulness in y e great trust reposed 
in you. We do likewise gratefully accept therein yo r 
assistance in makeing just reflections as on one great end 
in the royal grant of o r charter as well as of o r fathers 
glorious undertakeings in these pagan & howling deserts, 
— so also upon o r too manifest remissness in that blessed 
work. That it may suffer no longer und r o r neglects, & 
that yo r generous offerings may be to best advantage 
used, we have reeomended to the Rev r(i Elders through- 
out this Governm fc , that they prepare & offer to the Gen r11 
Assembly in May next their best advice & such proposals 
as may, thro y e Divine blessing, best advance the great & 
charitable design of relieving those heathen amongst us, 
hitherto so manifestly perishing in y e want of vision. Yo r 
further conduct & assistance in that good affair shall be 
alwayes acceptable unto & an obligation on, Gentlemen, 
Yo r humble serv ts , 
The Govern r & Company of her Maj ti . m 
Colony of Connecticut. 

New Haven, Oct': 10: 1706. 


Nswi* ox Rhoap Island. Oc:o r 10. 1706. 

Hon si 8 s . — I haveing so good an oppertunity by M r 
Noyes to rive vou a few lines conseraing some ill designes 

endeavoured to be set on foote in that part of yoF Colony 
we now call ours, which in the end it may prove a scourge 
to both : I heare sevv eminent men sav. being lately at 
New Yorke, that my Lord Cornbury's son is to take a 

title of right from the Earle of Arran : and further there 
is a great progress made for prosecuting tennants by some 
persons settled in the Nanrag^ Country, letters haveing 
past from sev there settled to New Yorke on said designe. 
And a few days past a New Yorke gentleman told me that 
my Lord Cornbury had an heire for our Colony. And as 
for Seabrooke. there is a lawyer goeing from Yorke for 
England to manage M r Albroe's appeall against M r Noyes. 
I doubt he is stmt up with a great many lies against vou 
and us. and by Yollenteere lands in yo r Colony and them 
unjustly settled in this, there will be a gap opened for 
giting into a possession for a clame of all. I doubt not 
but these things may be prevented, and bv advice to vo T 
Agent stopp their designes. We seeme here to be void 
of fear and care, but these late aUarama have somew* 
awakened them. Coll : Cranfield'fl report might be of 
very great service. I conceive, to you and us allso. I 
have one true attested coppy. which if thought needfull 
you may have a coppy thereof.! 'VTo have so many 
strangers and upstarts come amongst us that such as cann 
contrive a faction want not abetters and a countenance by 
some as should stop such designes. I am bold to trouble 

• H :h*r.icl C\*Klington. of N •"-£$ a <on. br his third wife, of the weU-knowm 

William Codding -»:'-. Masai osetts Colony ax :. 

ernor of Rhode Island. — Bd& 

nelCranf.. :o which reference b here made, bears the signatures of Ed- 

ward CranfieM. William Stoughton. Samnel Shrimntoa, John Prnchon. Jr., and Nathaniel 
and b dated Boston, Oct 90, 1683. It is printed in 1 Mass Hist. Coll. V. 235- 
.is also in the ihird rolame of the Rhode Island Colonial Records - Lps. 


you with this short brief on these concerns and beg yo r 
pardon for my trouble given you herein ; being onely as 
I thought a duty encoumbant on me to give yo r Hon r 
this short acco" & am, Hon bl S r , 

Yo r humble ser", Nath l . l Coddington. 

My service to the Reverend Saltingstall. 


New Lon: Oct. 29 th 1706. 

Deare Brother, — I returned hither last Monday 
from New Hauen, and haue by this post enclosed a let- 
ter to S r Henery Ashhurst from the Gen 1 ! Assembly, and 
duplicates of my last letters, & the perticulers of charge 
for the defence of Hampshire, w c . h may goe in another 
ship & hope they will come in tyme for the mast fleet, k 
I desire you will giue them yoT cover & recomendation as 
may be needfull. Major Palmes was at New Hauen and 
presented to the Councill her Majestye's order that ad- 
ministration be given to him forthwith in due forme, but 
he would not leaue the order, but rendered a copy. The 
Councill told him there were Courts of Probate allwayes 
open in every county & thither he might apply him first, 
but he said her Majestye's order did appoint the Coun- 
cill to giue him administration and he would haue it noe 
where elce, so he made his say & departed. Some think 
he has an eye vpon y e Island, & that on Long Island, and 
what was not inventored, but I heare of noebody that 
can tell certainely what he meanes. It may be well to 
enquire about it as you haue opertunety. Some of his 
freindes whisper that he has not lost his labour, but has 

* The early part of this letter refers to the attempt of Major Palmes, nearly thirty years 
after his first wife's death, to invalidate the settlement of her father's estate. " Coll : Hyams 
his manor of Quinebaug" is a jocose allusion to an Indian sachem named Hyems, alias 
Allumps, the original owner of part of the land in dispute at Plainfield. — Eds. 


got fiue hundred poundes ; where he will get it here I 
know not. He shewed to some at New Hauen an order 
of Council that the Indian busines was to haue another 
hearing, and at the Queene's charge on the Indian side, 
& tells a multitude of other storyes about it, w ch makes 
many people have apprehentions about it & of S r Henery. 
Nextly, as to Coll: Hyams his mannor of Quinebaug, it 
stands thus. The gentlemen of the Comitte came to my 
lodgeing one evening and proposed to me that it would 
be a better issue for our intrest to make some agrement 
with the Gen 11 Court about our right to those landes than 
would be had from their Report, & proposed the forme 
here enclosed, & soe they made noe returne. To this 
project I have (as you will se) consented on my part, and 
tis what I think is best, but if you haue sentiments differ- 
ing from all that ever heard of our pretentions, you must 
in tyme resolue yo r self about it for yo! answere. Noe 
question but a man may set downe in the Bay and pleade 
causes in his minde and carry them as he pleaseth ; but 
when Dick, Tom & Robin, who are lawyers, come to 
heare the case, it must be defended by good testemony 
& I am sure I see none hereabout. I have transcribed 
her Majestye's order of Council, and what is done by the 
Court about Quinebaug, & you have tyme to consider 
about it. I heard one say, if a man would haue his busi- 
nes done, he must get one to doe it, but if he would haue 
it ivett done, he must doe it himself. Sitting or standing 
& thinking does little busines ; conceites to haue such 
faggots in cold wether as the man in the moone carry es 
on his back warmes very litle. I hope my cousin is quite 
well, as I heare, & that all y e rest are soe allsoe. Henery 
was here last night & I dun d him for mony ; he depose th 
that he expects every day a quantety from New York. 
Of Anthony I neyther see nor heare of him yet, but I 
will as soone as I can. I am 

Yo™ J: W. 


Just now the post delivers me two letters from yo r self, 
but you say noething of mine from New Haven y c last 
post. I am sorry my cousin is indisposed. The horse 
shall be ready y e next post, if you are sure to dispose of 
him ; twill be pitty to haue him there vpon charge. 


New-London, Oct. 30^ 1706. 

S R , — I received the favour of your letter but last 
night (and soe could not thank you for it by the last 
post) and your intimation of those new designes against 
the proprietors of the Narroganset Country, and perticu- 
lerly that of my Lord Cornbury his son holding title from 
my Lord Arran, w ch I must confes is altogether new to 
me, as well as that of my Lord Cornbury haveing an heyre 
for your Government. When I was at Court, the Dutches 
of Hamilton's clame was on foot by petition to the King, 
and referred to the Lords of the Council of Trade for 
their opinion ; and I had comandes from their Lordships 
to make answere to it, as it extended within this Govern- 
ment; but in regard I had noe instructions from this 
Government to intermedle with it, I made my excuse to 
their Lordships, and it appearing to them that noebody 
in this country had notice to make answere to that clame, 
it was set by at that tyme. I was often with my Lord 
'Arran (now Duke Hamilton) who seemed very intent to 
prosecute the clame in behalf of the Dutches his mother, 
but many reasons were suggested to him against it by 
some that had intrest in him, w c . h seemed to quiet him at 
that tyme ; and I had the Lord Cheif Justice Pemberton's 
report against him, as M r Brenton can informe you, being 
present with me at that tyme. The devices of ill-minded 
people (the intruders and planters up and downe the 
country) may occation a great deale of trouble to the 


concerne of the Narroganset Country, and may revive 
those antient pretentions to the prejudice of the proprie- 
tors, if some prudent methods be not foreseene to prevent 
it, to w c . h you may be assured I will contribute as much 
as I can. Yourself and M r Brinly haue hitherto been a 
good guard to preserve the rights & intrest of that coun- 
try, & very much is owing to your conduct therein. I 
am sorry I could not recomend this matter to our Agent 
in my last letter, w c . h was sent forward but a day before 
yo™ came to my hands, but I will take the next opportu- 
nety to pres it upon him. The trouble you mention given 
to M r Noyes in his just caues is a great hardship upon 
him, but haveing had judgment on his side in all yo r 
Courts, I think it cannot be reverst. Every body wishes 
well to his honest caues and I have recomended it to 
our Agent, who I know will assist him. I will allwayes 
be glad of any occation to serve you, & with my hearty 
salutations to yourself & M r Brinley, I am, 

Yo r very humble serv', J: W. 


New London, Dec b . 26^ 1706. 

Hon ble S B , — I have yo r letter of the 18 th instant, and 
that from Cap 1 Minor & M r Sherman, giveing account of 
a scalp and belts of wampom sent by the enemy to the 
Ovveantinock & Potatuck Indians to engage them against 
us. It is a good Providence that the vigilancy & care 
of those gentlemen did discover soe much, as was suffi- 
tient ground for farther examination of those Indians, 
and it appeares very evident, by their owne confession, 
that they did not onely receive the presents but kept 
them privet, in order to carry on the designe w ch they 
would otherwise have discovered to us. The steps you 


have taken in this affaire are very proper and safe for 
us, and if any farther matter of suspition appear against 
them, or if you see present reason for it, they must be 
obliged to send in to us some persons of note among 
them, who might be kept as hostages for their good be- 
haviour, until farther order. I desire you to giue such 
orders as may be necessary to quiet and secure the inhab- 
itants of Woodberry and any other plantation thereabout. 
They being near you will be soonest assisted by your 
direction, w ! 1 in this juncture I doe intirely recomend 
and leave with yourself and the gentlemen of the Coun- 
cil neere you, to order as shall appeare most condusive 
to the safety of those parts. If anything farther of mo- 
ment in this matter be thought necessary to be trans- 
mitted hither, I desire it may come by an expres, the 
post being very uncertaine at this tyme of the yeare, and 
such affaires as are of concernment should not be delayed. 
Cap* Minor & M r Sherman are persons of trust & very 
knowing of the customes & intreigues of the Indians, 
and will be serviceable to make farther discovery & ob- 
serve the motions and inclinations of those Indians, upon 
your order to them. It is impossible to write more per- 
ticulerly in this matter at present. I must leaue it to 
your care and oversight, as neere your seat, & shall be 
glad to heare from you upon every occation; and noe- 
thing shall be wanting on my part to contribute to the 
publick safety (& perticulerly in this matter) as I shall 
haue aduice from you. I heartely wish yo r health, 
& with my salutations to the gentlemen of the Council, 
I am 

Yo! affectionate serv' 

J: Winthrop. 


362 THE WINTHROP PAPERS. [1706-7. 


For the Hono rble John Wlnthrop Esq, Gouernour of her Majesties Colonie 

of Conecticot. 

Milford, January y e l 8t 1706 [-7]. 

Hono rbl S R , — Yo rs of the 26 th past I receaved y 8 New 
Yeare morning and wish your Honour a prosperous New 
Yeare. I haue noe news but y e sorrowfull death of M r 
Gray, who dyed at Stamford about ten dayes agoe, & 
then they had loste there about 35 persons. I am glad 
to hear of yo r Hono r s health. I pray God continue it, and 
let my seruice be p'sented to yo r Hono r & ladie. S r , I 
haue heard nothing further about y e Indeans since yo r let- 
ter. Y e eies of y e country are some what awakened. Pray 
God they be not wanting in their duty of prepareation or 
inspection ; for those of y e Indeans we hoped y e best of 
seemed y e most guilty. Captaine Minor doeth y e Colonie 
great service, & hath interest in y e Indeans, & spends 
time & cost, & deserus to be considered. I thought y 4 
some hostages might be of use, but o r Fairfeild gentle- 
men did not concurre, so y fc y e Indeans I think too fauor- 
rably dealt with. Y e Sagamoors of both companies of 
Indeans haue said y r might be hostages ; if yo r Hono r & 
Councell shall direct in it it may be done. Y e informer, 
also, being now known, is in great danger to be kild by 
the Indeans. If yo r Hono r would advise what may be 
safest & best, it would be welcome from yo r most afec- 
tionate & humble servant, to be coinanded to my power, 

R : Treat. D. G. 

For the Hono hU John Winthrop Esq r , Gouerner Sfc. 

Hartford, Jan r y 21** 174A. 

S R , — Wee haue just now by an express from Col"! Par- 
tridge rec'd some letters directed to your Honour for her 

1706-7.] FITZ-JOHN WINTHROP. 363 

Maj^ 8 service, w^ we forward w'! 1 all speed ; wherein we 
conclude is contained the ace* Col° Schuyler has gaind 
of the designee of the enemy. This day by letters from 
Waterbury am inform'd of the great difficultie these poor 
people labour under, which proceed from the reports that 
are among them respecting the designes of the Indians 
who set down at Woontenuck, their joy ning w th the enemy; 
w c ? haue so farr prevaild that some of the inhabitance are 
already remov'd & others are prepareing to be gone, if 
some speedy remedie be not found. We can hear noth- 
ing from the gentlemen at the sea side who haue had the 
examination of those Indians, but are quite left in the 
dark as to that affair. I intend too morrow morning to 
visset the frontiers upon that side & shall upon my re- 
turne acquaint your Honour in what posture I find them. 
This, w*? the letters from Albany, come by M r Stedman, 
who is to waite upon Honour therewith. I am Sf, 
Your Honours most obedient humble seruant, 

Will: Whiting. 


New London, Jan7 27* 170f 

Gentlemen, — M r Stedman your post delivered me a 
letter thre dayes since from Major Whiting, of the 21".' 
instant, with two packets from Coll: Schuyler and Coll: 
Livingston respecting the seizeing and examination of 
some of their Indians in company with those of Owyanti- 
nock & Potatuck Indians, w ch according to the ace* I haue 
received from G: Treat is very much misrepresented to 
the Ccmissioners for the Indian affaires at Albany. You 
will perceive by the enclosed they were soe surprised at 
the ace' given to them, that they did presently appoint 
the mayor of the citty to visit us here, to haue a right 
understanding of the state of that matter, but his journy 


is hapily prevented, as you will see in the enclosed let- 
ters. I concluded you had the whole ace* of the exami- 
nations taken by G: Treat and the gentlemen of the 
Council at Milford, being informed Major Whitting was 
then present, w c . h should otherwise haue been hastned 
to you ; and that you may be acquainted with all that I 
know of that matter, I haue enclosed the severall let- 
ters that past betwene G: Treat and my self respecting 
that matter, w c . h I desire mav be returned to me. I doe 
very well approue of Major Whiting's visit to our fron- 
tire townes, and it may be fit that they know the con- 
tents of the enclosed letters, w ch I hope will quiet them 
at present ; but if any appearance of danger, they must 
be assisted as is reasonable for their safety; w c . h I haue 
allready recomended to G: Treat, and yo r selves must 
doe yo r part as occation requires yo r assistance. I desire 
yor selves, vpon your perusall of the enclosed letters & 
the examinations taken by G: Treat at Milford, to form 
an answere & ace* of this matter to Coll: Schuyler & the 
Comissioners (w c . h I desire to see), that wee may vindicate 
our procedings and not be behinde them in our sence and 
care of the publick safety. I must farther incert that 
yo r post assures me that he heard a letter read from Coll : 
Schuyler to Coll: Partridg, w c . b gives ace! of a party of 
French & Indians come over the Lake to ravage some 
of the English plantations, but haueing (as you will see) 
noe acc fc of it in my letters from Coll: Schuyler &c, nor 
noe intimation of such intelligence from yourselves, I 
haue stopt the farther report of it till I heare from yo r 
selves concerning it. I haue onely to ad my hearty salu- 
tations & wish you all a happy new yeare, and am 
Yo r affectionate serv^ 

J: Winthrop. 

I haue wrot to M r Mix to preach the Election Sermon ; 
if you concur therein I desire you to let him know it. 

1706-7.] WILLIAM WHITING. 365 

For the Hono hle John Winthrop JZsq% Gouerner fyc. 

Hartford, Jan r y 27? 17° T 8 - 
S* 3 — My last to your Honour of the 21 s * instant, w*! 1 
the inclosed from Albany by Mf Stedman, hope came safe 
to your hands, wherein I signified to you my intentions 
to visset our western frontiers ; w c ? accordingly I did and 
return'd on the 25*! 1 at night. I found the people at 
Woodbury and Waterbury under great apprehentions of 
approaching danger, which was increased by the intelli- 
gence that came from Albany. The inhabitants of Water- 
bury, who are a part of my charge, are much possess'd 
w*! 1 fear w ! 1 proceeds from these reasons : amongst others, 
their being so remote, their poverty, not able to provide 
garrisons that are necessary for their defence, nor to sub- 
sist them selves the year about, so greatly are they im- 
poverisht by the floods. But for your better information, 
haue herew*! 1 sent the le r rec'd from them the day before 
I went. If some speedy releife be not afforded, they will 
break up and desert the place ; to prevent w c . h they make 
these proposalls : viz* that garrisons should be erected, a 
good scout to be maintained, and 16 or 18 soldiers be 
sent them w*? all speed, all at the country charge ; and 
the number of men to be augmented as need shall re- 
quire. They are impatiently waiting Maj? Johnsons re- 
turne from Albany, in hopes of hearing some good newes 
by him, who is gone to inquire into the affair relateing 
to the Woantenuck Indians ; w c ? busines will want your 
Honours direction. They are most certainly a uery poor 
and discourag'd people and stand in need of present sup- 
port. I have not heard any thing from Symsbury yet, 
but expect their complaints euery day ; their haszard is 
doubtless as great as that of Waterbury in case the 
enemy should bend their course this way. Sf, I send 
Leiu* Steel to waite upon your Honour herew* (who 

366 THE WINTHROP PAPERS. [1706-7. 

W* Cap* Wolcott bore me company to Woodbury), that 
I might not omitt any part of my duty and the quieting 
the people that think themselues in danger. All w c . h is 
most humbly submitted to your great wisdom, depending 
(under God) upon your conduct and direction in all the 
affaires under my management for the safety and defence 
of her Maj tys subjects in this county. I have inclosed 
sent you a coppy of the intelligence sent to Col. Partridge 
from Albany, a coppie whereof was sent by him to Mf 
Stanly, w ch I haue obtaind for the reson there incerted. S r , 
I shall not give you further trouble at present, but sub- 
scribe my selfe w*? all submission, in all deep regards, S r , 
Your Honours most obedient servant, 

Will: Whiting. 


New London, Jan? 29 f . h 170$ . 

Major Whitting, — Liev* Steele delivered me yo r let- 
ter last night and I conclude my letter by Stedman to 
the gentlemen of the Council & to the Comitte of War is 
with them before now. I haue therein given directions 
for such assistance to our frontire townes as the gentle- 
men of the Council and Comitte of War, whereof you are 
a member, shall judg needfull, vpon their perusall of my 
letters from Albany, w c !* are enclosed in my letter. I am 
sorry Major Johnson is gon to Albany vpon ace* of the 
late suspition of the Owyantinock & Potatuck Indians, 
unles it be by the imediate direction of G: Treat and the 
gentlemen of the Council westward. It is a nice mat- 
ter, and hazardous of reflection vpon us if not well repre- 
sented, and tis very much I should not be acquainted 
with it. The unusuall season of the yeare seemes in my 
opinion impossible for the enemy to make a Christmas 
march, as the late advice does intimate was intended ; 
however, tis necessary to send back help to our frontire 

1706-7.] JOSEPH DUDLEY. 367 

townes, as shall be thought needfull vpon the advice wee 
haue received. Waterbury, nor noe other towne, must 
be deserted, and all motions tending to it must be pre- 
vented. I desire you to comunicate this letter to the 
gentlemen of the Council and Comitee of War. I can- 
not at this distance better serve the present exigencyes 
than to recomend them to their espetiall care, being neere 
the severall townes w c . h are most exposed. I thank you 
for your visit to our frontire townes, w ! 1 was in good tyme 
to quiet their feares, and I hope when the ace* in my let- 
ters from Albany shall be transmitted to them, they will 
sit easy, every one under his fig tree. Pray giue my 
service to the gentlemen and accept my hearty saluta- 
tions to yo? self. I am 

Yof affectionate freind, J: Winthrop. 

I will indevour to be at Hartford the begining of the 
next week, if I am able and the weather permit.* 


To the Honorable John Winthrop Esq r . Governour of her Majesty's 
Colony of Connecticut, New-London. 

Roxb. 10. Febr. 1706 [-7]. 

S?, — By a flag of truce from Port Royal I am advised 
of the arrivall of a new Governour there, M*. Supercass, 
with order to settle new fortification & strengthen him- 
self ; which is greatly to the annoyance of our naviga- 
tion, upon which they must live unless wee remove them, 
and there seems a great inclination to it in the trading 
part in these provinces. I am of opinion that a thousand 
men, with two or three ships of strength, besides trans- 

* Major Whiting acknowledged this letter in one of the following day, informing the 
Governor that further action had been postponed to await his arrival, and adding that the 
Committee of War had not been appointed by the General Assembly, "neither is there any 
power but what is lodg'd w** 1 your Hon' and Councill." — Eds. 


ports, may drive all the country into their fort, and in a 
short time starve them out. I am loath to speak of such 
a thing unless I were able to go thro' with it. I desire 
your advice upon the matter, and must expect a number 
of men from your Goverment to joyn with the forces of 
these Provinces. If we go, it must be early in April.* The 
benefit will be equall to us all, and if you can think it 
advisable, I desire to hear from you as soon as may be. 
I believe Road Island will come in. I would not have the 
matter made publick, least we do not proceed, or the enemy 
be advised, which would both be inconvenient. We are 
alarmed on every side in expectation of a descent from 
Quebeck. I hope your Hartford people will be ready to 
assist the upper towns on the river. I am S? your very 
humble servant, J. Dudley. 

You will pardon this ; I write by a clerck, being not 


N: London, Feb. 18. 170f 

Gentlemen, — Yo r post delivered me yo r letter of y 9 
16 th the same night at 10 of the clock, with those from 
Coll : Partridg & Major Whiting directed to yo r selves, as 
allsoe the copyes of Gov. Dudley & Cap* Belchers letters 
to Coll : Partridg ; w cb I have considered, and in regard 
the alarme continues and that the people of Hampshire 
are under apprehensions that the enemy may infest those 
townes, I am willing Major Whiting with our forces under 
his comand be continued in that county untill the third 
day of March next. In w cb tyme the enemy (if there be 
any) will be retired or disperst, as it's impossible to con- 
tinue in such a body as is reported. But if there be 

* The proposed expedition sailed in May, but it proved a total failure. See later 
letters in this volume, and Narrative and Critical History of America, V. 408. — Eds. 

1706-7.] FITZ-JOHN WLNTHROP. 369 

farther and reall discovery of the enemyes advance into 
those parts, then I leave it with you to continue our 
forces there some tyme longer, giveing me ace 1 of the 
necessity of it. I have not yet seene to my satisfaction, 
in any of the papers transmitted to me, a certaine ace* of 
a discovery of the enemy, their number and rendezvous. 
If the discovery be made by the squaw taken by Coll : 
Hilton, her ace 4 of Monsieur Ramsy on this side the lake 
with a 1000 men does not in my opinion amount to soe 
much as will excuse the trouble & hurry it has occationed 
to us. But probably by this tyme you have a more per- 
ticuler & perfect acc fc of this matter, & I doe recommend 
to you to direct our forces as shall appeare to you most 
conducive of the publick safety. I have wrot to Major 
Whiting, as you will se correspondant with this, w c . h is a 
present direction to him. I am very much contented 
with his expeditious march to those townes, w ! 1 did soe 
tymely succour and comfort their feares upon this last 
alarme. With my hearty salutations to yo r selves, I am 
Yo r affec : serv fc , J : W. 

Note. — The letters enclosed were a copy of one from Governor Dudley to 
Colonel Partridge of February 13, and one from Major Whiting to the Com- 
mittee of War, of February 15. Governor Dudley wrote : — 

" This day Col. Hilton is returned from Casco & Kennebeck, with 
all his men in good health & a weary march, but were not able to get 
to Norigeewalk for want of ice in that watery country. In their return 
in a circle, as I had ordered y m , they fell upon seven of the enemy, 
three men, two woemen & two children (one of y m Cap* Sam, a con- 
siderable rogue) & have destroyed them all except the children, w ch 
they brought home, & I am reinforceing them to a new qu r of the 
enemy b} 7 water into Quenebeck River. Two days since I marched 
160 men from Groaton for Manadnuck, where it is presumed b} T my 
scout the enemy is. One of the squas taken by Col Hilton enforms 
that Mountseer Ramzay is on this side the lake with a bod} 7 of men, 
Bombazeene & Estcomebuitt w ,h him.* Manadnuck is a rendevouze 
for some of them. I believe certainety there is a p tie at Coeassett, & 

* De Rameza) T was Lieutenant-Governor of Montreal. Bombazeene and Estcomebuitt 
were noted Indians. See Williamson's History of Maine, II. 69. — Eds. 


370 THE WINTHROP PAPERS. [1706-7. 

these must needs pass home that way. I am of opinnion that if 200 
men marched to Coassett, the}' would certainely finde a p tie there & 
these returneing. I desire you to move the officers from Coneticot 
that the}' will march thither, & you must joyne to them a proper numb r 
of } T o r men. The}' cannot expect much from me." 

Major Whiting wrote : — 

" Upon the receipt of Gov r Dudley's letter, Coll: Partridge came 
iinediately hither and cal'd a Councill of Warr, the officers or commit- 
tee of militia being present, as also those belonging to your Gouerm* 
The question was put whether a march to Coasset could be undertaken 
at this season. It was resolv'd on the negatiue : that it was imprac- 
ticable. Whereupon the gentlemen of this county thought it necessary 
that aplication be forthwith made to your selves for the continuance 
of the forces already here, and that the numbers should be augmented, 
since Cap* Belcher in his le r giues acco! of 1000 of the enem}' ; w ch mo- 
tion I leave to them selves. We inform'd them that the forces now 
rais'd were volunteers, who came up to their releife on promise they 
should not be detain'd above a fortnight at most ; that it would prove 
a matter of ill consequence to disappoint their just expectations, altho 
it is probable a considerable number would be content to stay, if need 
requir'd. As for my selfe, mj^ busines suffers in my absence ; should 
be ver}* glad to returne, and doubtless so would all your officers ; yet 
we are none of us willing to quit our post w l . h dishonour, to retreat upon 
the approach of a numerous enemy, but will most cheerfully stand 
their fire for the defence of our country." 


New London, Feb: 25 th 170$. 

S*, — I was forst to omit my returne by the last post 
to your letter of the 10 fc . h instant, being much indisposed 
after my returne from Hartford, where I stayde a few 
dayes to visit our frontires. Your Exc 11 ? 8 proposall to re- 
duce Port Roy all is a matter of great consideration, as it 
may many wayes advance her Majestye's intrest, and it 
has not formerly been thought a difficult enterprise to 
attack it, nor now much stronger to indure a shock. 
Among many wayes that may be proposed to surprise 
them, that methode you mention to drive the country 

1706-7.] FITZ-JOHN WINTHROP. 371 

into their fort may not be difficult, and tis probable that 
vpon their discovery of our ships they will readely of 
themselves repaire to it, and may there be surprised, if 
they doe not foresee the mischeif and not provide against 
it. The neerenes of their situation to us gives them ad- 
vantage to intrude vpon her Majestye's right in these 
parts and does greatly obstruct our trade and navigation ; 
therefore fit to be reduced. Their settlement has such 
naturall advantages to strengthen itself that a little lon- 
ger tyme will make it a Dunkirk to this country, and 
the French seeme to project it already by sending a new 
Governor with great stores to fortify and strengthen 
himself, and will doe all that is possible to defend it 
against us ; but that is but a strawe and will not affright 
us. Yet the temper of our people (tho very stout) is gen- 
erally very thoughtfull and cautious; and tis v possible 
some may insinuate that tho' wee should succede in the 
designe, yet if vpon the conclusion of a peace (w c . h one 
would think not far off) it should be restored to them, 
the honf of our succes will soone be forgotten, and wee 
should much resent that we haue lavisht our blood and 
treasure. And tis not unlikely but others will consider 
that at this tyme, when wee are every day alarmed and 
expect considerable partyes of the enemy from Canada 
to infest our frontires, it may be hazardous to draw out 
of the country soe many choice men as you mention 
will be proper to carry on the designe. But your Exc 1 ! 7 
(beside your own opinion) has round about you the best 
advice that can be, and none can be added to it. Yo r 
Exc Uy desiring the designe may be strict, I haue there- 
fore returned it to you, and tis now noewhere but in your 
owne breast, untill you think fit to comunicate to the 
Council & Gen 11 Assembly, who you know haue the power 
to conclude all affaires of this moment. I am sorry for 
your indisposition, w c . h I hope is well over. I am S r , 

Yo? very humble serv*, J : W. 

372, THE WINTHROP PAPERS. [1706-7. 


For the Honourable John Winthrop JEsq r , Governour of her Majesty s 
Colony of Connecticutt, New-London. 

Boston, March 24'. h 170f 
S*, — The General Assembly of this Province, now sit- 
ting, have earnestly moved me to make an expedition 
against l'Accadie & Nova Scotia, and at y e same time 
addrest me that I will move her Ma'? 8 Governm' under 
your command that you will supply a just and reasonable 
p fc of the forces & expences of that expedition. I am 
thereupon determined to rayse one thous d men, w th ships 
of force to cover them, and a number of transports for 
their accommodation, w'J 1 all things necessary for ten 
weeks subsistance and stay in those parts ; to which I 
may add, as occasion & the view of service may de- 
mand. I do therefore desire that you will please to joyne 
your forces w fc . h those of this Province, the service & benefit 
being equal, because it is certain that the advantage by 
the removal of that French settlement there will be of 
equal advantage to your Governments as to her Ma*? 8 
subjects of these Provinces. The charge and support of 
the war to every body's observation is lying upon this 
Province, and I hope those concerned in the Governm* of 
yo r Colony will freely come into this expedition. The 
Government of Rhode Island have reposed that trust in 
their Govern r to equip eighty men w^ a transport vessel, 
and all things necessary. That Government cannot be 
counted a third part of Connecticot, and it is in every 
body's knowledge that Connecticot was always above half 
in proportion to y e Massachusetts. I hope to be ready to 
sayle by the middle of April, and do with all earnestness 
move yo r consideration of y e affair, and desire your 
speedy answer thereupon. I am S r , 

Yo r very humble servant, 

J. Dudley. 



Boston, 26 March 1707. 

S*, — This express humbly offers you a letter to his 
Excelency my Lord Cornbury, referring to the intended 
expedition eastward, which I desire you will imediately 
express to York. I hope you have my letters by the 
post & that you will think it reasonable to give your 
assistance therein. I am S r , 

Your very humble servant, J. Dudley. 


New-London, March 27*? 1707. 
S R , — The post delivered me yo r letter last night past 
twelve, in his way to Say Brook, and I expect his returne 
presently and can now make noe direct answere to it. 
Your Gen 1 ! Assembly haue taken tyme to consider and 
provide for the designe, and I understand the Rhode 
Islanders have been in preparation for it before your 
former came to my hands, and yo r Exc ll ? y obligeing 
me to keepe it privet, I had noe reason to make any 
step in that designe, but haue now appointed the Gen! 1 
Assembly to meet me at Hartford on Wedensday the 2* 
of Aprill and will advise with them upon the heades of 
your letter, w c . h shall be hastned to you. If the Assembly 
should agree to assist the designe with men, they must 
goe in transport vessells from Boston, here being none fit 
for the designe, and I presume her Majestye's stores of 
amunition will be in comon for all. The late alarme 
made by your scout (frighted with Jack in the Lanthorne) 
put us to a great deale of trouble and 400 lb , and he de- 
serves to be cashered and punished. It has soe much 
disobliged our soldiers, that it will be difficult to get them 
into a good disposition to y r service. I will doe all that 


I can for the publick welfare in this or otherwise, and 
am, S r , 

Yo r very humble serv 4 , J: Winthrop. 

Gov r Dudley. 


For her Majesty's Service, To the Honorable John Winthrop Esq r , Gover- 
nour of her Majesty's Colony of Connecticut, Hartford. 

Boston, 31 March, 1707. 

S?, — I have your letter of the twenty seventh instant, 
and you will not complain that I wrot not possitively to 
you before I did, when I shall tell you my letter was 
dated the same day the Generall Assembly of this Prov- 
ince graunted the money necessary for the expedition ; 
till when I could say nothing to my self & less to my 
neighbours, which was the only reason I only askt your 
own private opinion in my first letter. I shall not stand 
upon your want of transports, but can supply them here ; 
but am in great want of powder & am constrayned to 
take what merchants powder is in town, tho' at a dear 
rate. You will please to send your men w T ith what you 
can k I will supply what is possible. I have given the 
superiour comand to Colonel March, a very good officer, 
& so well esteemed that I hope to impress no man into 
the service. I shall make two regiments, the one com- 
anded by Collonel Winthrop Hilton, your kinsman as well 
as my own, the other by Colonel Wainwright; and it is 
too much for mee to say unless you allow mee the free- 
dom, y t if you please to send mee Major Whiting w r ith a 
good party, I will distinguish him as his character de- 
serves, but that must be as you please. Your officers & 
soldiers shall be honorably treated, and I doubt not they 
will deserve it. I hope to have the Queen's ship, the 
Province galley & a number of transports, & one thousand 

1707.] JOSEPH DUDLEY. 375 

men, at Nantasket on Thirsday the seventeenth of April, 
ready to sayle with the first wind. I shall direct what I 
hope will be in their power, to leave no house standing in 
the French part, to destroy their stock & cut their banks, 
which will leave them no tillage ; but the attack of the 
fort I shall leave to a Council of War upon the place, not 
doubting of their courage to do what is in their power ; & 
I hope every body will be contented with the good provi- 
dence of God, as I resolve to be. I pray to hear from 
you as soon as may be, & am S% 

Your very humble servant, J. Dudley. 

You will allow mee to give my service to the gentlemen 
of her Majestyes Council & Assembly with you. 


Roxbury, April 1. 1707. 

S?, — M r Woodward is returned with your letter since 
the letter on the other side was written. I think it wants 
no answer but the method of your men coming to Nan- 
tasket our rendevous, I haveing already acquainted you 
that I will provide transports from hence & other articles. 
I hope what I have written will be to your satisfaction. 
There is no possibility of your men comeing by water ; 
round the Cape is so farr & vncertayn that all may be 
lost in our long attendance. There is no way left but by 
land for your vpper men ; any of the sea force may come, 
if they please, by water to Road Hand, if the w r ind serve. 
Those that come by land may ease themselves on horse 
back a day or two's journey & a few men will drive home- 
wards a great number of horses. But I must leave that 
to your own resolve at last. I am S r ., 

Your very humble serv*, J. Dudley. 

If you advise of your men coming, I shall wayt two 
days beyond the seventeenth abovesaid. 



Hartford, Aprill 4* h 1707. 

S B , — I have yo r Exc 11 ? 8 letter of the I s * instant, by your 
expres, as I am setting out from hence to New London. 
The General Assembly being dismist last night, they have 
desired me to signify to yo r Exc 1 ! 7 that, considering their 
present circumstances, they are not able to assist in the 
designe, and they think they should have been of council 
to consult and agree the methods of prosecuting the under- 
takeing. And farther, that the shortnes of tyme makes 
it impossible to raise a fitting number of men and march 
them to Boston by the tyme you mention. Everybody 
wishes well to the designe and would be glad to share 
in the trouble and danger, as well as the honour, of the 
expedition ; & I wish I could any way contribute to it. 
I am, Sf, 

Yo r very humble serv* J : Winthrop. 


London, Apl 1 7 th 1707. 
Hon r . d S?, — Having by this packet written pretty largly 
to your self & Councill & Assembly, I still have some time 
to answer your particular letter and to desire you to ex- 
cuse me to Mf Saltinstall that I did not write to him p this 
pacquet. I alsoe desire you to beleive that it was no neg- 
lect that I did not send you the order of Councill about 
dismissing of the Appeal, because I did hope to have got it 
altered, and that instead of staying to have dismissed the 
Appeal as it now stands; and I would have had the judg- 
m* in your Court affirmed, which cannot be don yet for a 
reason I do not think fit to write, unless sent you by a per- 
ticuler hand. You may be sattisfied I have omitted noe 
expence nor labor. How many great people I have treated, 
& presents too, for your service ! When I have perfected 

1707.] SIR HENRY ASHURST. 377 

what I hope to do, I shall be mention* with respect by 
you when I am gon. You did your buisness as Governor 
to admiration, and your proceedings I think verry wise ; 
but the more firme you are to the intrest of your coun- 
try, the more you will be vallued here, for the Queen and 
the people have but one intrest, the good of both. I have 
drawn but one hundred pound for all the great expence 
I have been at, feeing Councill, in pressents, in memorials 
&c, being greived att your great oppression as to the charge 
of the warr. There is one Wharton,* a pretended lawyer, 
borne in your country, that is their agent, and so mali- 
tious as to incurrage any body to bring in appeals against 
your Government & Massachusetts ; for M r Dud : would 
have that Charter as well as Conecticutt taken away. He 
subpoena* me before the Lords, and wee had a hearing 
upon the petition of Palmes that you had refused, not- 
withstanding the order of Councill, to grant him letters 
of administration to his wife. I could not defend you 
in it ; so there is new order for you to grant him letters 
of administ r in your Colony, and in the Government of 
Rhoad Island and the Massachusetts. He pretends he hath 
right to land in al these countrys, which I could not op- 
pose ; not that the Lords have granted any thing but his 
right, — that cannot be denyed any body. I am pleasd 
that God hath raised me up & continued me to be so vse- 
full to you. I doe hope to send you some more comfort- 
able news before these ships goe. I am labouring night 
and day to doe it. I hope you beleive I shall be pleased 
with any opportunity to serve you in a perticuler manner, 
whose person and famely I so much esteeme. Remember 
me w th much respect to mine & all your country freinds, 
also to M r Noyse. I shall take perticuler care of his affares, 
tho it is belowe me ; yet for a good man I will not refuse. 
Your faithfull freind, Hen. Ashhurst. 

* Evidently the person of that name who, in 1702, had offered his services to Wil- 
liam Penn and Fitz-John Winthrop, in defence of charter governments. See ante, pp. 
288, 289. —Eds. 





London, Aprill 24. 1707. 

Gentlemen, — I have much to say to you, tho not in 
this letter. My wife hath been four months sick of a dis- 
temper none of our learned phisitians could reach. I have 
by M r Clark and other shipps severall letters instructing 
in your service, which I shall faithfully tell you hath been 
this four months my onely buissness. Many a mile I have 
rode to this great man and to the other, to remove the 
cause of your great malady. When that is don, the effect 
will then cease, I mean the two hammonds # of each side 
of you. But since I have the great roll of the great charge 
you have been exposed to by Mr Dudly, which I shall and 
have made good use of in your service, I grudg to put 
you to any charge ; so that I have drawn upon you but 
my bare hundred pound this year, for which you pay one 
hundred forty seven in New England. I shall be out of 
pokitt more this year, and give you all my paines and 
labour. Unless it be for some verry great occation, I will 
not draw above fifty pound more upon you this year. I 
thank you for the payment of my bills ; it was but just 
you should do so. I would fain leave you quiet and easey, 
with little occation for any agent from New England and 
the Masachusets ; your sister Collony safe too. The long 
letter of the third of October last is safe before me, which 
is written with such a spirrit and with so much prudence. 
I am glad the country is blessed with such a Governour. 
While you keep within the bounds of your Charter, and 
the laws of your country not repugnant to the court in- 
trest, you are safe ; and the way to be vallued here is to 
keep in with great duty to the Queen and humbly repre- 
sent what is your right by charter. When once you be- 
tray your civill intrest by any base complyance, you act 

* Probably a mistake of the amanuensis; but the reference to Cornbury and Dudley is 
sufficiently obvious. — Eds. 

1707.] SIR HENRY ASHURST. 379 

contrary to your oaths & you are unfaithfull to your trust ; 
for you that are in the Government are but trustees for 
your superiours. Our great Queen desires we should be 
all safe and happie, and if any ill intruder, for any un- 
worthy end, representeth you ill, then I will be heard 
before you have the least injury don you. I am glad I 
was so usefull in a matter where I had such vast oposi- 
tion and that you accept my service. I hope you will 
make that matter yet more cleare, the contrivance of 
Dudly and his accomplices here about the Moheg Indians. 
I have been five months labouring to stop a new Comition 
to my Lord Cornbury, and presented severall memorials 
and petitions. Tho the Comition hath passed the Privey 
Scale, it is at present stop'd. I hope you will hear noe 
more of it, tho yo r not considering the Cannanitish land 
and your unwary compliments to your Indian prince, hath 
given occation to your desining adversary against you, 
and they tell me upon a supposition an independant prince 
is wronged (and which way had he got any right unless 
the Governour espoused him ?) He was here espoused 
by one M r Blathwaite, a frend of M r Dudly's, now left out 
of the Comition of Trade, whom the Government was in 
thought to provide in honour to support his title. It was 
hard woork 1 had to do what I did. I have inclosed the 
reasons I offered to those lords I had intrest in, against 
the second Comition. I hope my writing will be easier 
than it hath been. The coppies of Dudly's letters are alsoe 
by us, to show the wickedness of the man to complaine to 
the Queen & Councill, and the same day thank you! He 
gott greatly by the vast charge you have been forced to, 
for he hath money of New Hampshire to command your 
forces, and to save, marched those of the Massachusetts, as 
I am informed. You need not trouble your selves about 
the claime of Duke Hambleton. He is farr from sharing 
in any such affaire. It is not Lord Arran of Scotland 
(which is the title of Duke Hambleton's eldest son) ; my L d 


Cornbury his lady was related to the Irish Earle of Arran, 
who married Cornburys wife sister and died without chil- 
dren, who was second son to the Duke of Ormond. Dudly 
writes to the Lords of the Trade an abstract that you are 
discontented that the company of the Mohegan Indians 
are listed in the Queens service under him. I did actu- 
ally watch all opportunitys I can to serve you. The 
Quakers have presented another memoriall against your 
laws, set on by Dudly on your side, and by one 
Wharton, a wicked agent here. Yet, for all the enemies 
in the country, I did put in my answer, which I have 
here inclosed. Alsoe, M r Palms, by Wharton, hath sum- 
moned me to a hearing before the Lords of the Councill 
to show cause why the Government of Connecticut, not- 
withstanding the late order of Councill, refused to admit 
him administrat r to his wife, which you must by no means, 
as I tould you in my last gen r11 letter, refuse him it, be- 
ing nothing but justise he should have it. There is a 
second order to admitt the Governour, Maj. Gen 1 ! John 
Winthrop, as well approved of att court by those that doe 
love the Queen and her Government, & as a person suffi- 
tient for the place and an honour to the Government. I 
pray send me a body of your laws, & if any large or per- 
ticuler, send me some reasons for the making of them, 
that I may answer any objection to them. But let me 
once more give you this caution, that if direction be 
given you from court (except in the case of appeals con- 
trary to the grant of your charter, for the Lords are not 
supposed allwaies to keep in mind the priviledges of your 
charter), I will not be your agent if you doe not humbley 
represent by me (and in such orders as are not repug- 
nant to your charter) your willingness to yeild all obe- 
dience ; which will be securitie of your being and your 
prosperitye. We have so gratious a Queen that desires 
to make use of noe prerogative but for the good of the 
people. What ever you send to the Councill of Trade, 

1707.] SIR HENRY ASHURST. 381 

send it open to me. In my next I hope to send you 
some bright news, which may possibly cost you som- 
thing. I am, with all respects, my honour'd masters, 
Your faithfull and affect 6 serv' 

Hen. Ashhurst. 

Note. — This is the last communication from Sir Henry Ashurst which 
has been found among Fitz-John Winthrop's papers; but numerous letters 
from him to Wait Winthrop will be printed among the selections from the 
latter's correspondence. Sir Henry's epistolary style is marked by a good 
deal of that garrulous egotism which sometimes accompanies old age, but he 
had undoubted reason to be proud of the inestimable services he was able to 
render to the popular party in New England. Two copies of Memorials rela- 
tive to Quakers, enclosed in the foregoing letter, together with a statement of 
reasons against granting a second Commission on the Mohegan claims, are 
as follows: — 

To the Right Honourable the Lords Commissi of Trade and Plantations, 
the Humble Memorial of Sir Henry Ashhurst, Baronet. 

May it please your Lordships, — -I do with all due respect ac- 
knowledg the favour of sending me a copie of the Quakers' petition 
against the laws of Conecticut and requiring my answer as Agent for 
that Colony. I do observe in it that they are people that live here in 
town and have no consern there. I cannot understand what they 
petition for against an} 7 laws that are made there ; neither do they 
pretend that any of their perswation, that are inhabitants, are or have 
been injured by any of these laws. Besides, I do observe that it is 
onely scraps and parts of these laws that they object against, without 
mentioning what went before or what followed after, which may make 
them either good or bad ; and I observe to your Lordships that the} 7 
have power by their Charter to make such laws as are for the good of 
their country, and at this distance it is hard for us to guess the reasons 
of them. I am humbly of oppinion that in every country laws are 
made to meet with such vices and inclinations of people where they 
are made. So crimes that are abstractedly considered of less guilt 
themselves, may have greater punishment than greater crimes, respect 
being had to the common good of every country. I do humbly hope 
that your Lordships will find it agreeable to your justice not to take 
an} r stepps untill I can send a copia of it to the Colony of Conecticutt, 
to y e Governor & Councill there, and receive their answer ; it being 
no more than your Lordsh ps think resonable to do upon a single com- 
plaint against a Governor of any of her Majes* plantations. Then the 
matter will be ripe for your Lordshpp 8 judgment. 


Marginal note by Sir H. A. to F.-J. W. : Tempora mutantur since the 
Lords sent to the Quakers & blamed them for their petition ! This 
is D :'s doing. 

To the Right Hon hl . e the Lord Comm rs of Trade 8? Plantations, the Humble 
Memoriall of S r Henry Ashhurst, Bar 1 , Agent for y e Colony of Con- 
necticut in New England. 

In answer to a petition p r sented to y e Queen & Council bj a people 
called Quakers, complaining of an Act of the Assembly of that Colony 
against hereticks (transmited to him by your Lordships), he humbly 
pfsents to yo r Lordships that he is informed such an Act of the As- 
sembly was made thirty two years ago & intended chiefly for the 
suppressing of persons called Adamites & Ranters, & if y e same be 
now in force, it is looked vpon as an obsolete law ; nor do the peti- 
tioners so much as insinuate in their petition that an}' one of their 
friends have undergon any of y e penaltys of y e said law. And 
there are suffitient wittnesses in town that can testifie that y e Quakers 
live as peaceably in this Colony as in an} 7 other of her Majestys 
plantations ; that the established religion in this Colony is the same 
with y e Church of England in doctrine, & the inhabitants of y e 
country do not enjoy their religion by an act of tolleration (as y c 
petitioners falsly set forth), but by y e law of y e country made in her 
Maj ties royall predecessor's time, when they first became a Colony. 
And he cannot but take notice to yo r L (, ships on this occasion, that 
within this three or four years there has been more complaints against 
that poor Colony, without any crimes proved, than ever was since they 
were a Colony. That makes him beleive there are some persons dis- 
affected to her Maj"? 8 Government, that are endeavouring by all means 
to make them weary of their Charter Goverm*, under w c . h , by y e grace 
and favour of her Majestys royall predecessors, they haue enjoyed an 
uninterrupted peace & quiet for many years last past ; and would 
have done so to this day, had it not been for y e false representations 
of a Gov'nor sent into those parts since her Majesties happy accession 
to y c throne, & who (as I am informed) ordered y e printing of this 
Act at Boston, two years ago, on purpose that the Quakers here might 
joyne with his other engines set at worke with their loud clamours to 
prevaile with y e Gov r ment here to take away their Charter unheard, 
lint since we haue so gratious a Queen and so righteous a Gov'm', 
there is no reason to fear their success. These premises being con- 
sidered, he humbly hopes that you will finde it agreeable to yor Lord- 
ships justice to advise y e Queen not to make any determination in this 
matter untill this petition & a copy of this supposed Act be transmited 
to y c Colony, aud that you have their answer to the truth of matters 


of fact, whether there is a law or not in being, & the reason why it 
was made, & how it hath been executed. That he beleives y* Colony 
is so loyall, that whatever her Majesty and her Goverm 1 thinks fit to 
command them, consisting with their being & safety, they will readyly 
obey. And he humbly prays yo r Lordships will be pleased to transmit 
this memoriall to y e Queen and Council when you make yo r report. 
All w ch is submitted to yo r Lordships' great wisdom by 

Hen. Ashhurst. 

Reasons ag f a new Comm n , which tends to overthrow the Colony of Connec- 
ticut in favour of a pretended Indian prince: 

1. The possession hath been where it now is for above 30 yeares. 

2. The Indian " prince," who was a da} T -labourer, is only repre- 
sented by a poor taylor, espoused by the L d We} T mouth and M* 

3. The Comrn" already sent was without precident since the Revo- 
lution, and gave power to determine of men's inheritances without 
jury or oath ; and that to persons for the most part named by the said 
taylor & his patrons. 

4. This measure was wholly under the direccon of Coll : Dudlej-, 
and the Coram! 1 was most arbitrarily executed by him, and shipps 
forcibly deteined to speed over the judgm* ag! the country, before they 
should have an oppertunity to appeale to her Majestie in Councell. 

5. Coll : Dudle3 T and two others of the Comrn? had deeds by w c . h 
they claimed part of the lands in question ; and the Lord Cornbury 
hath declared himself an enem} T to the county. 

It is therefore humbly hoped that if this complaint be persued, noe 
Comm" shall goe to determine, but only to examine; reserving the 
determinacon to the Government here, which hath disallowed the 
former proceedings. And that such Comrn" shall goe to persons who 
are of her Maj 11 ? 8 Councell of the Massachusetts Colony, and not to 
the Lord Cornbur}^ and men with such outlandish names as those who 
constitute the greatest part of the Councell of New Yorke, under the 
conduct and influence of the said Lord Cornburj'. 


[May, 1707?] 

Gentlemen, — I have not received any perticuler com- 
andes from her Majesty, by the ships lately arrived from 


England, respecting any complaints against this Govern- 
ment soe much expected and threatened by your enemyes. 
But I have received letters from your Agent of very great 
moment ; and I am able to give you an extraordinary in- 
stance of her Majestyes justice in yo r behalf, her grace 
and favour to protect you against your enemyes. That 
great and notorious designe formed against you to destroy 
your libertyes and the welfare of the Government, under 
a specious pretence of your oppressing the Indians, has 
been heard before the Queen in Council and her Majesty 
in her great wisdome has been pleased to reserve and set 
it aside ; and it appeares that the designe of yo r enemyes 
has turned to yo r advantage. I must allsoe informe you 
that those articles exhibited against you the last yeare 
by the enemyes of your country, haue not yet been 
heard ; and your Agent doubts not to make appeare to 
her Majesty, when cal'd thereunto, that those complaints 
are alltogether fallse and groundles. In this posture is 
your intrest at present, and I see noething more hazard- 
ous of your safety then the evil designes of some in the 
Government ; and it will be the honf and justice of this 
Assembly to finde them out and observe them as betray- 
ers of their country. 1 must farther acquaint you that I 
have received a bill of exchange from your Agent, of two 
hundred & seventy poundes New English mony, payable 
to M r Peter Sergeant at Boston, at 4 monthes after sight ; 
w c . h I have accepted in yo r behalf, and is for the sum of 
one hundred and eighty poundes sterling, taken up to de- 
fend you against your enemyes. Thus you see yo r ad- 
versaryes make many devices to enslave and bring trouble 
& charge upon you ; and indeed they have been very 
succesfull in such mischief, and perticulerly in this last 
designe they haue occasioned a very great charge upon 
you ; but when you heare that monstrous Bill w ch that 
jumbling meeting at Stonington haue drawne up against 
you and laid before her Majesty for confirmation, you will 


confes that your Agent's expence was well laid out, that 
has defended you against those extrauigant perticulers, 
w c . h amount to the sum of £573 : 12:8; and twas designed 
to be drawne out of yo r . purse, but Gods prouidence is 
still on yo r side and you are yet preserved. I must far- 
ther observe to you yo r duty to appoint a day of solemn 
thankesgiving to Allmighty God, to be observ? through- 
out this Government, for her Majestyes glorious victo- 
ryes obtayned over her enemyes, in conjunction with 
her allyes. And, last of all, I must (as I haue allwayes) 
put you in minde of the blessings you enjoy by yo T . Char- 
ter, and pres you to doe your outmost to preserve them, 
that posterity may bless your memory. 


N: L: May 29 th 1707. 

Deare Brother, — I have yo r letter by y e post & soe 
perceiv'd you are got home ; & soe did I last Fryday, but 
I am now very sick, & weary of my life such as it is.* I 
am not able to write what is done, or not done, at Hart- 
ford. I never found them in a worse temper. There is 
noe conclusion about Plainfield, nor a word sent to Eng- 
land. I cannot help it, & whether Plainfield will pay or 
not I cannot tell. Anthony brought twenty pounds just 
before I went to Hartford, but concluding you were gon, 
it was not sent ; out of it I took five pounds, soe you will 
receive but fifteene. He promises more sped ely ; t 1 is is 
upon this yeare's ace*, there is yet behinde a good deal 
upon y e old rent. I understand Havens has about twenty 
pounds sent from York; it is in M r Christopher's hand, 
soe that cannot be sent till I speake with him, w ch possi- 

* He was suffering from a sharp attack of fever and ague, of which, in another letter to 
his brother a few days later, he says: " I am still very weak, & if my constant dyet-drink 
of miserable small beere & souer syderdoes not recover, elce I think twill kill me." — Eds. 



bly may be before y e next post, and I believe for y e future 
they will pay in tyme. A farther ace* of what was done 
at Court (if I am alive & well) may be sent by y e next. If 
you intend to drive y r old trade of sitting & thinking, you 
will finde holes prikt in allmost every foot of land here. 
And soe good-by at present. 

Yo re J: W. 



To the Worshipfull Nathaniel Stanley Sf William Pitkin, Esq", Major 

John Chester, Sfc. 

N: Lond: June 3 d 1707. 

Gentlemen, — The last evening I had, by an express 
from Hartford, severall weighty considerations relating to 
Abigail Thomson, the prisoner in y r gaol, & her execu- 
tion. You very well know what my sentiments have 
been concerning that case, and will perceive by the en- 
closed papers that, in the opinion of others, severall of 
those particulars which I have mentioned to you for- 
merly, are of great weight. That w c . h is more especially 
proposed to mee at this time is that, in this difficult case, 
the Elders should be advised with, it being alledged that 
our law does direct to the judiciall law in the Scrip :, 
and that law prescribes such a method in doubtfull cases, 
vid. Deut : 17:8: &c. Upon the whole, I haue issued 
out a reprieve for her till the next Gen 11 Court. I can not 
be free, under my own dissatisfaction & scruples, to omitt 
the taking of the advice of the Elders, and therfore must 
recommend it to y r selves to consid r w fc . h the r d Elders in 
y r parts what method may be taken for the laying of the 
case before them, that we may have their advice upon it 
at the next sessions of the Gen 11 Assembly. What methods 
you think to be convenient for the same, I desire you to 
advise mee of, and nothing shall be wanting in me to for- 

1707.] JOHN WINTHROP. 387 

ward them. I find there are some that think the law 
touching reprieves, w c . h refers the case to the next Gen 11 
Court, does bring y e case thither in y e nature of a writt of 
errour ; and that therfore, so long as that law is in force, 
y e Gen 11 Court ought to affirm the sentence, if upon hearing 
they judge there is no such errour, and not say only they 
will not continue the reprieve (which is a matter not ques- 
tioned, or put to them). If, therfore, the Gen 11 Court 
have not expressly affirmed the sentence, (the difficulty 
about it being only in point of law, & not only by implica- 
tion,) it seems highly necessary that they should have a 
farther hearing of it, and that, by way of assistance, the 
advice of the rev d Elders, as is desired, should be attained.* 
I have been very ill with a feaver this 3 or 4 dayes, & am 
now confined to my chamber, tho in hope to gett abroad 
againe. Pray don't forget to send me back, as soon as 
you can, M r Bulkeleys letter and opinion. I hope for yo r 
favourable construction of this matter, & am 

Yo r affectionate freind, J: W. 


For the Hon hl . e John Winthrop Esq% Gov r . of Conecticott, att N: London, 

[Boston, July, 1707.] 
S*, — Y c last Tuesday morning Coll : Appleton, Redknap 
y e engineer (whom o r Govf made coll : of the artillery for 
y 8 present expedition), Sutton, y e cap* of the company of 
marines on board y e frygate, and Holmes (formerly gun- 
ner at y e castle, but now cap* of one of the companies 

* At the session of the General Assembly in October, 1708, it was voted, "that the pris- 
oner Abigail Thomson condemned for murther and now in durance in the gaol at Hartford, 
be reprieved till the General Assembl}- in May next." At the session in May, 1707, it was 
voted, that the Assembly "do see no cause to grant her an}' further reprieve." A year 
later, in May, 1708, it was voted, "that seeing the case of the said prisoner is attended with 
great difficultie, the court will take further time to advise thereupon, until the General 
Assembly in October next." (See Connect. Col. Recs. 1706-1716, pp. 12, 28, 62.) The 
Records are silent as to any further action in the case. — Eds. 


of granadiers for Port Royall) arrived here, having left 
some of y e army & fleet at Casco Bay. They were sent 
by March to inform y e Gov r of their proceedings & actions 
at Port-Royal. They landed at Scarlet's wharfe, where 
they were met by severall women, who saluted y? after 
this manner: "Welcome, souldiers ! " & presented y m a 
great wooden sword, & said w^all " Fie, for shame ! pull 
off those iron spitts w ! 1 hang by yo r sides ; for wooden 
ones is all y e fashion now." At w c . h one of y e officers said, 
" Peace, sille woman, &c," w ch irritated y e female tribe so 
much y e more, y fc they cal'd out to one another as they 
past along the streets, "Is yo r piss-pot charg'd, neighbor? 
Is yo r piss-pot charg'd, neighbof? So-ho, souse y e cow- 
ards. Salute Port-Royal. Holloo, neighbo r , holloo " ; w* 
a drove of children & serv t8 w th wooden swords in their 
hands, following y™ w^ y e repeated salutations " Port- 
Royal ! Port-Royal ! " When they came to the draw- 
bridge, it was drawne up, where y e mob greeted y™ w*? 
many huzza's of " Port-Royal ! Port-Royal ! " and so fol- 
lowed y™ into ye Towne-house, \v th wooden daggers & still 
shouting " Port-Royal ! Port-Royal ! " I think by y e after- 
noon there was some hundreds of boys gathered together 
into a company, & y e people about had furnisht allmost all 
of y™ w^ wooden swords or old stocks of guns, a drum, & 
a red peice of cloth fastned upon a stick for an ensign, and 
in this equipage they marcht through y e towne, hollowing 
" Port-Roy all ! Port-Royall ! " and waited for y e returne of 
y e men from Roxberry, who were gon to give the Govf 
a visitt. By & by they return'd, & as soone as they 
enterd y e towne, y e regiment of boys w th their wooden 
armo r saluted them & follow'd them back again to y e 
Town-house shouting. Never did poor men receive so 
many affronts from an insulting rabble. As they began 
y' day, so they concluded it, w ,h marching round & round 
y e town, brandishing their wooden weapons. & w* a little 
drum they had got, went beating & shouting " Port-Royall ! 

1707.] JOHN WINTHROP. 389 

Port-Royall ! " They had better have been whipt than ever 
have come to towne to be so greeted. Y e Gov r is sending 
y e army & fleet back again, to do as much as they can. 
Gerrish's ship is taken up & made a man of war to joyn 
y e former, w 1 ? Cap* Ephraim Savage's company of volun- 
teers out of this towne & one company more out of the 
country, to make y e army invincible. Cambell is reviv'd, 
as you will find by y e enclosed. If I can, shall get & send 
by y e post a coppy of Commissary Jeffries's letter, w c . h he 
wrot from y e army to a friend of his in towne, relating 
y e managem' of y e Port-Royall affair. This, S r , is a sum- 
mary of all o r occurrences since y e last post. I had al- 
most forgot to say y* Coll : Hutchinson & Townsend are 
made Deputies from y e States to goe to Port-Royall to or- 
der & oversee y e officers, March &c. Yesterday, o r kins- 
man Maj5 Winthrop was ordered down to Nantasket to 
still & quiet a mutiny amongst y e forces. W n . he came 
there, he found above an hundred of y e best men, y* be- 
longed to Plymouth Collony, was discontented & dissatis- 
fied & had quitted their posts & was gon home ; y e rest 
being in y c same posture & motion, but were brought up 
to y e castle & confin'd. Here is a generall discontent & 
dissatisfaction thro y e whole Province. Y e officers & soul- 
diers seem unwilling to returne to y e enemies country, & 
it is thought y* some of y"? y* dissented may be hang'd. 
I have this to add, that y e Engineer told me (under y° 
rose) y e other day, y* they had done as much as their or- 
ders allow'd y™ I also heard one of y e French deputies 
from Port-Royall say they might have taken y e fort, had 
they but continued there. He said that they had but two 
mortars in y e fort, & one of y m split, & y* Supercass y e 
French Gov' & Battus said they had but so many days 
provision in y e fort & must surrender if they had stay'd ; 
& y* when the English first landed there was a breach in 
y c fort walls, w c . h they mended up whilst y e English was 
consulting whether they should goe home or no. M r 

390 TIIE WIN Til HOP PAPERS. [1707. 

Secretary D :, mention'd in y e enclosed, is y e Gov" son, 
who went Secretary of War. M r Whiting of Windham is 
in towne. Y e Gov r says he hears y* y e English in Conneo 
ticott has resign'd up their authority to Owaneco & y e rest 
of y e Indians, by suffering them to revenge y e murther of 
Mahomet; it is thought it will be improv'd against the 
Go verm* Here is a gentleman from Ireland, who was y e 
other day to see me, & tells me y* he is very well ac- 
quainted w*. h M r Jonathan Winthrop, at Affadowne, w th in 
three miles of Baltimore in Ireland ; y* he went to school 
w*. h him & that he is now Collector. If yo r Hon r has any 
mind to write, it is a good opportunity. 

Note. — This letter is not signed, and the last page may be missing. For 
further particulars of this Jonathan Winthrop, who descended from an uncle 
of Governor John Winthrop the elder, see a privately printed pamphlet, en- 
titled "Some account of the early generations of the Winthrop family in 
Ireland." In a subsequent letter (also undated) to Fitz-John from his 
nephew, the latter says : — 

" The Port-Royall fleets & army are now all come back, and a court 
martiall try's y c officers to-morrow. Coll : Hutchinson, Townsend & 
Leveret are laught at more than y e former blades. They are saluted 
as they pass along the streets w 1 * nothing but ' The three Port-Royall 
worthies ! The three champions ', &c ; but w l could be done when y* 
divell was entered into y? common souldiers yJ would not obey their 
officers ? This has been one of y e chiefe failures in y e whole expedi- 
tion, first & last." 

One of Fitz-John Winthrop's Boston friends also sent him a copy of the 
following letter from one of the officers of this unfortunate expedition, 
whose name is not given, but who was perhaps the u Commissary Jeffries " 
above alluded to : — 

Between Mount Desart & Montenicus, 
& at Sea, June l? 4 1707. 

My good Friend, — Sr I hope nry wife hath waited upon }'ou & let 
you know my reasons of being silent about o r foolish proceedings. For 
fear of pouseling, to deal short & plain w lh you (inter nos), o r army 
were basely landed at first. The Devil, I doubt not, was the adviser 
of it. Where y e blame lies, I know not. I told them enough of it, 
but I was rejected & no notice taken of w! I s d ; tho since they have 
all seen their error & repent of it too late. It was done without any 
consideration, for they landed 7 or 8 mile off in a base way that killed 

1707.J PORT-ROYAL. 391 

& harassed o r men, & made them lie out all night on both sides y e river 
in y e woods ; so that y e whole countrey being alarm'd, y e next tide of 
ebb brought y e ™ all into y e Fort. Whereas o r men might have been 
landed within 3 miles of y e Fort safer than where they did, & then 
could certainly have cut off y e coinunicacon & absolutely have pre- 
vented y e inhabitants joyning y e Fort ; & we might have had most of 
them & their goods, whereas we now have nothing. 

The next morning early was w? o r . men had their warm skirmish in 
gaining of y e hill & drove y e enemy ; for want of being well acquainted 
w th ye g roun( j j m i S sed of putting y e enemy all off, & being tired w^ 
their filthy march, were not able to pursue their advantage by follow- 
ing y e enemy into y e Fort, which y? might easily have done. The other 
great matter was great promises not performed, for o r sea-captains 
promised or Gen! that he sh^ not wait for y 6 ArtirT, but y* as soon as 
he had got y e ground he should have it. But y e Devil was still doing 
his work, & by too long hesitations & pretences none came, nor any 
had we, which did discourage o r men. Coll : Redknap being on shoar, 
mark'd out y e ground & had begun to make some provision to raise 
his batteries, &c, but placed as difficultly as possibly might. His 
fretfull, spightfull temper all y e time he was on shoar shewed his dis- 
like to undertake w* he was sent about. I have heard him urge many 
of his reasons : the chiefest, that it was not for him to venture all his 
credit & reputation w'? such undisciplin'd & ungovern'd men, & un- 
constant officers. At y e fatal Council of War he laid down his reasons 
& y e improbability of y e enterprise, & caused a vote to pass not to 
break ground, & so be gone about of business like fools, w c . h was y* 
w°. h was sent home. My-self & some others stormed & shewed of dis- 
like of their rash, inconsiderable proceedings, & shewed other ground 
where o T . artilT might be landed in y e face of o r enemy w^out danger, 
& annoy them fully as much as on y e point where we were. On this, 
another Council was held, & resolv'd to attack y e Fort ; & accordingly 
y e ground was viewed & approved of by all (except Redknap). M r 
Barnsdill, M r Boon & others came up to us & offer'd their service to 
play of artir? in case Redknap refused it. Cap! Wentworth offer'd 
boldly to land it, & so did most of of transport-masters, & all chear- 
fully agreed in y 8 resolucon. But towards night y e maggott bit some 
people, & a Council held, & all revoked w* y? had done & adheared 
to Redknap' s counsel of y e 31".' of May & gave it to y e Gen! under their 
hands. This, to the shame of Major Walton, Cap! Holmes & Froth- 
ingham, I write it ; tho they are all my very good friends, I can not 
forbear speaking y e truth. 

Now I must look back, & tell }*ou that that day y* y e fatal Councill 
was held, y* Fort fired many great guns & boms, several whereof 


lighted near o r . lodging, which caus'd Coll : Redknap & Mr Secretary 
Dudley to scour aboard y e ships faster than a good pace. However, 
y e rest of y e field-officers remained till y e next morning early, when 
they all removed their lodgins. Another noble passage, worthy all 
men's notice, I must tell you : that y e night before o!" contradictory 
Council, a resolut? was taken p r Coll : Hilton, Wanton & others, to 
burn y e grand magazeen, Chh : houses &c. near y e Fort, w c . h was done 
w th vigilance, care & prudence, boldly threatening y e enemy to his 
nose, fireing on their ramparts, into their houses in y e Fort. Never 
did men do more bravely nor bolder, & would have positively gone 
into y e Fort had our officers had y e skill & conduct to have beaded 
them & lead them on ; but y! spirit was wanting. I must boldly say 
o r men will fight, be they well carried on, for I am sure o r officers had 
more difficulty to bring them off than to cany them on. In fine, when 
all was concluded to set fire to all & be gone, you might have seen y e 
confusion of Babel, & ran off he y! could run fastest. In short, I 
think of Gen! was both fool & boy-ridden. Now I must break off ab- 
ruptly. A Council this day just now hath resolved to send a K[nave] 
& a F[ool], & o r brick & limekiln friend, to tell a base &, I doubt, a 
false story to save their own bacon. Take this for a conclusion, y* y e 
three parties now sent home are no ways qualified for publick good & 
will rather hinder than promote w* is design'd & intended for y e pub- 
lick good. You & yo r friends may bestir }'O r selves to prevent an un- 
seen, mischievous evil. Their designs are precarious, ambiguous, 
mentally selfish, & really, I doubt, devillish. 


Boston, H* July 1707. 
S% — Every body tells you my disaster, in the forces 
comeing from Port Royal without order. I have with 
great difficulty reinforced them and they are returning 
again to that ground, where I mean to have them lye 
fifty days at least ; in which time if I might see two or 
three hundred men from yo r Governm* it would very 
much strengthen and encourage the service, and prob- 
ably put that place out of any future power to disturb 
us, in which }'our people have equal benefit. The In- 
dians are everywhere upon me in small party's, and last 

1707.] JOSEPH DUDLEY. 393 

of all, six days past, march'd near one hundred in a body 
from the back of Piscataqr westward. They may with 
others fall on Hampshire very probably. I desire you 
will direct a good number to be ready for their defence, 
which is truly your own frontier. I aske pardon for 
writing in o r Secretary's hand ; I have a fit of the gout 
upon me, which prevents me with my own hand. Wish- 
ing you all health and satisfaction in your affayes, being 
alwaies S*, your very humble servant, 

J. Dudley. 

Govern r Winthrop. 


On her Ma ty . s Service, To the Honourable John Winthrop Esq*., Governor 
of her Ma 1 ?* Colony of Connecticut, New-London. 

Boston, 16 July 1707. 

S R , — This morning came to mee four Indian men & 
three boyes, & acquainted mee that they with their 
wives, and to the number of twenty six, were fled from 
your Government on account of the displeasure of their 
sachem Owaneco, being kindred to the Indian that had 
slayn Owaneco's son Mahomet ; but that they had no 
hand in his death, nor knew not where the murderer 
was. I told them I had no notice of any thing of that 
matter from the Governour of Connecticut, neither of the 
matter of fact nor any thing thereabouts ; but resolved 
imediately to give you notice thereof, as I do by this, 
that you may take what order you please therein. It is 
an affayr wherein I am not concerned, but shall do what 
relates to her Majestyes service therein, when I shall be 
advised by you. 

I am S? your very humble servant, 

J. Dudley. 




On her Ma tys Service, To the Honourable John Winthrop JEsq r , Gov" 
of her Ma tys Colony of Connecticot, New London. 

Boston, August 4 th 1707. 

S R , — The expedition eastward against the French & 
Indians, consisting of the forces of this Province & Rhode 
Island, is yet continued and reinforced ; and I hope to 
hear every hour that they are again possessed of the 
ground before the fort at Port Royal, though they are 
not so strong as they were in the first motion thither. 
And if their health and temper continue, I shall keep 
them there sometime, & have therefore thought fit once 
more to give you notice thereof, and that there is yet an 
opportunity for her Ma fc ! 8 good subjects of yo r Governm' 
to do their share in this so honourable a service. Two or 
three hundred men for a month or six weeks will be a 
very little addition to what charge Connecticot ought to be 
at in joynt w th this Govern m', as her Ma ty8 most gracious 
letters direct. I shall be glad to have that party that is 
abroad well reinforct & encouraged, and have no doubt 
but, with just assistance, by the favour of God we shall 
obtayn against the enemy what we desire. 

I am S r . yo T very humble serv? J. Dudley. 


New-London, Aug: 14 1 . 11 1707. 

S R , — Yo r Excellencye's letter of July 16 th was taken 
out of M r Cowell's window by a traveller comeing this 
way, & seeing it directed for her Maf service, brought it 
to me, & I might not otherwise have had this opportunety 
to thank you for it & the intimation therein respecting 
the Moheag Indians that have been with you. Owaneco 
the sachem gave me noe ace* of the murther of his son 
Mahumet, nor desired my assistance to persue the mur- 
therer ; nor did those Indians that fled into your Govern- 


ment apply themselves to me for shelter from that wild 
beast of the forrest. Yo r Exc 11 ? 7 knowes very well the 
Indians haue a barbarous custome, and take upon them 
to revenge the blood of their kindred, even upon the far- 
thest relations of the murtherer; and tis possible some 
brutish sullen fit may lead Owaneco to doe such a bloody 
action, and it may not be in my power to prevent it. It 
may therefore be best that those Indians doe not presently 
returne, but imploy themselves thereabout for their sub- 
sistance, and I will send for Owaneco and acquaint him 
with the matter, and if I have not good assurance from 
him that those Indians related to the murther may re- 
turne & abide in safety, the next Gen 1 ! Assembly will take 
effectuall care for their preservation against such barbar- 
ous usage, w c ? will not be allowed in this Government. 
Yo r Exc 11 ?' 3 letter of the 4^ instant I have allsoe received, 
& perceive yo r forces might then be possest of their for- 
mer lodgments at Port Royall. Their resolution, good 
temper & every thing seemes now to incourag the designe, 
and yo r succes not to be doubted. What you desire of 
thre hundred men to strengthen yo r forces seemes to me 
impracticable, & not possible for us to overtake them in 
tyme to doe her Majesty service, concludeing before this 
houre the fort & all that country has submitted to her 
Maj : pleasure. I am very sensible we are unhapy not to 
share in the hon r of that great enterprize, but wee can't 
help it. I have not heard very lately from our forces 
that serve in yo r county of Hampshire, but hope all is 
safe in that quarter. It was with great difficulty that 
wee spared them at this tyme of our harvest, w c . h is yo r 
granary. Pray forgive yo r kinsman this long scrable and 
accept my good wishes.* I am 

Yo r very humble serv*, J : W. 

* Nearly seventy-five years before, Joseph Dudley's half-brother, Samuel, had married 
Mar} r , daughter of Governor John Winthrop the elder, which must account for this use of 
the word "kinsman." At the date of this letter Fitz-John could not have been aware that 
a much nearer connection with the Governor was impending. — Eds. 



Aug. 28« h 1707. 

Deare Brother, — I think I told you in my last that 
my bleeding stopt on Wedensday after I had opened a 
veyne ; but on Thirsday, after I had wrot my note, I 
was surprised with a bad feavour w ch held me till y e next 
Monday ; w ch with my bleeding left me soe weak that I 
could hardly stir, but I thank God I am a little better, 
yet soe much discomposed that I have scarce a reason- 
able thought. The busines you mention is indeede of 
concernment to you, & it is allsoe to me, that it may be 
of hapy consequence. I have the worst stroke of any- 
body at adviseing in any case, espetially in this matter, 
haveing perhaps not those sentiments of such matters as 
possibly others may have ; & I think there is little to 
be thought about it except in one extreeme : — as if a 
man should be unhapy to dote upon a poore wench (tho' 
otherwise well enough) that would reduce him to neces- 
sety & visibly ruine his comon comforts & reputation, and 
at the same time there should be recoiiiended to him a 
goodly lass with aboundation of mony w c . b would carry 
all before it, give him comfort, & inlarge his reputation & 
intrest. I would certainly, out of my sense of such ad- 
vantage to my freind, advise him to leave the maid with 
a short hempen shirt, and take hold of that made of good 
bag holland. But where all is advised that can be, if 
they are engaged in their affections, it is to little purpose. 
Nature prompts & leades to such an object w ch sometymes 
is unacountable, & it has been the way & custome of the 
country for young folkes to choose, & where there is noe 
visible exception everybody approves it. And soe you 
may have heard of his syre, who took to wife (as tis cal'd) 
old Gammer Hagborne, who was treated about towne as 
y e Gov" worship's wife. Such variety of fancyes & in- 
clinations happen in y e busines of matrimony, that tis best 


for everybody reasonably to oblige themselves. But all 
this is stuff; the present matter & what may lead to a 
good issue of it is to be well, but soone, considered. I 
have often thought, considering y e circumstances of our 
famely, that it has been too long omitted to make propo- 
sals for him. He is yo r onely stock y* is to be grafted on, 
& tis pity to loose tyme, — & if he fayles, Lanthorne Hill 
will returne to y e towne. I cannot in my present thoughts 
dislike his inclination, & tis possible it may doe well, & 
must rather advise to it than otherwise. Tis the family 
now most in fashion, & tis difficult to foresee future events ; 
those y* live after them can only tell how the matter has 
been, happy or otherwise. I have a sure regard for his 
welfare, & would do anything to promote it as much as I 
could. I hope there is a store layde up for him that will 
never be empty, & the prospect of a good intrest seemes 
to be on his side, that, I hope, will make him allwayes 
hapy. Everybody would wonder that one under soe 
much weaknes should fill this long paper, & twould be 
thought my distemper more than considerate thoughts ; 
yet in the extravigancy of a fevour there is now & then 
some sensible expression that falls, for now in my weak- 
nes I am not without some sincere desires for my neph- 
ewe's hapines. I can hold out noe longer ; twill be very 
hapy to me if my sister comes this week, as you hint, but 
I doubt tis too good to be true. My salutations to your 
selves. I am 

Yo M J: W. 

Note. — This letter was in answer to one just received from Wait Win- 
throp, who wrote : — 

" Your nephew has fallen into close acquaintance with one of the 
Governor's daughters, who is a very likely body. He seems to be set 
upon it, and says so of her. The father & all have seemed to coun- 
tenance the matter, but I have yet said nothing to any of them. Pray 
send } T our opinion & thoughts. I should be loath to cross him, if they 
will advance anything considerable, and a way ma}' be made for his 
settlement. He is desirous rather to live in the country than here, 


which he says she chooses also. Pray let me have 3'our thoughts about 
it as soon as ma}' be. I am sencible of what inconveniences may be in 
it, but nobody knows how it ma} T prove. As you value us, so pray 
think an hour about it." 

Wait Winthrop had been so active a political opponent of Dudley, and 
had so thorough a distrust of him as a public man, that he was a good deal 
perturbed by this love-affair, which, however, terminated in a happy marriage. 
Fitz-John's allusion to the " syre, who took to wife old Gammer Hagborne," 
refers to the sudden marriage, in his old age, of Governor Thomas Dudley 
to a widow Hackburne, a lady who bore children to three different husbands, 
one of said children being Joseph Dudley. " Lanthorne Hill " was an estate 
entailed upon the town of New London on the failure of the male line of 
Governor John Winthrop the younger. — Eds. 


To the Hon hl . e J"° Winthrop Esq% Gov r fyc. in New London. 

Glassenb: Sept 2. 1707. 

3 R , — I (& I doubt not many others) do humbly thank 
yo r Hon r for y e reprieve you granted to y e condemed 
woman, whereby y 1 matter may come to a further con- 
sideration ; & I think I have reason to say y* yo r heart will 
never have cause to reproach you for it. When I wrote 
y* paper w ch I sent yo r Hon r , I did not imagine y* it was 
y e Gen 11 Corte w ch had decreed her execution. We had 
such a mad story of it, y* at first I concluded it was but 
a fable & had nothing in it, but was afterward assured 
y* y e thing was true, that she was to be executed, but 
still knew not how it came about. And so, being re- 
quested, I wrote what I did ; & while y e messenger was 
waiting upon yo r Hon r at N : London for y e reprieve, M r 
Pitkin was pleased to come down hither & shew me much 

* Rev. Gershom Bulkcley (b. 16-36-7 — Harv. Coll. 1655 — d. 1713) was a younger son of 
Rev. Peter IUilkelev, of Concord. After having been successively minister of New London 
and Wethersfield, he removed to Glastonbury and devoted himself to politics and medi- 
cine. As a surgeon, he acquired no mean repute, and served in that capacity in Indian wars. 
As a politician, he was notorious as a high-tory; and a pamphlet of his, the well-known 
" Will and Doom," was made use of by Dudley and Cornbury in their efforts to procure 
the abrogation of the Charter of Connecticut. — Eds. 


of y e record, w 6 ! 1 had I known before, divers things in y' 
paper might have been spared ; & so I request yo r Hon r 
either to send it to me again, or to sacrifice it to Vul- 
can, or to carry it to Scotland.* I have also since seen 
more of y e record, beside other information, whereby I 
find y fc y e woman's act was in y e nature of a chance med- 
ley, done in a quarrell upon a sudden provocation ; & also 
y* ye man lived 18 days after y e wound, was up & down, 
here & there, cut wood, dressed flax, &c. all weathers ; 
& y* in all this time no care was taken of him by any of 
his neighb !" 8 or relations, his wound never once searched, 
no proper means at all used for his cure, nothing but a 
plaister applyed, w ch skinned it over 3 or 4 days before 
he dyed ; & in fine, nobody abiding in y e house w th them 
night or day, but he was wholly left to the mercy, care 
& nursing of that bloody woman, who they knew had 
wounded him. Hereupon my little sense concludes that 
y e wound, penetrating into y e brain, was indeed such y % 
he might possibly have dyed of it ; but the neglect of 
it & y e [illegible^ method of cure was such that he must of 
necessity dy of them, & tis impossible to make it evi- 
dent y fc he died of y e wound. I can not say y e wound 
would have been cured if good means had been season- 
ably used ; but I can say tis probable y* it might have 
been cured, because more dangerous wounds of y e brain 
than that have been cured. It neither is, nor can be, 
evident that he died of y e wound ; but I think tis evident 
y* he died of corruption, gangrene & suppuration of y e 
wound & brain, through y e neglect of means to prevent 
it, w c . h in an ordinary way of Providence might have been 
done. Tis now endeavo r . d to lay y e fault of y e neglect upon 
y e woman. I can not excuse her, any more than y e man 
or his friends. I think y y are all to blame ; but besides 

* This allusion to Scotland must be a figure of speech. At the outset of his military 
career, Fitz-John Winthrop was long stationed in Scotland, but he never contemplated 
revisiting that country in his old age. — Eds. 


what else may be said to avoid it, tis certain she was not 
indicted, or brought to answer, on that account, & we 
must not indict upon one crime & evidence for another. 
But I hope yo r Hon r will cause y e matter to be consid- 
ered & thorowly debated by those whose judgments will 
be more regarded than my opinion & give you full satis- 
faction. And so I will trouble yo r Hon r no further, but 
commend you to Divine counsell & protection, & am 
Yo r Hono" humble serv* 



Sep t 4'. h 1707. 

Dear Brother, — I am but litle recovered since my 
last and am soe faint many times that I can hardly live. 
I rejoice very much, and noething could be more content- 
full to me, that you haue at last made yo r self hapy. I 
think there is noething in my power that would yet con- 
tribute to perfect yo r hapines but I would readely doe it. 
As to my goeing to Boston, I can conclude noething about 
it this week becaues, first, I know not that I shall be able 
to trauell; secondly, I know not yet what excuse to make 
for my absence from the Gen 1 . 1 Assembly, w c . h is on the 
10 th of October; and, thirdly, how I can supply my self 
for such an interveiw, haueing been soe long absent from 
thence ? More will be expected than from one that visits 
often, & I should be loath to expose & rediculise my self 
where many eyes will be vpon me ; soe that I am in great 
difficulty about it. Yet I would gladly doe it but in 
respect to yo r self, and to forward as much as I could 
(since I perceive you are yo r self agreed in it) that design 
of my nephew. It is impossible for me now to write to 
the gentleman, and a letter will not doe what may be 
insinuated by discourse : nor can one propose or answere 


by letter severall things w c . h may be necessary to suggest 
in such a case ; and tis possible a letter may doe more hurt 
then good, if one should not happen to hit upon such 
words as he would like, or that he should make a wrong 
interpretation of what is incerted ; but I can say noe more 
of this at present. The miscarage of the designe at P fc R 11 
does (to me) make a great difficulty. Twill require a good 
sum to make that matter easy at home, w ? 1 will make 
it more difficult to advance roundly ; & I doubt when it 
comes to that, they will make aduantage of his fondnes and 
send it but a short purse. The post last week carryed 
my cousin's letter to Saybrook & there brought it back & 
gaue it me just as I was sending my letter to you, as 
I think I hinted to you in the cover of my letter to yo r 
self & soe could not write to him. Nor am I able now to 
write, but he may be assured of my good intentions to 
him in all thinges as I am able, & he neede make noe 
doubt of it. I haue laid out with all our jockyes to match 
y r browne horse, but doubt it can not be done, & I think 
horses y* pace are not handsome. I can write noe more 
at this tyme, but that, if I cannot get over those thre diffi- 
cultyes I haue incerted, I doe then recomend to you to 
loose noe tyme in concluding yo r great & good affaire ; 
w c . h may be more yo T . aduantage than to delay in any con- 
sideration of me. I wish you very hapy & am 

Yo r . s , J: W. 

I wish my cousin would send us y e story of P : R : My 
sister & Peg are both well & salute every body. 

Note. — The early part of this letter is in answer to one from his brother, 
announcing his approaching marriage and expressing an earnest wish that 
Fitz-John should be present at it. Wait Winthrop had then been a widower 
for seventeen years, his first wife (Mary, daughter of the Hon. William Browne, 
of Salem) having died in 1690. At the age of sixty-four, he was now to wed 
Katharine, widow of John Eyre, of Boston, and sister of the Rev. William 
Brattle. Long afterward, she became one of several rich widows whom 
Chief Justice Sewall vainly attempted to marry. The publication of Sewall's 
private diary, containing the details of his matrimonial misadventures, has 



given these ladies, in recent years, a notoriety they could hardly have antici- 
pated. The latter part of the letter refers to projected negotiations with 
Dudley for a settlement upon his daughter, that match being now practically 
settled. An undated letter to Fitz-Johu from his nephew, evidently written 
about this time, contains the following passage : — 

" I had hitherto been full of expectations to have travelled abroad, 
to have gained those accomplishments y 1 rude and unfurnist America 
denyes the posterit} 7 of Englishmen ; and, indeed, y e most polite edu- 
cation of this country wants y e pollishing aires of Europe. But I am 
sattisfyed and infinitely thankfull to yo r Hon r and y e best of parents 
for y e advantages I have allready enjoy 'd, and my ambition aspires no 
higher than to be an honest shepherd, contented with a rurall retirement. 
Reason makes me sensible y 4 , had I gon abroad, it must unavoidably 
have run m}- future interest into many difficulties. Wee are all mighty 
desirous to kiss }O r Hon" hand in towne. W'ever is wanting can 
presently be supplied here ; and it will be y e greatest hono r & advan- 
tage to o T name & family if }'O r Hon r w d please to be here at this junc- 
ture. I renew my requests to Heaven for yo r Hon™ health, and wish 
you a prosperous journey hither. If yo r Hon' please to say w* day 
you will be here, I might meet you at Dedham." 


New London, Sep 4 23: 1707. 
Gentlemen, — I am obliged to attend some perticuler 
occations w c . h cannot conveniently admit of any excuse, 
and will prevent me from meeting you at this Session of 
the Generall Assembly ; but Govf Treat being soe neere 
to advise & assist you in the publick affaires, may excuse 
my absence at this tyme ; but wherever I am, I hope I 
know how to serve yof intrest & saue yo T . expence, w c . h 
I think I haue done this yeare in considerable sums, 
(w ch might with some colour of pretence haue been im- 
posed upon you) ; & tis possible I may not be useles to you 
in my absence. I presume you are all acquainted that I 
took upon me to repreive the condemned woman unto 
this session, not onely to gain tyme to satisfy myself 


in some doubts about her tryall, but allsoe upon the re- 
quests & reasonable suggestions of considerable persons, 
whose opinion I know yo r selves doe very much valew ; 
and it does difficultly appear to me that she is guilty 
of willfull murder, but rather manslaughter, as such a 
sudaine provocation & action could not be premeditated 
to such a tyme & instrument, w ch was most unlikely to 
haue that fa tall effect. It appeares that the man lived 18 
dayes after the wound was given, that he was oftentymes 
abroad, did many sorts of hard labour & in extreeme cold 
weather, and that noe care was taken to serch & dres 
the wound, w ch by carefull meanes used might probably 
haue been recovered ; & yo r selves know more dangerous 
woundes haue been cured ; & that you may not be want- 
ing to gaine all the opinion & advice therein that is possi- 
ble, I desire the Rev? Elders, such of them as can with 
conveniency be present at the Gen! 1 Assembly, & M? 
Bulkly, may be consulted in this matter, w c . h will be a 
gen 11 satisfaction, & I hope it will please God to direct 
you therein. I doe not forese any other perticuler busi- 
nes of moment to be considered at this Session. I haue 
yet noe late comandes from her Maj : , & the necessary 
busines of the Government may I hope be concluded in a 
short tyme. I will onely make my farther requests to 
you that you doe not at this tyme intermeddle with the 
busines of Owanecoe's pretentions. You haue done me 
the honor to trust me with y e Govern™', & I hope you will 
haue regard to only reasonable proposalls I make for yo! 
intrest. A prudent delay will be yof aduantage in this 
case, & you should be disposed to rely vpon y fc Providence 
w c . h has hitherto preserved you in yo r greatest feares ; & 
you must have observed that God's espetiall providence 
is still on yof side & has wonderfully baffled yo r enemyes 
in y e course of y r designes against you, has continued you 
in peace & fullnes of all needfull enjoyments whilst many 
things round about you look languid & full of trouble. 


It is therefore reasonable you should be considerate in 
yo! thoughts & resolutions, & not precipitate yo r selves 
into mischeifes not to be recovered in yo T . tyme. I must 
excuse that I pres this request upon you, being sensible 
it may tend to unhapy consequence to intermedle with 
it, as it may allready be issued in yo r favour, or yet lyes 
before her Maj: for consideration about it ; & I think it 
is yo r duty to wait her Maj: farther pleasure therein. I 
might not omit to recomend to yo r consideration y e dif- 
ficultyes that happen by the late settlement of y e vil- 
lage at y e Iron-workes, w ch seeme very uncomfortable & 
oppressing to your antient towne of New Haven, from 
whom they had their being. The gentlemen of N: 
Hauen haue applyed themselves to me for releife of 
severall disorders & oppressions comitted by some of y l 
village vnder countenance of y e late setlement, w c . h I 
thought better to refer to y e consideration of this Assem- 
bly & desire you will not omit to consider it accordingly. 
I haue indevoured as you desired me (with some gentle- 
men here who will report it to you) to divide the Militia of 
Stonington into two companyes, but difficultyes did ap- 
pear w ch I could not easely reconcile at that tyme ; but I 
think it may be best to make a farther tryall, unles this 
Court think fit to overrule therein, w c . h however may be 
difficult unles both party es be present. I wish you a 
happy & short session, & with my hearty salutations to 
y r selves, I am 

Yo r affectionate & faythfull serv fc , J: W. 


To the Honorable John Winthrop Esq r ., Governour of her Majestyes 
Colony of Conecticut, Boston. 

Portsmouth, 16 October, 1707. 

S R , — I am here dispatching the affayrs of this little 
Province, & bear it patiently, hoping to finish so as to 


wayt on you at Salem on Wedensday next (which I may 
well do & you may be ready to return), if you please 
to come from Boston on Monday.* I heartily wish you 
health, & ask pardon for my absence. I am S* your 
most faithful humble servant, 

J. Dudley. 


Boston, Nov: 12< h 1707. 

Gentlemen, — I was in hope to haue a letter from 
you vpon the adjournment of the Gen! 1 Assembly, & your 
answere to the letter from the gentlemen of the Corpora- 
tion here, w c . h I perceive w T as expected ; and I haue ex- 
cused it as well as I could, but it does not seeme very 
pleasing, as tis a slight of the publick good they offered 
to you, and soe it must ly at your doore. I haue received 
letters from S? Henery Ashhurst by the last ships, w c . h I 
would haue delivered myself & conferred with you upon 
them, but they came too late for the Gen! 1 Assembly ; 
but that noe tyme may be lost for your consideration and 
answere, I haue transmitted them to you by Major Whit- 
ing, and I think it necessary for the publick service that 
the Council convene at New Hauen as soone as is possible, 
that place being neere to Gov r Treat and not difficult for 
those on the west of the river. The rest I may confer 
with at home, if they think it difficult to goe to New 
Hauen. The Bill of Exchange here inclosed from S? Hen- 
ery I haue accepted in your behalf, and is for 147 lb New 
England mony & payable at 4 monthes sight, and desire 
you to direct the Treasurer to comply with it in tyme and 
let me know how he is inabled to doe it, that I may ac- 
quaint the gentleman here that is to receive it. I intend, 
if it please God, to set out from hence to New London in 

* Fitz-John Winthrop must have reached Boston before the end of September, as Chief 
Justice Sewall mentions that Governor Dudley gave a dinner for him on the first of 
October. — Eds. 


ten dayes, where I will expect this packet and the sub- 
stance of what you think most conducive to the service 
of the Government, to be transmitted to S r Henery by 
the next ships, about a month hence. And I desire you 
not to let any copy be taken of the letters and papers, 
w c . h may otherwise be of ill consequence, & I expect you 
will promise me soe much when you haue read this 
letter.* With my hearty salutations to your selves, I 
am, gentlemen, 

Your affectionate & faythfull serv*, J: Winthrop. 

The Deputyes of Hartford & thereabout may be ad- 
vised with, & not much trouble, & those at New Haven 
& neere at hand, when you goe thither. 


N: Lond: Nov: 13 th 1707. 

Hon b . l S B , — I may presume y r Hon r has rec d an ac- 
count from a bett r hand, of the affairs of the last Gen 11 
Assembly, which, I think, had not much buisness before 
them. The continuance of Sir H : A. in his Agency at 
home, & the doings of the Indian Commission at Norwich, 
made some noise for a while, but at last they were both 
drop'd & nothing done about them. And the generality 
of the Court refrain'd from doing anything in y e latter, 
principally upon y e advice w ! 1 I understand y r Hon r gave 
them in y e lett r which I had y e hon r to deliver. But con- 
cerning the proposall formerly made by the gentlemen of 
the Corporation for propagating the Gospell among the 
Indians, I did the best I could to recover the sentiments 
of the clergy in this Colony, w ch were presented to y e 

* Fitz-John Winthrop died before these letters were returned to him, and they are not 
among his papers. — Eds. 


Gen 11 Assembly in May last, & w ch I found was then lodged 
p r Cap 1 Witherell (as he saies) in y e Dep ty Gov rs hand. 
But his Hon r is not able to call it to mind, and I beleive 
it is irrecoverably lost. I had severall discourses w th y° 
gentlemen of y e Councill upon that affair, and proposed 
to them, since the forementioned sentiments could not 
be come at, they would write to y r Hon r an ace* of it, and 
take the opportunity of y r being at Boston to recommend 
to those gentlemen of the Corporation at Boston to af- 
ford us a transcript of those methods w ch they haue put in 
practice in y e Massathusets Province for y e Christianizing 
of y e Indians, which have been attended, through y e di- 
vine blessing, w th such good & great success; — it being 
very rationall to think that their long & carefull experi- 
ence in this, matter will be a much better direction to us 
than any that our own thoughts can afford, who have 
been too much & long unacquainted w th any endeavours 
of that nature. This motion y L* Gov r & Councill well 
approved of, & concluded (as I understood them) to write 
a lett r accordingly ; but, coming from N : Haven before 
the Court concluded, I am not able to say w* was done. 
The enclosed account is what I gave y r Hon r a hint of 
before you went from hence. I was very willing that 
while that troublesome affair was depending, to expect 
all satisfaction till y e issue, and did not spare for any pains 
in y fc service ; wee have now seen an end of it, or I should 
not have moved at this time. I am well assured (and be- 
lieve I could make it out by searching the rolls of the 
Court) that I have been at much more cost & trouble than 
what I have charged in this ace* ; but am easy, bee : I 
know y r Hon r will not take the advantage of that too 
negligent omission of mine. However, I have sent you 
y e acc fc as it stands in my pocket-book, tho' much short of 
what I believe it should be. Y r Hon r will know who had 
25 ft from y e opposite party for one trip to Hartford ; and, 
if success have any force in it, I think I have as good a 


plea to the like benefit as that gentleman, tho' in other 
respects far more deserving. But as to what addition 
should be made to y e ace* I now send y r Hon r , I must sub- 
mit that to yo r wisdom, and shall acquiesce in it. There 
are some occasions which put mee upon entreating y r Hon' 
at this juncture, that you would please to order the money 
to be ready; and particularly, I should pay my Lady 
Davy 20 th of it, who sent to mee for some by y e last post. 
We impatiently long for y r Hon™ return and hope it will 
not be delayed. If there be any room for my wishes at 
y e Maj r Gen 118 nuptials (w ch wee beleive here are solem- 
nized this day), I ask y r Hon™ favour to offer my best and 
hearty salutations to the bridegroom & bride. Yesterday 
I had y e hon r of a visitt from the ladies at y r Hon™ house, 
and we did as much as we could (at such a distance) to 
anticipate those wedding joyes. Asking y r Hon™ pardon, 
I only add that I am w th y e deepest regard, 
Y r Hon™ most humble serv*, 

G. Saltonstall. 

My most humble service, when y r Hon r has an oppor- 
tunity, to his Excellency. I shall be much obliged for a 
few Mercurys & European prints, when you have thrown 
them by. 


To the Honorable John Winthrop JHsq% Governour of her Majestyes Colony 
of Connecticot, Boston. 

Roxbury, 17 November 1707. 

S", — If you intend me the honour of M r Winthrop your 
son's company this winter, I pray the favour you will 
please to choose his bed & see him in it before you leave 
the town. I am not worthy of him, nor of being estab- 
lished in your freindship, but I will deserve it by all the 
methods in my power. I hope a few days will quit mee 


of the Generall Assembly, when I shall intend nothing but 
to do my duty in your entertaynment & diversion. 
I am S5 your obliged humble servant, 

J. Dudley. 

Major Generall Winthrop will not be angry at this 

Note. — Wait Winthrop's marriage had taken place on the 13th, and this 
letter is to suggest to Fitz-John to delay his departure long enough to be 
present at his nephew's wedding, which was imminent. Dudley probably 
used the word " son " because the young man was understood to be eventual 
heir to much of his uncle's property. — Eds. 


For the Hon hl John Winthrop Esq r , Gov* of her Ma tiea Colony of 
Connecticut ; in Boston, 

New Lond: Nov: 27 th 1707. 

Hon bl S% — Wee could not but entertain w th very sad 
hearts y e heavy tidings of y r late dangerous illness, when 
wee were in hope to have seen y r Hon r safe returned to 
y r Government after so long absence. Nor could any 
thing have allay'd y e gen 11 sorrow but the prospect wee 
had, by some hints in y r Hon rs lett r , of the goodness of y* 
God, w th whom are y e issues of death, in y r restauration, 
which I trust wee accept w th true thankfullness of the 
divine mercy. I am not a little exercised that I can- 
not be at hand to express the dutifull regards I owe y r 
Hon r , and wish it were possible for mee to waite upon y r 
daughter in her journey to you. But my present circum- 
stancies deny mee y t liberty, which I bear the more pa- 
tiently bee : I hope that God will ere long restore you to 
us. In the mean time, I shall (w th many more) earnestly 
address y* great God, who has wonderfully supported and 
saved yo r Hon r under the like distress many times hereto- 



fore, to perfect his goodness in y r health & return. I shall 
only crave leave further to suggest to yo r Hon r my con- 
ceit that the air of y r own Colony, to which you have 
been lately so long accustomed, might contribute not a 
little to the prolonging of y r health ; and therfore hope 
you will be perswaded, as soon as it may be without dan- 
ger of relapse, to make triall of it. I do most humbly 
commend y r Hon r to the divine protection & blessing, and 
am, Hon bl S r y r most humble servf 

G. Saltonstall. 

There is one M r Shackmaple, who gives his humble 
service to y r Hon r . He has waited here some time for y r 
return. He keeps his buisness pretty private ; but, as I 
guess, he has a comission from Coll Quarry to be Deputy 
Surveyor, or Collector of this Colony & y e east end of 
Long Island. M r Alford & M r Gray give their humble 

Note. — This letter was written on the day Fitz-John Winthrop died. 
He had been taken seriously ill about ten days before, was at one time con- 
valescent, but had a relapse from which he failed to rally. Chief Justice 
Sewall's diary, under date of December 4, gives the following concise account 
of his obsequies : — 

" Gov r Winthrop is buried from the Council Chamber. Foot com- 
panies in arms, and two troops. Armor carried ; a led horse. Bear- 
ers : Gov r ; M r Russell ; M r Cooke ; Major Brown ; Col. Hutchinson ; 
Sewall ; M r Secretaiy ; M r Sergeant. Father, son, and grandson ly 
together in one tomb in the old burying place. M r C. Mather 
preaches a very good funeral sermon. ,, 

Several editions of this sermon were published, one of which Sir Henry 
Ashurst had printed in London at his own expense, and dedicated to Lady 
Rachel Russell. The tomb to which Sewall alludes is still visible from the 
western windows of this Society's building in Tremont Street, but the re- 
mains of the three New England governors have long since mouldered into 
indistinguishable dust. It would have gratified Fitz-John to know that, by 
the accident of dying away from home, he was to rest with his father and 
grandfather on this spot. He was a man who cared much for family asso- 
ciations. An unpublished letter of his, to his friend and cousin, Charles 


Downing,* shows that almost his last act on finally leaving England, in 
1697, was to make a pilgrimage to the graves of his ancestors at Groton in 
Suffolk, a visit which he describes as one of " great duty and affection." 

Our late associate, Dr. Palfrey, in the fourth volume of his History of 
New England, speaks of Fitz-John Winthrop as having been so much dis- 
abled by gout, that, during the last years of his administration, he was 
scarcely governor in anything but name, most of his official correspondence 
being conducted by Gurdon Saltonstall. No authority is cited for this state- 
ment, which perhaps originated in the disparagement of some political oppo- 
nent. It is true that his health had long been a good deal impaired, and for 
this reason he more than once expressed a wish to be relieved of the burden 
of the governorship, but the people of Connecticut were unwilling that he 
should retire. It is also true that he had grown to place much reliance on 
the wisdom and capacity of Saltonstall, who was not only his intimate friend 
and near neighbor, but the pastor of the church in which he worshipped. On 
the other hand, the mass of letters and papers from which the foregoing 
selections have been made — a collection which was not accessible at the 
time Dr. Palfrey wrote his History — sufficiently establishes that Fitz-John 
Winthrop never lost his grasp of public affairs, and that, down to his last 
illness, the policy of Connecticut continued to bear the impress of his reso- 
lute will. 

His nephew's marriage was postponed till the 16th, and in the mean time 
Saltonstall addressed the latter the following letter: — 

For M r John Winthrop, at Boston. 

N: Lond: Dec' : 9 th : 1707. 
S R , — If it be any consolation to have companions in y r present sor- 
rows, y r comforts will not want a due proportion to y r griefs, tho* these 
are very great. You have a whole country clad in mourning, to bear 
a mourn full part in y r lamentations, — and this Colony in particular, 
expiring in y* flame of their own affections at the funerall of their best 
friend & father. I have my self too great a share in this irreparable 
loss, not to be a deep mourner with you ; but in our greatest depths 
we must adore His hand who smites us, & kiss His rod. God grant 
we may be truly brought to this. W ! 1 is the sincere desire of, S% y r 
sorrowfull friend & most humble serv!, 

G: Saltonstall. 

* Youngest son of Sir George Downing, the diplomatist. Several letters of his are 
printed in 5 Mass. Hist. Coll. I. (Winthrop Papers, Part III.), where are also to be found 
five letters from his grandmother, Mrs. Emmanuel Downing, to Fitz-John Winthrop, when 
the latter was a young officer in Monk's army. — Eds. 



TnE estate of John Winthrop, Esq r Deceased D r . to 
Wait Winthrop, Esq r for sundry charges disbursed on his 
funerall, as follows, viz tfc . Decemb r 1707. 

Paid Eliz* Heath, p r note — 
Paid M r Banister, p r note — 
Paid M r Grant, p r note — 
Paid M r Hawksworth, p r note — 
Paid M r Dassett, p r note — 
Paid M r Tho 8 Smith, p r note — 
Paid M r Glover, hatter, p r note — 
Paid M r John Gerrish, p r note — 
Paid M r Nathaniell Lindall, p r note — 
Paid Doct r Noyes, p r note — 
Paid M r John Pitts, p r notes — 
Paid M r Abraham Francis, for scutch- 
eons, p r note — 
Paid M rs Campbell, p r note — 
Paid M r Samuel Meeres, p r note — 
Paid M r Abraham Blish, p r note — 
Paid M r Christopher Sanders, p r note — 
Paid M r . s Eliz a Hatch, p r note — 
Paid M r John Kilby, p r note — 
Paid Enoch Greenleaf, p r note — 
Paid John Mico & Thomas Lechmere, 

p r note — ■ 
Paid John Simpson, carter, p r note — 
Paid y e drummers — 
Tolling y e bell — 
Opening y e toomb — 
Paid John Roberts, p r note — 
Paid Joseph Simpson, p r a second 

note — 
Paid M r Mumford, p r note — 









7 X 

• 4 




























































£. s. d. 

Paid ditto Mumford, p r another note, 

labourers about y e toomb, bells, 

paule, &c — 20. 18. 3. 

Paid M r John Smith for 2 butts of 

wine, p r note — 18. 0. 

Paid M r Grove Hirst, for lute-string, 

p r note — 30. 0. 

Paid M r John Edwards, goldsmith, p r 

note — 
Paid M r . 8 Eliz* Savage, p r note — 
Paid M r William Antram, p r note — 
Paid Coll 1 ! Adam Winthrop, p r note — 
Paid M r Tay, p r note — 
Paid Maj r Walley, p r note — 
Paid M r Joseph Russell, p r note — 
Paid M r John Staniford, p r note — 
Paid M r Oliver, for sugar for y e burnt 

wine for y e f unerall — 
Paid M r Proctor, y e taylor, p r note — 

Paid D r Cutler — 
Paid [Ma»fc] 











- 41. 























I" ftfomfcl 


In the name of God Amen. I, Fitz John Winthrop, 
being sick & weak of body, but of sound mind & under- 
standing, do for the settlement of that estate which God 
hath bestowed upon me, make and ordaine this to be my 
Last Will and Testament, in manner and form following, 
hereby revoaking and makeing void and null all former 
wills by me made. First and principally, I resign my 
soul to God who gave it me, beseeching him to accept the 
same through the merits & mediation of his Son and my 


alone Saviour, Jesus Christ; my body to be decently 
buried by my Executors hereafter named. Item : I will 
that all my just debts and funerall charges be paid & 
satisfied. Item : I will and bequeath unto my loving 
daughter, M? Mary Livingston, and heirs forever, the 
seuerall parcells of land and houseing hereafter named, 
viz" : my dwelling-house, with the orchard, swamp & 
garden, and the corn mill, with the damms and ponds 
and water courses adjoyning to and being by my said 
dwelling house ; as also all that land above my said 
dwelling house, which s d land is bounded on the east by 
a straight line, as the raile fence doth run which divides 
Maj r Palmes his land where his house stands from the 
neck below it, untill the said straight line as the s d fence 
doth run shall come to the river or cove on the other 
side of the neck ; and northerly by land of MajT Edward 
Palmes and M r . Alexander Pygan deceased ; and on the 
westward comeing nigh to my said dwelling house ; to- 
gether with the way or passage that is between my said 
dwelling house and said land aboue it ; with the barn or 
stable and other buildings and fences that are on said 
land ; also the land which I have purchased at Massa- 
peage ; the land which is called M r Newman's, lying next 
to Daniel Stebbins his land, which I haue a right to by 
reason M r . 8 Newman is much in my debt; y e land which 
I purchased of Colver at Mistick mill ; the land and 
meadow at the mill pond, which was Abel Moore's ; the 
tract of land which I have at Saw Mill Brook ; the 
land which I have at or near Jordan plain ; all which 
parcells of land is in the town of New London ; also the 
farm which was given me by Ninegret, alias Ninecraft, 
in the Narraganset Country. Also the one half of a 
grant of two hundred acres of land from the country, 
togather with any other land which I have purchased, or 
has been given me by the town of New London or 
Colony of Connecticut ; only hereby reserving unto her 


mother, M r . 9 Elizabeth Winthrop, liberty of liveing in 
my afores d dwelling house dureing her naturall life, and 
makeing vse of such part thereof, and of the garden and 
orchard, as will be convenient for her comfort ; and also 
reserving to her dureing her life the one half of the prof- 
itts or income of my land at Massapeague. Item : I will 
and bequeath unto my daughter's mother, M r . 8 Elizabeth 
Winthrop, one hundred and fifty pounds in money out of 
the rents of Fisher's Island, as it shall be come first due ; 
also fifty head of cattle ; also the one half of my house- 
hold stuff (excepting the new furniture in the new cham- 
ber) ; also liberty of liveing in my afores d dwelling house 
dureing her naturall life, and improveing such part thereof, 
and of the garden & orchard by it, as may be convenient 
& comfortable for her, as is before expressed ; also the 
one half of the profitts of my land at Masapeague dureing 
her naturall life, together with such other things as I 
have formerly given her, namely : a negro girl called 
Rheta and a boy called Cezar, a yoak of oxen, two horses, 
the sheep which I keep in the afores d town, and the one 
halfe of a grant of two hundred acres of land from y° 
country. Item: I will and bequeath to my afores d daugh- 
ter, M? Mary Livingston, fifty head of cattle; also the 
new furniture in the new chamber, together with the one 
half of my household stuff ; also what is due to me from 
the Colony of Connecticut; also the negro girl named 
Rose & the two Indian girls named Sue and Dinah, to- 
gether with such other things as I have formerly given 
her and are now in her possession. Item : I will and be- 
queath unto my loveing brother, Majf G 1 ! Wait Still Win- 
throp, and the heirs male of his body forever, my half of 
that reall estate which was my honoured father's, not 
before disposed of, upon the condition hereafter following, 
that is to say : that he pay unto my four sisters, namely : 
M ra Endicot, M r . 8 Corwin, M" Wharton, and M rs Richards, 
the sum of four hundred pounds in money, or other pay 


equivolent, that is one hundred pound to each of them, — 
the which I do bequeath to my s d sisters accordingly ; 
and also that if the heir male of my brother as above said 
shall live to enter upon and enjoy the saide reall estate 
abve mentioned, that then he shall pay to my loveing 
daughter M rs Mary Livingston or her heirs, the sum of 
five hundred pounds in money, or other pay equivolent, 
which said sum of five hundred pounds I do hereby give 
and bequeath to my said daughter and her heirs for 
ever. Also my will is that in case the heir male of my 
brother as aboue s d shall fail, that then my reall estate 
above mentioned shall be and remain unto my afore s d 
daughter, M rs Mary Livingston, and her heirs forever, 
which reall estate I do accordingly will and bequeath 
unto my said daughter and her heirs forever. Item : I 
will and bequeath to the Trustees of the Collegiate School 
lately erected within this Colony, and for the use and 
benefit of y e s d School, the sum of one hundred pounds 
in money, or other pay equivolent, provided the s d School 
be setled and upheld, and while it shall be so upheld, in 
the town of Saybrook. Item : I will and bequeath unto 
my afores d brother the remainder of my part of cattle, 
horses and sheep, which are not before disposed of, both 
upon Fisher's Island and the maine. I will and bequeath 
unto my Executors hereafter named twenty shillings in 
money apeice to buy each of them a ring ; and I do hereby 
appoint my loveing brother, Maj r G 11 Wait Still Winthrop, 
my loveing son, M r John Livingston, my loveing daugh- 
ter, M r9 Mary Livingston, and my loveing freinds, Mf 
James Noyes, M r Gurdon Saltonstall and M r Richard Chris- 
tophers, to be Executors of this my Last Will and Testa- 
ment, and this I do declare to be my Last Will and 
Testament, and in testimony thereof I have hereunto set 
my hand and seal in New London the fourteenth day of 
March 170J. 

J: Winthrop. 


Signed & Sealed & Declared to be his Last Will & Tes- 
tament in presence of 

Tho s Buckingham. 
John Prentts. 
Jonathan Prenttss. 
Sam ll Rogers Jun? 

Cap* John Prentts personally appeared before a Court 
of Probates held in New London, Jan ry 13 th 170}, and made 
solemn oath that he saw John Winthrop Esq r , Governer, 
sign, seal, & heard him declare this Instrument to be his 
Last Will and Testament, and that at the doing thereof he 
the s d John Winthrop Esq r was (according to the best of 
his knowledge and understanding) of sound and disposeing 
mind and memory when he did the same, & that he the 
said John Prentts set to his hand as an Evidence, and 
that he saw the Rev? My Thomas Buckingham sign also to 
the said will as an Evidence. 

Teste, George Denison, Cleric. 

Liev* Jonathan Prentiss and M r Sam u Rogers Jun! per- 
sonally appeared in the Court of Probates held in New 
London Jan ry y e 13^ 170} and made solemn oath that 
they saw John Winthrop Esq 1 :, Governor, sign, seal and 
heard him declare this Instrument to be his Last Will & 
Testament, and that at the doing thereof he the said John 
Winthrop Esqf was (according to the best of their knowl- 
edg and understanding) of sound and disposeing mind and 
memory when he did the same, & that they subscribed 
thereto as witnesses. 

Teste, George Denison, Clerk of Probates. 

The Last Will and Testament of the late Hon ble John 
Winthrop, Esq? Gov? dec?, was exhibited in the above 
said Court, proved, accepted and ordered to be recorded. 
Extracted from the original and Court Record & recorded 
JairT 26^ 170} p George Denison, Clerk Prob ts . 

A True Coppy of Record, Examined p 

Stephen Hempsted, Clerk of ProW 9 . 


418 THE WrNTHROP PAPERS. [1700. 

Note. — Governor John Winthrop the elder, at the time he became head of 
the Massachusetts Bay Company, in 1629, had a valuable estate in Suffolk and 
some other property; but the pecuniary sacrifices he subsequently made for 
the Colony, coupled with the dishonesty of his agent in England, crippled him 
in his old age, and he died comparatively poor. Governor John Winthrop 
the younger, however, found time to engage in several profitable commercial 
enterprises, and was a more prudent manager than his father. He gradually 
acquired large tracts of land in different parts of New England and upon 
Long Island, most of which he devised to his two sons jointly. This land 
had increased in value ; and the " half of that reall estate which was my 
honoured father's," which Fitz-John bequeathed to his brother, constituted the 
principal part of what he had to leave; but he had made additional provision 
for his wife and daughter during his lifetime. A variety of causes, coupled 
with the fact that the suit brought by Major Palmes was still pending, made 
the settlement of his estate a long and complicated one. He had for many 
years maintained a liberal hospitality at New London, and left a number of 
debts. The question arose whether his debts and legacies were chargeable 
upon his individual property, or whether the property he had held jointly with 
his brother was equally liable for them, and if so, in what proportion. The 
case was further embarrassed by the discovery among his papers of the fol- 
lowing deed : — 

To all people to whom these presents shall come, I, John Winthrop, 
of New London in the Colony of Conecticot, Esqf, do send greeting. 
Know ye that I, the said John Winthrop, for divers good causes and 
consideracons me thereunto especially moving, and for the love & 
affection that I, the said John Winthrop, do bear unto my nephew, 
John Winthrop, son of my loving brother Waite Winthrop, of Boston 
in New England, Esq!", I, the said John Winthrop, being in perfect 
memory-, have given, granted and confirmed and b}' this my present 
writing do fully, freely & absolutely give, grant & confirm unto the 
said John Winthrop all and singular rav part, interest, right & title of, 
in, or unto all the lands & estate which was formerly my honoured 
father's and which I now have in partnership with my loving brother, 
with all other my lands, tenements, stocks, goods, chattels & estate 
whatsoever, of what nature, kind or propert\ T soever the same be or 
can be found in New England or els where, to have, hold, lev}', use, 
dispose of, take & enjoy all my said lands, tenements, stocks, goods, 
chattels, leases & estate whatsoever, and all other the premisses, unto 
the said John Winthrop and his heyres now from henceforth forever, 
without any manner of claime, challenge or demand whatever, of or by 
any person or persons whatsoever ; and I, the said John Winthrop, all 
& singular the said lands, tenements, stocks, goods, chattels, leases, 
& estate & things whatsoever, and all other the premisses, unto the 
said John Winthrop & heires against all people shall & will warrant 
& forever defend by these presents. Moreover, know }*e, that I, the 


said John Winthrop, have put my said nephew, John Winthrop, in 
quiet possession of all & singular the premisses mentioned to be given 
by these presents, with all manner of priveledges & appurtenances 
thereunto belonging, to have & to hold to him, the said John Winthrop 
& his heires forever, to enter into and improove all the said lands & 
premisses, and to have, take, receive & enjoy all & singular the rents, 
issues and proffits of the said premisses, in full and ample manner. In 
testimony whereof, I have hereunto set my hand & seale this 4* day 
of October, in the year 1700. 

J: Winthrop. 

Witness : 
Will: Thomson. 
Jeremiah Hooper. 

Fitz-John Winthrop, Esqf acknowledged the above instrument to be 
his act & deed : 

Samuell Mason, Assist. 

This deed had evidently been executed by the testator at a time when he 
despaired of his own health and when he contemplated making over to his 
nephew his whole estate not under settlement. As he soon after recovered, 
and as his nephew was then but nineteen years old, he took no further steps 
in the matter, and when he subsequently made his will, had perhaps forgotten 
this deed was still in existence. The whole matter was eventually made the 
subject of an amicable arrangement ; but while the intentions of the testator 
were still under discussion, Governor Dudley filed the following affidavit on 
behalf of his son-in-law : — 

Boston, 2. October, 1710. 

I had near fifty years a perticular intimacy & freindship with the 
Honorable John Winthrop Esq', late Governour of Connecticut Colony, 
and have often heard him declare that he would keep his father's es- 
tate inviolate & unbroken for the heir of the family & the name of 
his father ; at other times saying that his father's estate should never 
be divided, and mentioning his only brother with the greatest respect. 
And in the sumer of 1707, when the present John Winthrop Esqf of- 
fered an intermarriage with my daughter, the said late Governour 
treated with mee of that marriage and told me his nephew was the best 
heir in these provinces, and that all that his father had was for him, 
& that his nephew must be content to let him the said Governour have 
his life in this estate & then it was all his own ; & that he designed 
by that means to rayse his family. And once more, in confidence dur- 
ing that treaty, he told me that when Mr John Winthrop his above 
said nephew was sick the sumer then past, that he the said Governour 
was fearful of his death, & that he then determined in his own mind 


to send for Major Adam Winthrop,* now liveing at Boston, & leave 
him all the said lands, to bear up the name of his father and famil}-. 
These things, & many like, he said to mee in his last two months' 
conversation, which being upon a treaty of marriage, which soon after 
was consumated, I alwayes justly rested upon as a just settlement for 
M r John Winthrop abovesaid. J. Dudley. 

Boston in New England, 2 d October 1710. His Excellency Joseph 
Dudley Esqf made oath to the above written, before me. 

Is* Addington, Seer*, et J: Pac:. 

* Afterward Chief Justice of the Court of Common Pleas and Colonel of the Boston 
Regiment; the grandson of a half-brother of Fitz-John's father. —Eds. 



The next volume of Winthrop Papers will be chiefly de- 
voted to letters of Wait Winthrop during the latter part of his 
life, and to selections from his voluminous correspondence with 
Sir Henry Ashurst and many prominent men of that period. 
The limited space remaining renders it impossible to include 
them in the present volume. This Appendix is therefore made 
up of miscellaneous matter, associated either with Fitz-John 
Winthrop or with Joseph Dudley. The former's correspond- 
ence, from his final return from England, in 1697, until his 
death, has been carefully winnowed ; but it is not improbable 
that additional selections may be hereafter gleaned from his 
earlier papers. 

After the death of Governor Dudley, in 1720, a portion of his 
papers passed into the possession of his daughter, Mrs. John 
Winthrop, and has since formed part of the present collection. 
Among them are thirty-two letters to him from his friend and 
patron, Lord Cutts, which were separately communicated to 
the Society in 1886, and may be found in 2 Proceedings, II. 
171-198. They are accompanied by a heliotype of an original 
portrait of Dudley belonging to the Hon. Robert C. Winthrop, 
together with remarks upon other portraits of him. A single 
letter to Dudley from his friend Richard Steele, the dramatist, 
was communicated to the Society from the same source, in 1887, 
and may be found in 2 Proceedings, III. 201. — Eds. 

424 APPENDIX. [1654. 


To if much honoured, my uery loving Uncle, M r John Winthrope, 
at his house at Pequot, these. 

Cambridge, October 3: 1654. 

Honoured Uncle, — In answer to y e letter you lately 
sent me & for y e performance of y e duty I alwayes owe you, 
I make bold to present you with w e you see : — According 
to your desire, S r , I have imployd my best endeavours for 
the setling of my cousins in that way which I hope may 
concurre both to their best profite & your owne liking. I 
used y e best diligence I could in seeking out a convenient 
place in the towne for theire board, but could neither hear 
nor think of any other in y e towne (y* was free for board- 
ers) more desireable y n that wherein they are now both 
of them together setled, viz : at Goodman Chesholmes, who 
lately having layd downe the charge of his keeping the Or- 
dinary, hath his house as free from company in y* respect 
as almost any I can think of besides ; and withall by this 
means he hath left unto himselfe above others y e privi- 
ledge of housroome and conveniency for boarders, and for 
matter of good order and diet in his family he deserves 
to be commended as far as most I know of. My cousins 
(both of them, as far as I can gather) are very well con- 
tented with y e place so far as their small tryall hitherto 
hath given them to be acquainted with it. Goodman 
Chesholme seemed very willing to accept of y m into his 
family upon my first proposall of y e question. Concern- 
ing the termes upon w ch he takes them (I mean in re- 

* Thomas Dudley, Jr., grandson of Governor Thomas Dudley, was graduated at 
Harvard in 1651, and was at this time a tutor and Resident Fellow in the College, but he 
died of consumption in the following year. His father, Rev. Samuel Dudley, had married 
Mary, daughter of Governor John Winthrop the elder, and was then settled at Exeter, X. H. 
This letter is here printed because of its allusions to the school-days of Fitz-John Winthrop, 
who was then in his sixteenth year, but whose education had been much interrupted by 
the removal of his parents from Boston to New London in 1650. He is stated to have 
matriculated at Harvard some time afterward; but it is certain that he did not take a degree, 
as he went abroad in 1657, and obtained a commission in the army in 1658. — Eds. 

1654.] APPENDIX. 425 

spect of payment), it is yet left, S r , wholy to your selfe, 
or to those whome you shall appoint for y e purpos, to 
agree with him. He would entreat you to helpe him 
with two payre of sheets and two pillowbeers as soon 
as conveniently you could ; with bedding & other neces- 
sarys he is already provided. My cousin Wait is with 
M r Corlet (I mean in respect of his schooling), who hath 
undertaken y e charge of him according to your owne 
desire.* About my cousin Fitz I counselled with M r Dun- 
ster (according to your direction), whome he could not in 
any wise judge (after examination) fit for admission into 
the Colledge, but wisht me by all means to procure that 
he might be with his brother at M r Corlet's schoole ; but 
knowing, S r , your owne desire in this respect mentioned 
in your letter, that, for preventing his discourigment, you 
could wish he might be taught by some in the Colledge, 
and finding myselfe likewise his owne inclination to be 
bent that way, I have willingly accepted y t imployment 
myselfe, intending to do the utmost (as my occasions shall 
permitte me) for the furtherance of his studdys, w ch 
(through y e blessing of God and his owne industry) I 
hope may prove noe loosing way. Although, through 
his losse in his learning by reason of the often intermis- 
sion of his schooling, he is not able to make any sudaine 
progresse for the present, yet I hope in a smal time the 
difficulty will begin to grow easy and his studdys and he 
grow more familiarly aquainted. His mind seems not 
altogether adverse to what may seem for y e present to be 
out of his reach, but willing to do its utmost. If he shall 
but approve himselfe, as I hope he will and am persuaded 
he may doe, I shall rejoyce in the greatest paynes y t ever 
I take with him. I pray, S r , soe order it y fc he may have 
w* bookes he stands in need of, at the bookbinders. I 

* Elijah Corlett was master of the grammar-school at Cambridge for nearly half a 
centur3 r , until his death, Feb. 25, 1686-7, at the age of seventy-eight years. See Paige's 
History of Cambridge, pp. 366-369. — Eds. 


426 APPENDIX. [1658. 

haue not been with my father since I received your let- 
ter, but I have lately heard that he and all his family 
were in good health ; only (as perhaps before now you 
have heard) it hath pleased God to deprive him of my 
mother, who died about a quarter of a year since. I 
cease, S r , any further for y e present to trouble you, but 
desiring my duty may be presented to my aunt, with my 
respects & love to my cousins, I remaine 

Your dutifull cousin, Tho. Dudley. 


Richard, P. 

Richard, Lord Protector of the Comonwealth of Eng- 
land, Scotland and Ireland, and the dominions and ter- 
ritories thereunto belonging, to Fitz-John Winthorpe 
greeting : We doe hereby constitute and appoint you 
Leiu 1 of that company of foote whereof Leiuten* Coloneli 
John Cloberry is Captaine, raised and to be raised under 
our coihand for the service of the Comonwealth, in the 
regiment whereof Coloneli Thomas Reade is Coloneli.* 
You are therefore to make yo r present repaire unto the 
same company, and takeing charge thereof as Lieuten* 
duely to exercise the inferior officers and souldiers of the 
said company in armes, and to use yo r best care and en- 
deavo! to keepe them in good order and discipline, com- 
anding them to obey you as their Leiutenant. And you 
are likewise to observe and follow such orders and direc- 

* Colonel Thomas Reade was brother to the wife of Governor John Winthrop, Jr. In 
a recently discovered letter from him to the latter, dated M Sterling, March 4. 1651," he says : 
" If it had pleased the Lord to have given a further breathing to our honoured kinsman, 
Col°. Stephen Winthrop, hee would have studdied to haue done for yo r sonne w 1 . lay in him, 
for I know my nephew was verry wellcome unto him. Some short time after his death, 
my nephew was pleased to take the paines to give us a visitt here in Scotland, & at that 
time I had a Lu'.' place vacant, w°. h I was verry glad of his acceptance." This establishes 
that Colonel Stephen Winthrop, M. P. (half-brother to John Winthrop, Jr.), died in London 
some time before the date of this commission, and not in 1659, as often stated. — Eds. 

1658-9.] APPENDIX. 427 

tions as you shall from tyme to tyme receive from our 
selfe or the superior officers of the said regiment and 
army. Given att White Hall the ll l . h of Septembr 

1658 ' [SEAL.] 

For the ffono b ! e Col Reade, Govern 1 ! of Sterling. 

S*, — Understanding y* some discontented spiritts in 
England do intend to write to some offic" heere to gett 
some subscription privately w ch may tend to y e disturbance 
of the peace of these nations & divission of y e forces heere 
to some things w ? 1 they desir d , I thought fitt to acquaint 
you therewith, y\ in case any should write out of England 
to y r selfe or any offic" under y r comand, you might take 
notice of it & use y r utmost endeav" to prevent it ; & if 
any offic" or soldiers under y r comand do put any such 
thing on foote, you will acquaint mee w'! 1 theire names. I 
desire you to acquaint y e field-offic?, captaines, y e offic" 
of horse or other cheife offic" of any company under yo r 
comand w^ this ; for I think y* o r duty is not to inter- 
meddle w* any such thing but to rest satisfied w*! 1 w e y e 
Pairlem* & his Highnes shall agree upon & settle, & not 
to trouble of selves w fch publique bussines. I desire & ex- 
pect y r care heerein, & remaine 

Yo5 verry lo. freind & sr* Geo. Monck. 

Dalkeith, 28 Feb. 165f. 

* Fitz-John Winthrop indorsed this, "A copy of a letter from my Lord Generall 
Monck." Among his papers was also an original letter of Charles II., dated more than a 
year later, but without address, and undoubtedly one of the circular letters secretly used 
by Lord Clarendon and others to promote the restoration of the exiled king. It does not 
appear to have produced much effect upon Colonel Reade, as his regiment was subsequently 
disbanded, but he probably gave the letter to his nephew, who would appear to have kept 
it as a curiosity. By some confusion of ideas this letter was formerly represented as hav- 
ing been addressed to Governor John Winthrop, Jr., then in New England. A fac-simile 
of it is printed in 1 Proceedings, VI. 488-491, where the facts relating to it are accurately 
stated. — Eds. 

428 APPENDIX. [1660. 



Being appointed by Act of Parliam* bearing date the eleaventh 
of October last to be one of the seaven Commissioners w ch are 
to comand the forces in England & Scotland under the Parlia- 
ment : and there being none of the said Comissioners present 
in Scotland but my selfe, I haue therefore thought fitt and doe 
hereby appoint you, John Winthrop, to be Captaine-Lieuten fc to 
Coll : Thomas Reade's regiment of foote. And you are to 
take charge of the said companie as Captaine-Lieutn?, and the 
officers and souldjers of the said companie are to observe you 
as theire Lieutn? untill the Paries pleasure be further knovvne. 
Given under my hand & seale, att Coldstreame, the 21 th day of 
December 1659. 

George Monck. 

To John Winthrop, Cap'-Lieutn* 


George Monck, Cap* Gen 1 . 1 and Comander in Cheife of all 
the Forces in England, Scotland and Ireland, to Fitz-John 
Winthrop, Captaine : By vertue of the power and authority to 
mee given by the Parliament of the Cofnonwealth of England, I 
doe heereby constitute and appoint you, Fitz-John Winthrop, to 
bee Captaine of that company of foote, late Cap* Yardley's, in 
Coll: Reade's reg*, raised and mainteyned under my comand 
for the service of the Parliament and Comonwealth of England. 
You are therefore to take into your charge and care the saide 
company as Captaine thereof, and duely exercise the officers 
and souldjers of the same in armes, and alsoe to use yo* best 
care and endeavours to keepe them in good order and discipline, 
comanding them to obey you as theire Captaine. And you are 
likewise to follow and observe such orders and direccons as you 
shall from tyme to tyme receive from the Parliament, Councill 
of State appointed by Parliament, or my selfe. And you are 
likewise to obey the superior officers of the regm* and army 
according to the discipline of warr, in pursuance of the trust 

1660.] APPENDIX. 429 

reposed in you and your duety to the Parliam* and Comon- 
wealth of England. Given vnder my hand and seale at S. 
James's, the twenty fifth day of February one thousand six 
hundred fifty and nyne. [1660.] 

George Monck. 


S? George Monck, Cap* Gen 1 . 1 and Comander in Cheife of 
all his Ma". 63 Forces in England, Scotland and Ireland, Master of 
his Ma t5 . es Horse, Knight of the most noble Order of the Garter, 
and one of his Ma tles most Hono b ! e Privy Councill?, to Fitz-John 
Winthrop, Cap* : By vertue of the power and authority to mee 
given by his most Excellent Ma li . e Charles the Second by the 
grace of God King of England, Scotland, France and Ireland, 
Defender of the Faith, Sf, I doe hereby constitute and appoint 
you, Fitz-John Winthrop, to bee Cap* of a company of foote in 
Coll: Thomas Reade his regiment of foote under my cofnand, 
for the service of his Ma*i e . You are therefore to take into your 
charge and care the said company as Captaine thereof and duly 
exercise the officers and soldiers of the same in armes, and alsoe 
to vse your best care and endeavour to keepe them in good 
order and discipline, cofnandinge them to obey you as their 
Captaine. And you are likewise to follow and observe such 
orders and directions as you shall from time to time receive 
from his Ma*! e , the Parliament, Privy Councill, or my selfe. 
And alsoe you are to obey the superiour officers of the regiment 
and army accordinge to the discipline of warr in its pursuance 
of the trust reposed in you and your duty to his Ma tie Given 
vnder my hand and seale at the Cockpitt, the xxiii? day of 
June, 1660, and in the xii*. h yeare of his Ma* 1 . 63 raigne. 

George Monck. 

430 APPENDIX. [1657-8. 


The commission-officers of Coll : Tho : Reade's regiment, att 
our disbanding in London, Novembf 1660 : 
Collonell : — Tho : Reade. 
Liu* Coll : — James Matson. 
Major : — Stlam Callant. 
Captains : — Geo. Everard. John Winthrop. 

Ralph Barnett. Francis Young. 

John Strete. Sam l . l Jones. 

Peter Pike. 
Cap* Liu*: — John Curtis. 
Liu 1 ' : — Mark Morris. Thomas Tillston. 

Will : Storer. Will : Watkins. 

Francis Everard. Will : Coxe. 

Blithe. Will : Hues. 

Sam l . l Martin. 
Ensignes : — Justinian Minsom. 

Preferred to other regiments : Liu* Coll : Sr John Clobrye, Cap* 
John Matlow. 

Cashiered : — Cap* Anthony Boleham. 

Deceased before disbanding : — Cap*. Miles Meredith, Cap* Will : 

Note. — Fitz-John Winthrop filed with the foregoing list twelve muster- 
rolls of Lieutenant-Colonel John Clobery'3 company of Reade's regiment 
during the year 1658 and early in 1659, by which it appears said company 
then consisted of one captain, one lieutenant, one ensign, two sergeants, 
three corporals, one drummer, and seventy privates, all of whose names are 
given. He also filed six letters to himself from Lieutenant-Colonel Clobery, 
chiefly relating to regimental business. One of them is subjoined : — 

For Leiu\ Fitz-Jn . Winthrop, these, att Cardrosse. 

Sterling, 25 January, 1657 [-8]. 
LeiuT, — I have sent you this morning three & forty cheeses, 
weighing three hundred seventy-two pounds, and likewise two bolls of 
wheat for to compleat yo r store to May-day. The cheese you may 
divide out equally to }O r compan} T as soone as you receive it, & now 
meat is scarce it will bee of good steed to them. The inclosed is w* I 
rec? from England by the last post to us. I have nothing to adde but 
my respects to you, y e serjant & whole company. 

Yo r servant, John Clobery. 

1661-2.] APPENDIX. 431 


Wheras his Ma 1 ? by his Proclamation, dated att 
Whitehall the twenty eighth day of Novembf 1661, 
requires all officers & souldTs that have served in the 
armies of the late usurped authorities, to depart the 
citties of London & Westmf on or before the fourth day 
of Decemb 1 then next following : and wheras the bearer 
heerof, Capt. Fitz-John Winthrop, was disbanded out of 
the late armie in pursuance of an Act of Parliam*, and 
therby conceives himself to bee concerned to take no- 
tice therof and yield obedience therunto ; but has many 
urgent occasions to remayne in the citties of London & 
Westm r ; and wheras itt appeares by a certificate of his 
Grace the Duke of Albemarle, that the said Capt Winthrop 
hath faithfully served his Ma*r and did correspond and 
joyne with the said Duke of Albemarle in his most happy 
restouration : These are, according to the power given us 
by the said Proclamation to will and require all his Ma*. 8 
officers & others whome itt shall or may concerne, to 
pmitt the said Capt. Winthrop to passe to London and 
quietly to remayne and bee within the said citties of 
London and Westm* and pts therabouts, without their 
lett or molestation, for the space of three monthes after 
the date heerof, as they will answer the contrary. 

Given under our hands the fourteenth day of Januarry 
1661 [-2], and in the 13 th yeare of his Ma* 3 raigne. 

Edw: Nicholas 4 

Note. — These safe-conducts appear to have been, to some extent, matters 
of form. Fitz-John Winthrop is known to have been occasionally in London 
in the interval between the issuing of the above-mentioned proclamation and 

* George Monck had been created Duke of Albemarle, July 7, 1660. — Eds. 

t Arthur Annesley, 2d Viscount Valentia, created Earl of Anglesej', April 20, 1661. 
— Eds. 

X Sir Edward Nicholas was Secretary of State to Charles II., as he had been to 
Charles I. — Eds. 

432 APPENDIX. [1661. 

the date of this paper. In a letter to his father, dated Dec. 5, 1661, from 
Iladham in Essex (where he was on a visit to his friend, Charles Haynes), 

he says : — 

" I have rec'd y e Proclamation and finde y* I am something 
concerned therein, though y e cofnand therein imposed may be 
easily remooved if my uncle's occations draw him to y e Gen- 
erall's, which I suppose they mave. I would humbly desire 
him to obtaine an order for me, which, if I were in London, I 
could purchase without much trouble ; and though it maye 
probably be of little concernment for y e present, yet I would 
not willingly be without one, if it may be obtained without 
much trouble to y e Collonell.' , 

The phraseology of the permit, certifying that the bearer "hath faithfully 
served his Mat y ," and that he did "correspond and joyne with the said Duke 
of Albemarle in his most happy restoration," is probably conventional, and 
not to be taken literally. One of those vague family traditions which should 
never fail to be regarded with suspicion by the conscientious historian 
describes Fitz-John Winthrop as a "favourite" with George Monck. It 
would certainly seem as if the latter had too much on his hands at this time 
to be able to accord more than passing attention to a young officer barely 
twenty-one years of age ; nor is there a particle of evidence that he offered 
to provide for him in some regiment which was not to be mustered out. The 
fact that Fitz-John was step-grandson to Hugh Peter, who had so recently 
met his fate on the block, and nephew to Colonel Stephen Winthrop, who 
had been so active under Cromwell, may have rendered him an ineligible 
candidate for promotion. At any rate, his letters show him to have been 
desirous to prolong his stay abroad by occupying himself in foreign travel ; 
but his father thought he had spent too much money, and preferred that he 
should return to Connecticut, which he did in the summer of 1663. For 
some interesting particulars of his life in London and elsewhere at this 
period, see the letters to him of his friend and connection, the Rev. John 
Haynes, communicated to the Society in 1884, and printed in 2 Proceedings, 
I. 118-131. However improbable it is that he was a favorite of Monck, 
there is little doubt that he had a great admiration for that general, an 
original portrait of whom has long been in possession of the Winthrop 
family, which is believed to have been brought from England by Fitz-John 
Winthrop in 1697. — Eds. 

1672.] APPENDIX. 433 


These for his honered freind, Cap 1 John Winthrope, at New London, 

or elsewheer. 

James Forte in New Yorke, y e 20^ of Sep** 1669. 

Deare S*, — You complayne of me for my onkinde- 
nesse, but I complayne as well as you doe, & I supose 
that I have the most reason, but I shall leave that untill 
I have the happinesse to see you. I did heere y* you did 
intend for to come to New Yorke and to give the Gov- 
erner a vissett. I hope you will give your selfe that 
trouble to see us, your olde freindes, once againe before 
you and wee die, for here is not left of our old familiar 
acquaintance y* did corespond togeather when you was 
heere last, saveing M r Nicolls and my selfe. $% I woulde 
have sent you some powder for your owne shooteing, 
if I had had any that woulde have undertaken it soe 
in haste. Wee are juste goeing to y e shore, where I 
doe not question but y* wee shall bee mindefull of your 
present. I crave leave and am 

Your freind and serv- to command, 

Sil: Salisbury. 

These for Cap 1 - John Winthrop, present, at Hartford or New London, 

New Yorke, June 26 th 1672. 

S* , — You might with great reason taxe mee with ne- 
glect or incivility, should I omitt this oppertunity by the 

* Silvester Salisbury, an officer in the army, came to New York with Colonel Richard 
Nicolls in 1664, and soon after became intimate with Fitz-John Winthrop, who was present 
at the meeting of the Royal Commissioners in New York in August of that year, in attend- 
ance upon his father. Salisbmy subsequently saw much active service, and was long in 
command at Albany. There is another letter from him to Fitz-John, urging the latter to 
come to his wedding, in December, 1669, and one to Governor John Winthrop, Jr., in 1671, 
giving information of Indian movements. — Eds. 

t Captain Mathias Nicolls of the Royal Navy, who is stated to have received a legal 
education, and who was long Secretary of the Province of New York, afterward Speaker 
of Assembly and a Judge, became intimate with Fitz-John Winthrop and his father, aa 


434 APPENDIX. [1673. 

bearer from hence, M r Garland, who happily may kisse 
yo r hand at the delivery of this : comeing upon an un- 
happy occasion in pursuite after an apprentice-servant of 
his, who, in company of a sould 1 * (the Governor cooke) 
& one or two more volatile rascalls, are privily run 
away from hence. If he needs yo r assistance, I question 
not yo r kinde furtherance of him in his buisnesse. I was 
in great hopes (& our Governo r allsoe, with yo r other 
good friends) to have seene you & enjoyed yo r good 
company here, but now begin to despaire at this time of 
soe great comotions in Europe, wherein wee may expect 
to bee in some measure engaged ; however, I am sure 
wee shall feele the smart of it in being debarr'd the beni- 
fitt of trade from thence. I would willingly flatter my 
selfe some good & fortunate occasion may yet bring us 
together in some short time, either that you may come 
hither, or that I may travell to yo r parts, the least oppor- 
tunity whereof shall be improved very readily, though 
out of no other designe than to kisse yo r hand & for 
some season enjoy yo r kind society, the which, with all 
your concerns, is very much valued & the welfare of 
them desired by, S r , 

Yo r most affectionate humble servant, 

Mathias Nicolls. 


These for my hono r ? freind, Capf 1 John Winthrop, in New London. 

Hartford, July 29^, 1673. 

Noble Cap™ Winthrop, — I heartily salute you & 
hope these lines may find you in good health, the tydeings 

early as 1664. A number of letters which passed between them are already in print; and 
there are many additional letters of his, the earliest of which have suffered much from 
damp. Fitz-John Winthrop, at this period, was an officer of Connecticut militia, who 
served occasionally in the General Assembly, or upon Government Commissions, but who 
resided chiefly in New London, where he busied himself in raising stock on Fisher's Island, 
aud in looking after his father's property. — Eds. 

1673.] APPENDIX. 435 

whereof will be very wellcome w n it arriues here to your 
humble seruant J. A. S r , we haue had the hono r to en- 
tertein Col: Louelace* & your very freind Capt? Niccols 
(w th whome I haue gayned some acquaintance) whoe I 
find to be the same you represented him to be, viz : a 
sweet natured gent n He mourned that he mist of your 
company, & if the Gouerno r s Hono r would haue granted 
him a ly cense, .he would haue found you out had you 
been in any part of o r Arcadia. Whether your occasions 
or concernments were with Pamela, or w' h the royall cat- 
tell, he was resolued to haue giuen you a diversion ; but 
seeing his desire of seeing you was at this time frustrated* 
he threatens to take a more leisure time, & that some 
time between this & the spring, when he hopes he may 
serue you. He left these inclosed lines w th me to conuay 
unto you, which I hope will com safe. The Gouerno r , Col. 
Lovelace, & Capt? Niccols, w* h three seruants, came to 
Hartford on Fryday eve. & stayd till Tewsday morning. 
They were enterteind at the Gouerno r s house, I beleiue 
to good content. At their departure out of towne, Capt? 
Clarke w th his troope & most of the gent n here wayted 
upon them to Mattebessett Riuer & then gaue him o r 
farwell. M r Willys, w^ h Capt 1 ! Treat & two men, wayted 
upon them to New Hauen. S r , Capt n Niccolls would 
gladly receiue a lyne or two from you, to heare how you 
doe. If you meet w^ any oppertunety, p r sent my re- 
spects & seruice to him. S r , it is now haruest & indead a 
wett haruest too. Occasions call me off at p r sent. I beg 
your pardon for this scrible & request your p r sentation 
of my reall respects to Capt" Palmes & his lady, &c. 
& beleiue me S' that I am 

Your most affectionate freind & servant, 

John Allyn. 

* Colonel Francis Lovelace, Governor of New York, several letters from whom to John 
Winthrop, Jr., are to be found in 3 Mass. Hist. Coll., X. — Eds. 

436 APPENDIX. [1673. 


An exact account of all proceedings concerning the taking 
of New Yorke from the English, July the 30*? 1673 : — 

On Monday the 28*? of July, about 3 of the clock in y e after 
noone, y e Govf with y e Secretary being then at Hartford with 
Gov' Winthrop about busines of publiq concerne, six sayle of 
shipps were seene at Sandhook (a place some 7 leagues from 
N: York) by the inhabitants of Staten Hand, that lyes about 
4 leagues neare the saide citty, interposed in a mafier betwixt 
them ; w c . h sight somewhat startling the beholders, they haueing 
noe grounds to beleiue they could be English, espetially it 
being a tyme of warr, and euen in peace it was seldom knowne 
that euer 2 vessells came in to that port together. M* Thomas 
Louelace, y e Gov r s brother, who amongst others was then vpon 
y e Hand and vewed them, toock a canooe with onely one hand 
along with him, and came imediately to N : York against tyde 
(tho a swelling sea) to bring intelligence of what was seene. 
He was not an houer arriued before there came a messenger 
express from Grauesend, sent by Justice Hubbert ouer land, to 
acquaint us of 10 sayle of ships, y* were seene as neare as could 
be judged but a very litle distance without Sandhoock. This 
latter information confirming the beleife of the first to y e peo- 
ple of y e Forte & y e Towne, the officers of y e Fort, viz^ Capt : 
Mafiing, Cap: Louelace and Cap: Carr, imediately assembled 
themselues together to consult what was best to be done in 
order to y e preservation of y e Fort, y e onely strength and safety 
of y e country. By this tyme y e whole Towne was in an vprore, 
beleiuing that it was an enemy, for whatsoeeuer was at any tyme 
was brought to y e ears of y e great ones twas presently rumord 
amongst y e vulgar. But to persue y e busines, for twas not now 
a tyme to stand still, Cap : Mailing, who all way es acted as 
Cheife when y e Governor was absent, as soone as he heard this 
newes dispatch t away a boat with 6 hands to goe out a scouting 
to discouer whether they were freinds or foes, and to bring in- 
telligence accordingly ; but it being allmost night before the 

* This paper is in the handwriting of Fitz-John Winthrop, who, however, was not an 
eyewitness of the scenes narrated, but who copied it from an account prepared by John 
Sharpe, whose name figures in it and who is known to have visited New London not long 
after. See a letter of Sharpe to Governor John Winthrop, Jr., printed in 3 Mass. Hist. 
Coll., X. 108-110, and a letter from Governor John Winthrop, Jr., to Fitz-John Winthrop, 
printed in 5 Mass. Hist. Coll., VIII. 155.— Eds. 

1673.] APPENDIX. 437 

boat could go forth, his returne was not expected till next day, 
the night being then very dark. In y e meane time, for y e better 
preperation in case it should prooue an enemy, y e clerk was put 
to work forthwith to wright warrants to y e militia officers on 
Long Hand, requiring them imediately to draw vp their respec- 
tiue companyes together by beat of drum, and forthwith to 
repaire to the Fort to reinforce y e garrison against y e enemy, 
they hauing been aduertised before by severall orders to be in a 
redines vpon an occation, at 24 houres warning after notice 
giuen them. These warrants were dated and sent forth at 10 
a clock y e same night, with an other to y e Lieutenant of y° 
Troope, and an express (besides) both of horse and man to ride 
night & day towards Hartford to meete y e Gov? to acquaint 
him with y e newes, and deliuer a pacquet y* signifyed y e whole 
occurrance and y e necessity of hastning home. This done, in 
y e next place all y e beacons were set on fyre, as an alarum to 
armes, y e inhabitants being warned before y* vpon y e sight of 
thre ships together standing inward for y e Port, they should 
fyre them to rights. 

About 11 a clock this same night, all the boates and expresses 
being sent away, a strong guard set, with reserues, and y e grand 
rounds and patrole goeing about (both in Towne and Fort), there 
came another boat, with 5 or 6 hands, from Staten Hand to y e 
Fort, bringing us fresh intelligence of 19 ships in y e Bay of cer- 
taine, w c ? being strongly affirmed, y e bearers alledging to haue 
seene and told them almost 19 tymes ouer. Our people were noe 
less dismayed then amazed, knowing our selues to be but weak in 
comparison of such a fleete ; for without Long Hand assistance 
wee found wee could not make an 100 men, as indeede it after- 
ward it prooved. Moreouer, y e ill condition of y e Fort by y e 
badnes of y e carrages and platformes, w c ? then were not fixt 
(as twas intended they should be at y e Gouerno r s returne), to- 
gether with y e absence of his Honor, did soe much bereave our 
men of their wonted liuelynes and vigor, that in all that night 
there was litle or noe thing done in way of preparation for an 
enemy. However, at length through y e encouragement of y e 
officers, y e men began to put a good face vpon it, and to bestir 
them selues a litle in getting out armes, powder & ball, make- 
ing cartrages, spunges and such like habilaments for a battle. 
Whilst wee were thus busied, and euery one at work about 

438 APPENDIX. [1673. 

what he was able to doe, there comes another messenger knock- 
ing at y e Fort gates, betwixt y e howers of one and two in y e 
morning, to bring some farther intelligence, y e whome, when 
wee opened y e gates, wee found to be Christopher Amy of Neve- 
sinckes, a towne within 30 miles of N : York, lying out towards 
y e sea in y e neighbouring province of N : Jersy ; soe wee ad- 
mitted him in to y e yaurd and had a great deale of discoarse 
with him, but, in fine, his errand was to acquaint us that there 
was 21 sayle of ships at Sandhoock ; yet what they were he 
could not tell, tho he was soe neare them as to number them, 
and of that fleet he was sure there was 9 great frigots, w c * after- 
ward were found to be too true. Wee heartily thankt him for 
his freindly intelligence, and soe dismist him, he being very 
urgent for liberty to goe home. All this- was on Monday night. 
Tuesday morning wee loockt out to see if wee could spy 
eyther y e ships, or Stoffell, for he was y e man wee sent out a 
scouting. Wee saw neyther, yet to be in y e better readines wee 
sent men and officers in to y e Towne to press prouision, beare, 
bread, liquors & such like necessaryes to be brought into y e 
Fort, as allsoe an order to y e sheriff to bring in all y e ladders of 
y e Towne of aboue ten staues long to y e Fort; and (without 
ostentation be it spoken) noe thing was left undone that was 
judged necessary for an incounter ; onely y e guiles, carriages & 
platformes remayned in y e same posture they did, it being too 
late at y* tyme to think of mending them, by reason of y e neere 
aproach of y e enemy, and allsoe y e want of planck and other 
materialls. Neyther had wee aboue 60 men in all, besides Towne 
liuers, w ch were not more then 10 or 12 at y e most, and that was 
y e whole number wee had in y e Fort all y e tyme to y e surrender, 
for y e Long Hand people (as they afterward pretended) had not 
tyme enough to come in. Soe this fore-noone was spent in 
fixing armes and loading y e great guns, with what is mentioned 
before. Tuesday afternoone, about 3 of y e clock, our scout 
Stoffell came in and brought us intelligence they were noe 
freinds, for they bore a blew auncient with a white cross ; and 
some thing of red he perceiued besides, yet saw noe flagg. And 
their number was 21 sayle, most of them frigots, & whereof 
he was sure were great men of warr, square stern ed, and more- 
ouer that when he left them they were all under sayle, standing 
inward for y e Narrowes, a great way on this side Sandhoock. 

1673.] APPENDIX. 439 

About an hower after seven, when y e officers were consulting 
and about to send out a crew to make farther discouery pf what 
they were, they partly imagining they must be y e Virginia fleet, 
(most of y e Dutch inhabitants being allsoe of y* opinion,) there 
came a small ship entering into y e Narrowes, that is to say y e 
opening betwixt Long Hand and Staten Hand, w c ? when y° 
sould r s saw y* were vpon y e Fort walls, they called out " There 
they bee ! there they bee ! " Those words were noe sooner 
spoken, but they spj'ed 3 great frigots more coming after, vpon 
w c ? all y e Towne (who stood in throngs by y e water side) was in 
a strange hulliburl. Soe way ting to behold a farther prospect, 
wee saw them at length very farely sayle in, one after an other, 
till wee told 21 sayle, y e last whereof was a sloope ; but when 
they were in, (it growing towards night) they came to an anchor 
under Staten Hand, where they stayde till y e morrow. In y e 
meane tyme, strict guards were set in y e Fort, our men being more 
brisk and cheerfull than they were y e night before ; and as for y e 
Townes people, they toock litle rest that night, for they were 
busied in noething elce but in hurrying away their goods, some 
into y e country, some into sloopes and vessells, and some into y e 
Fort, most of y e English thincking noe place soe safe for their 
storage as y e Fort, for their apprehentions were y* y e Towne 
would be plundered, but y e Fort could defend itself. Next 
morning being Wedensday, wee hearing their trumpets sound 
on board, and seeing all of them riding with their top sayles 
atrip, wee very cherefully made our selues as ready for a 
brush as wee were able ; but God knowes all was in uaine, 
tho our hearts were good ; for in all this tyme wee had not a 
man from Long Hand, tho they were expected, nor more then 
a douzen men from y e Tow T ne, — y e Duch standing neuter, — a 
high shame for English men, who haue allwayes worne y e gar- 
land as to poynt of hono r and valour, that in such an eminent 
occasion they should draw their neckes out of y e collar to saue 
a few dirty goods (w ch is all they pretend to for their non-as- 
sistance), when it stood them in hand, unless they were voyde 
of all loyalty, to buckle on their armour in defence of their 
King & Country, as well as to preserve their owne rights & 
imunityes. Neyther is that all, tho y e loss of reputation is a 
wound suffitient to such as haue generous spiritts, but such 
flinching and wauering, euen in y e cheifer sort, was enough to 

440 APPENDIX. [1673. 

unhinge y e firrae resolutions of y e sould™, who were brauely in- 
tending to stand by it. And truly it may be beleiud y* if any 
pusillanimity did appeare amongst them (as tis likely it may 
be soe bruited, though with much of injustice), those persons ill 
precedents who soe withdrew themselues when it came to y e 
push, was y e caues therof ; for a small party of men, as they 
were, neuer could more courage appeare and eagernes to fight- 
ing be showne then was by them, they all crying out, when 
y e enemy aprocht y e Fort : " Let vs fyre ! let us fyre ! " and 
could hardly be restrayned from it, besides y e many shoutes and 
hullowes they made towards y e fleet, for all they saw they were 
soe potent and numerous, and had heard they were 3000 strong. 
About 10 of y e clock this forenoone, after a priuet consultation 
had by y e Fort officers, 3 men were sent on board from us, that 
is to say Cap : Carr, Esq r Louelace, and M r Sharp, to demand 
y e reason why such a fleet of ships should come in such a hostile 
maner to disturb his Ma tj . e8 subjects in these parts, and allsoe 
to treat with them amicably and freindly. Whilst these emis- 
sarj^es were rowing towards the ships, with a flagg of truce in 
their boat, they met with another boat (about half way) coming 
from y e ships, y* had a flagg of truce likewise, makeing towards 
y e Fort; soe each boat kept on his way with out stopping, oures 
to y e Fleet & theires to y e Fort. Theire boat brought a trum- 
peter to us with this summary to demand y e Fort, viz' 

My Lord, — The forces of warr now lying in yo r sight are sent out 
by y e High & Mighty States Generall of y e United Prouinces and his 
Serene Highnes y e Prince of Orange, for to distroy their enemyes. 
Wherefore wee haue sent you this sumons, to y e end y* you doe surren- 
der unto vs y e Fort called James, promising good quarter ; upon de- 
fault whereof wee shall be forced both by sea & land to prosecute our 
order in such manner as wee shall see to be most aduantagious for 
y e s d States Generall and his Serene Highnes y* Prince of Orange. 
Dated on board y e ship Swanenburgh, riding betwixt Staten Hand and 
Long Hand, this 9\ h of August, 1673. 

cornelis eversen de jonge. 

Jacob Benckes. 

When this summons was sent us, Cap 1 ? Maning (to prolong 
tyme) kept y e trumpeter here two or 3 houres, treating him 
with meete, drinck, wine, & such accomodations, thincking that 
they would not weigh anchor to approach y e Fort till they had re- 

1673.] APPENDIX. 441 

ceiued an answere ; w c ? notwithstanding they did, both winde and 
tyde being fa} T re for them. Y e reason why he prolonged y e tyme 
was for y* he had hopes that, in an houre or two more, y e men 
from Long Hand would come in, and y* y e Gouerno 1 " might 
allsoe reach home. Whilst thus wee on our side endevord to 
detayne y e tyme, and y e enemy on y e other side not minded to 
let slip a minute, he being told (as afterward wee learned) that 
even now was his onely opportunity, they weighed and set sayle 
towards y e Fort in a pretty close body. All this tyme our 
3 gentlemen, y* were sent out to treat with them, were on 
board their ships, being there detayned till wee sent back 
their trumpeter. At length, seeing them draw neere Nutton 
Hand, allmost within shot of y e Fort, Cap : Mailing dispatcht 
away y e trumpeter with this answere : 

Mr Lords, — I haue receiued by yo r trumpeter a summons w c > de- 
clares 3'ou are sent from y e High & Mighty States Generall of y e United 
Prouinces and his Serene Highnes y e Prince of Orange, to demand a 
surrender of this his Majestyes garrisons, but there being some gentle- 
men from hence who are treating with j-ou, 1 giue you this answere, y* 
vpon returne of those gentlemen I shall send you a possitiue answere, 
ej'ther of y c surrendering, or non-surrendering, of this his Majestj'es 
garrison. Dated at Fort James in N : York, this 30 th of July, 1673. 

John Maning. 

They hauing receiued this answere, they sent our men on 
shore with this reply : that they would giue us half an houre to 
consider of surrendering and noe more. Soe they turnd vp y e 
glass and kept on sayling, telling our men at their departure that 
when y e half houre was expired they would fyre a gun as a 
warning peice to minde us of our answere. Y e time being ex- 
pired and their gun fyred, wee indenturing what delay w r ee 
could by reason of our wekenes, in hopes that wee should still 
haue assistance from Long Hand, sent them at length this sec- 
ond answere by MF Sharp, as they were come to an anchor under 
y e Fort : 

My Lords, — For the preseruation of y e burgers of this citty, 
whome wee haue promised to protect, wee desire }*ou to forbear all 
acts of hostillity till y e morrow morning at 10 of y e clock, at w ch tyme 
wee shall send 3'ou our articles and our resolution thereupon. Dated 
at Fort James in N : York, July 30^ 1673. One of y e clock in y e after- 
noone. J. Maning. 


442 APPENDIX. [1673. 

The enemy hauing receiued this answere very proudly, sent 
this word by Mr Sharp that he would yet giue us an 
other half houre, and if then wee would not surrender, he 
would stay noe longer to parly it. Soe they turned vp } e 
glass againe, promising to fyre an other gun at y e half houres 
end as before. M r Sharp bringing that reply onely by word 
of mouth, and declaring how firmely they were resolued forth- 
with to attack us in case of our non-compliance to their 
summons, wee thought it not conuenient, nor for our credit 
or honof, to surrender y e Fort without resistance, and there- 
upon wee lockt vp y e turnepike and gates, with a resolution 
to stand vpon our defence. The half houre being expired, 
and they seeing noe returne from us, but all our coloures 
on y e contrary flourishing upon every bastion of y c Fort, they 
fyred two guns to leeward as warning peices to get their men 
on shore, the w c . h those upon y e workes easily perceiued. After 
this they began to make their batterings upon y e Fort, o r men 
being chargd not to fire first. Thereupon wee fired upon 
them, & soe continued firing one against another about an 
houre. At length wee finding their power too great for us, 
there being 9 men of warr against only 6 gunns of ours (whose 
carriages & platformes were soe bad as wee could not bring 
them to beare, nor could scarce discharge one gunn twice), wee 
putt up a flagg of truce upon y e works & beat a parley. Yet 
notwithstanding they kept firing & landing their men a great 
while after. Wee seeing their men land soe fast & fearing a 
storme, not knowing besides the townes people might joyne 
w th them, order was given (especially when wee heard they 
brought granados to throw amongst us) that the flagg should be 
struck. That being done, our officers holding a little consulta- 
con together about making articles, our gate centinells gave us 
intelligence that y e enemy was marching downe y e broad way 
towards y e Fort, but before they came too neare, they sent a 
trumpeter to us to know o* intentions, either about articles 
or a further resistance. Thereupon our offic r s sent out 3 
gentlemen to their Admirall, or chiefe comandf, to make the 
best conditions they could, the gentlemen being Cap* Carr, 
EsqF Lovelace & M r Gibbs ; who when they came up to the 
enemy, they made a halt & told our men they were pris- 
oners at warr. However, they said they would allow us a 

1673. APPENDIX. 443 

quarter of an houre to make of proposalls, soe sent back 
Cap' Carr to come & acquaint us therew th , keeping y° other 
2 men prisoners till Cap* Carr should returne to them w th an 
answer. Cap* Carr was noe sooner departed, in hopes, as they 
thought, that hee was gone to y e Fort, but like a tray tor hee 
turnd another way & was never seen since ! Neither wee nor 
yet y e enemy knowing thereof, but wee waiting & they waiting, 
wee when wee should see o r gentlemen coming to y e Fort, & y 6 
enemy when they should see Cap* Carr coming w*? an answer. 
The enemy in a rage causd their regim* to march, believing wee 
had deluded them, for y e quarter of an houre was more than 
double expired. Our officers hearing that y e enemy was march- 
ing down neare M r Van Ruyven's doore, & in an amazem* that 
none of of men returned, sent M r Sharp to them to acquaint 
them that wee expected y e returne of some of of gentlemen 
about articles. M r Sharp coming towards them w th a paper in 
his hand, they made a halt by y e tree, where he saw M r Lovelace 
& M r Gibbs prisoners under y e standard at y e head of y e regim*. ; 
soe delivering his message, y e chiefe commander replyed : Bit is 
de derde maal dot se de geek gespeelt hebben, — in other wordes, 
" This is y e 3* time they have play'd y e foole w*! 1 us." Soe com- 
manded their men to give noe quarter. Yet at length, upon y e 
mediacon of of gentlemen who were sent out to them, they would 
yield to allow us a little time longer. Soe M r Sharpe, coming 
back to of offic™ in the Fort, was immediately dispatcht away 
back againe w tb these Articles in writing, wee having not time 
to draw more. 

The Articles sent by M r Sharp were as followeth : — I s .' That 
all y e offic r s & souldi r s in y e Fort shall march out w th colours fly- 
ing & drumms beating. 2 a . That y e Fort, w l . h all y e artilery, 
armes & ammunicon, shall bee delivered up unto y e Dutch Gen a11 
or Cofnander, or to them who shall bee thereunto appointed. 
3* That y e English ofhVs, souldi r s, & others belonging either to 
y e Fort or Towne, shall march away where they please, w* h their 
goods, bagg & baggage, without hindrance or molestacon. 

These being delivered to y e Dutch Colonell at y e head of y° 
regim', by name Colve, hee read them, & not only soe, but causd 
M r Sharpe to read them in Dutch ; w c . h done, y e Coll : replyed 
hee had not time to give an answer in writing, but (said hee) 
" upon the word & honour of a gentleman & souldier," clapping 

444 APPENDIX. [1673. 

his hand upon his breast, " they shall bee performd." There- 
upon y e Fort gates were opened & they marcht into y e Fort, our 
men making a guard for them. Some of our men who numbred 
them, counted them to bee some 7 or 8 hundred. The shott wee 
receivd from them was as neare as could bee judgd some 6 or 7 
hundred, yet all y e men wee lost was only one. What damage 
wee did to them was never certainly known to us, they endea- 
vouring by craft to conceale it, yet certaine it is they had hurt 
done to one or two of their cheife shipps, as was perceivd next 
day by their mending them, & also had divers men wounded & 
killd, to the number of 18, as came afterwards from y e mouths 
of severall of their owne people. 

Now lastly, as to y e Articles, y e first two were performd y e same 
night, but the last infringd : for instead of granting our people 
their libertyes and estates, they depriv'd them of y e one y e very 
next day by imprison m* of their bodyes, & denyed them the 
other in seizing what they had by an act of confiscation ; that 
is to say, all those that were concernd in the Fort, from whence 
they sufferd noe goods to bee brought that were carryed thither, 
noe, not so much as a bed to lye on ! How severe their pro- 
ceedings have been since, in seizing upon the estates of English- 
men, imprisoning their persons, confiscating their houses, lands, 
& vessells, selling their own goods even before their faces, and 
other hard imposures & cruell molestations, besides the extir- 
pation of them all from out their territoryes when they had got- 
ten all they had, would bee much too tedious here to sett downe. 
Wherefore tis left to the verball relation of those who were 
present & were eye spectato? of all things, y e narrative whereof 
(if the full bee declard) cannot but draw teares from all tender 
hearted Christians. This was the mercy wee found from the 
merciless. However our hopes are & wee doe noe ways de- 
spaire but in due time Dabit Deus his quoque Finem. 

Vera copia. 


This for my noble freind, Cap f\ John Winthrop. 

Octob? 23, 1673. 
Noble Capt n , — I kiss your hand & am sorry I haue 
not time to enlarge my selfe as I would, to tell you how 

1674.] APPENDIX. 445 

much I am obliged to your seruice. But now, sweet S?, I 
can onely tell you that after many applications from the 
people of Long Island for ayd, to o r Court made, which 
yet haue been not duely attended (it is eno: to make a 
man blush to relate it!), they haue once agayn moued 
for helpe, which haue caused the Gouerno r & Magistrates 
here to request your selfe & M r Willys to goe ouer to 
Long Island, there according to your com 1 ! to charme the 
Belgick forces, by good words if it may be, from doeing 
the English prejudice : & the people haueing requested 
us to permit you to com amongst them, we haue commis- 
sionated you to goe ouer to them by a perticuler com* 
which will reach your hands, I hope, & desire you to 
attend ; not doubting, as occasion is requireing, we shall 
heare of your noble actions.* Which, together w th many 
loads of former obligations, will still more & more engage 
me to be allways acknowledging my selfe, dear Sf, the 
humblests of your seruants, 

John Allyn. 

The Gouerno r & young ladys are well. My seruice 
p r sented to M r Palmes & his lady, & pardon this scrible 
writ in great hast. 


N: L: Nov: 1674. 

S*, — The bearer hereof M r Danyell, one of y e reall 
Indian blood, and a person eminently imployed by y° 
Generall Court for regulating y e disorders and manageing 
y e prudentialls amongst y e Pequot Indians, does desire me 
to giue an account to yo r self of the late unhappy accident 
w ! 1 has hapned to his wigwom. A litle tyme since, a' 

* This commission authorized Fitz-John Winthrop to take as many men with him as he 
thought necessary. For an account of an action at the east end of Long Island, in which 
he succeeded in beating off the Dutch, see a letter of his to Secretary Allyn, printed in 
3 Mass. Hist. Coll., X. 93, 94. See also several letters to his father about this time, in 
5 Mass. Hist. Coll., VIII. — Eds. 

446 APPENDIX. [1674. 

careless girle playing with fyer at y e doore, it imediately 
tooke hold of y e matts, and in an instant consumed it to 
ashes, with all y e comon as well as his ladye's chamber 
furniture ; and his owne wardrobe and armory, Indian 
plate, & mony to y e valew (as is credibly reported) in his 
estemation of more then an hundred poundes Indian ; 
besides some papers of worth and a record of Court, w c ? 
confirmes and intitules him (I think) Dep: Gov r to Saga- 
more Robert. The Indians haue handsomly allready 
built him a good house and brought him in seuerall neces- 
saryes for his present supply, but that w ch takes depest 
melancholy impression vpon him is y e loss of an excellent 
Masathuset cloth cloke & hatt, w ch was onely seene vpon 
hollydayes and their generall sessions. His journy at this 
tyme is onely to in treat yo r fauour, and y e gentlemen 
there, for a kinde releife in his necessety, haueing noe 
kinde of garment but a short jerkin, w ! 1 was charitably 
giuen him by one of his coinon councill-men. He prin- 
ciply aymes at a cloke and bat, and those will be most 
acceptable to him. I haue onely tyme to add my owne 
intreatyes in his. behalf and that his necessetyes may 
haue releife, being as well disposed a man as can be 
expected ; w ! 1 is all at p r sent from S% 

Yo* most obedient son, J: Winthrop. 


Hartford, Novemb: 24^ 1674. 

Whereas Major Winthrope is bound for New Yorke 
upon a publicke account, these are to acquaint you that 
his expenses at ordynarys and ferrys is to be paide out of 
the publicke treasury. 

Samuel Willis. 

To any of the Ordinary Keepers in this Colony. 

* He had been ordered to accompany Samuel Willis, one of the Assistants, on a mission 
to New York to congratulate Sir Edmund Andros on taking possession of that Govern- 
ment. — Eds. 

1675.] APPENDIX. 447 


July 28* 1675. 

S R , — I must first present you with my sorrow y* I have 
not returned my thank es & confession for y e favour of 
yo r last & must now allsoe tell you that I am surprised 
with y e arrivall of y e bearer, who is returning in hast 
before I have fully satisfy ed my self with enquiring of yo r 
helth & prosperity, & can onely get tyme to present you 
with y e latest intelligence y* is come to my hands. On 
Sabothday morning last, early, there arrived an Indian 
sent to me by Ninecraft, with a present of one of Phillip's 
mens heades, as a testemony of his faythfulnes to y e Eng- 
lish, and an earnest of his goodwill & affection to us, & 
desired me to wright to y e GovT & gent™ at Hartford to 
informe them thereof, & that he has sent out a party of 
120 men to subdue y e enemy. This is y e substance of his 
messengers errand. The next day, whilst I was dismiss- 
ing y e messenger, I had a letter from Jireth Bull at Rhode 
Island, dated y e 24^ ins*, who gives acco* y* y e army had 
discovered y e swamp wherein Phillip & his company had 
secured themselves, & y* a party of y e English marched 
into y e swamp & were within sight of their houses, but 
being late in y e day, & haveing in their entring 5 men 
slayne & 10 wounded, they retreated & returned to 
Swansy, & called a councill of warr, where it was agreed 
that they would returne to Boston & onely leave one of 
the captaynes with 100 sould r . 8 to keepe garrison New 
Plimouth & those parts. He allsoe adds y* whilst he was 
wrighting intelligence was brought to Rhode Island that 
Miantinomyes son was out with a party of two hundred 
& desired y e English to sit still & not venture themselves. 
Uncas, his son, is gon to Boston with about 60 men to 
offer his service, & has sent his son to Hartford for securety 

* This is the only letter to be found in which the writer gives any particulars of King 
Philip's War, in which he was then serving with the rank of Major. It is a hurried 
draught, without address. — Eds. 

448 APPENDIX. [1675. 

of his faythfellows. This is y e substance of what I have at 
present y t passeth for current, & hope I may be excused 
for giving you soe undigested & confused acco fc , being 
impatiently hastened by y e bearer, & can only add my 
humble service to yo r self & lady & fayre daughter, with 
respects to M r Joshua & all yo", & intreat you to beleive 
that I am, in all faythfullnes, Hon r . d S r , 

Yo r most affectionate & faythfull serv*, J: W. 


These for the Hono r * Major John Winthrop Sf Ln\ John Mason ; deliuer 
these to them as you com up w th them, Sf in case Major Winthrop be 
absent, Gapt n . James Auery is desird g the Councill to supply what is 
desired of the Major. Hast, post hast. John Alltn, Sec'y. 

Hartford, Sept? 5. 1675. 

Hono? Gent!", — The continuance & increase of o r 
troubles up the riuer, by the Indians assaulting of the 
English, & theire often cryes to us for help, hath moued 
us to send up Majo T Treat w fch about a hundred & twenty 
dragoones under his conduct ; but upon their arriuall at 
Norwottock they haue receiued inteligence of the disaster 
at Pacomptock : one man slayn there, & most of the 
houses burnt & both corn & hay. Since that, they haue- 
ing thoughts of slighting of the garrison at Suckquake- 
heeg sent up Capt n . Beares with two carts & about thirty 
men, who when they had arriued neere the garrison were 
assaulted, as p the inclosed you will perceiue. The post 
sayth they had a hott engagement & slew many of the 
Indians, neere a hundred ; one fell who had a wampom 
coat, hoped to be Phillip. These things groweing, & 
the peoples feares increaseing & more help desird, we 
haue thought it convenient to send to you to come up to 
us forthwith, w th so many Moheagins as are willing to 

1675.] APPENDIX. 449 

come & you thinke may be trusted to engage the Indians, 
as allso what of the Pequots may be confided in & thought 
to be trusttee. Gent", we doubt not but you, viz : Majo r 
Winthrop, hath so good an interest in the Pequots, that 
you can giue a neer guesse how farr they may be im- 
proued upon this occasion ; & for the Mohegens, yon, 
viz: Ln* John Mason, have such interest that you can 
readily guess how far it may be convenient to imploy 
them. We desire you would forthwith upon the receipt 
of these, takeing to you three or foure or more men 
apeice to wayt upon you, com up w th those Pequots & 
Moheegs (that shall be willing to come with you & you 
judg trusty to engage those northern Indians) to Hart- 
ford, & we shall be prouideing more forces to be ready to 
march with them after the army up the riuer, where is of 
the Bay forces, Majo r Willard, Capt n Apleton, & Capt° 
Lathrop. Capt? Beeres was slayne in the last engage- 
ment neer Squakheeg. Gent n , please to hasten the post- 
ing up, as before it is desired, with all speed & dispatch 
you can make. Not els to ad ; we take leaue & are 
Your affectionate freinds, 

The Councill of Connecticott. 

Signed, John Allyn, Secy, 

Sopag, the cheife man of those Norwottock Indians, 
being against their motions, they slue him before they 
left theire forte & fled. You are hereby impowered to 
press what men you desire to come w tb you. 


Hartford, Septt 20. 1675. 

Hono rd Majo*, — I hope you haue recruited your 
wearyed bones since your last weary journy up hither 
& haue had a good passage in your return, & that your 


450 APPENDIX. [1675. 

gent n are safe returned to their habitations w* you, 
to whom present my respects ; & next time you come 
this way beware of haueing any Indian linguist in 
your company, least he so hide himselfe as that you 
leaue him behind you ! S r , haueing this opportunety 
by M r Mamowhoe & M r Daniel, I could do noe less 
than kiss your hand & give you what intelligence is 
with us, which indeed is very sad. We had yesterday 
in the evening a post from Hadly & by him letters 
from Maj or Pynchon & from Maj or Treat from Pacomp- 
tock, whereby we are informed that on Fryday it was 
concluded that Maj or Treat w th o r soldiers were to march 
up the country, on the east side of Conecticutt Riuer, to 
Suckquackeeg ; & Capt n Mosely, Lathrop & the Bay forces 
were to march up on the west side of the riuer. But so 
it fell out that Capt° Lathrop & his company, about fifty 
men & 15 of the inhabitants, were to guard 5 or 6 carts 
from Pacomtock to Hatfeild, which were loaden w th 
goods & corn ; they had not gon aboue 4 or 5 mile from 
the garison on Satturday last but the Indians had am- 
bascadoed them and assaulted them furiously, took the 
carts & spoyled the goods & threw about the corn & killed 
many of the men. Capt n Lathrop's trumpeto r being in 
the reare, he fled & alarmd the garison, called Capt 1 ? 
Mosely, who was in the woods hunting for the enemy, to 
com to Capt n Lathrops ayd ; who did hasten there but 
Capt n Lathrop was slayn & of his company but 8 yet heard 
of, & of the 15 of the inhabitants, there is but 3 yet heard 
of. Capt n Mosely desperatly charged throw the enemy & 
turnd agayn upon them & fetched off his wounded men ; 
he lost one man & about ten wounded, one of them haz- 
ardous, the other are hopefull to recouer. Majo r Treat was 
just marching as the alarm reached Hadly ; he presently 
sent Capt n Olmsteed w th about sixty men to keep them 
from passing over the riuer, & he w th the rest of o r army 
& Capt n Mason & o r Indians past back againe & hasted to 

1675.] APPENDIX. 451 

the battel!, & happily came up to Capt n Moseleys releife, 
who had been overpowered & destroyed elce ; & upon 
their appearance in the feild the enemie fled & they per- 
sued them. O r Indians fyred upon them, made many 
shotts at them & called to them to stay, but they went 
away ouer Pacomtock Riuer, which by reason of the 
rayne was too deep for our men to pass over. Yesterday 
they intended to gather vp the dead for buriall, & I sup- 
pose this day will be upon their march after the enemie, if 
o r forces com up w tb them which went up yesterday. We 
sent about 45 yesterday, so that Majo r Treat will haue 
now w th him aboue 220 English, besides Indians, who are 
as capeable & as willing as the English to doe damage to 
the enemie. Capt° Moseley & Capt n Apleton haue about 
200 left, but there will be some of them imployed to gar- 
rison the townes. They sent to the Bay for ayd, but we 
hear nothing from them. We should be glad to hear good 
news from your parts. I am in great hast, I canot enlarg. 
Onely one word more : John Lattimore came from Yorke 
last week & reports that at Harlem there was some upon 
the guard & 3 Indians affronted them, & a neer one of 
the guard fyred upon them & wounded one of them sore ; 
upon which the Capt° of the garrison of Yorke (I forget 
his name) sent some to persue them, but what was the 
issue I know not. My occasions are so many that I must 
craue your excuse for this scrible. I wish you may be 
able to read it. The Lord humble us under his mighty 
hand, giue us a spirit of repentance & reformation & grant 
us deliverance in his owne good time to his blessing & 
protection ! I commend you & am, sweet S r , 

Your freind & seruant, 

John Allyn. 
My seruice to M r Bradstreet & his lady, & all freinds 

w th you as named. 

452 APPENDIX. [1676. 


Fisher's Island, August 25 t] ? 1676. 

Hon b " S E , — Since yo r last letter & great present 
therewith, I have had noe direct opportune ty to re turn e 
my acknowledgment and must now allsoe pray yo r par- 
don for these hasty lines. I am greatly engaged for yo r 
Hon" kinde sympathy, & sence of the loss of my deare 
father, w ! 1 is too much a berevement to me to be past 
without the extremes of greife & melancholy, & can 
now onely be hapy & recovered from my mourning as 
yo r Hon r is pleased to concerne yo r self in my sorrowes ; 
& noething could have been more reviving to my dead 
heart than the hon r of yo r letter & kinde expressions 
therein.* Yo r liberty to me of visiting those parts will 
onely bring trouble to yo r Hon r , & these gent m (to whome 
I am depely obliged for the favour of their company in 
my retirement) will, I doubt, witnes to yo r Hon r how 
litle I deserve yo r favour & y e honour you are pleased to 
put upon me. However, I am resolved to wayte upon 
you & pay my duty with my best observance, & shall 
be happy to receive yo r comands, that I may assure you 
of my faythfullness & y e great ambition I have to be, 
Hon ble S r , 

Yo r most obedient humble servant, 

J: Winthrop. 

Note. — Major Edmund Andros (b. 1637 — d. 1714), an English gentle- 
man of good family, influential connections, and a favorite of the Duke of 
York, was Governor of New York, 1674-1681, in which latter year he was 
knighted ; Governor of New England (to which jurisdiction over New York 
and the Jerseys was subsequently added), 1686-1689 ; and Governor of Vir- 
ginia and Maryland, 1692-1698. In the first and last of these three admin- 
istrations he was, on the whole, successful ; but in New England he incurred 
a great deal of odium by becoming associated in the public mind with the 
arbitrary treatment of the Colonies initiated by James II., and advantage 
was taken of the fall of that monarch to depose and imprison him by a 
popular uprising. For an interesting and impartial account of Andros, see 

» Governor John Winthrop the younger had died, April 5, 1676, in Boston, where he had 
gone to attend a meeting of the Commissioners of the United Colonies. — Eds. 

1677.] APPENDIX. 453 

the introduction to the " Andros Tracts," edited for the Prince Society by 
our associate, W. H. Whitmore. Two letters from Andros to Governor John 
Winthrop, Jr., are to be found in 3 Mass. Hist. Coll., X. 115, 116 ; and 
others will be hereafter printed with the latter's miscellaneous correspond- 
ence. Two letters to Andros from Governor John Winthrop, Jr., and seven 
letters to him from Fitz-John Winthrop, may be found in Winthrop Papers, 
Part IV. (5 Mass. Hist. Coll., VIII.). Fitz-John Winthrop appears to have 
seen a good deal of him during the early part of his governorship of New 
York, and to have become really attached to him. As will appear hereafter, 
he was very far from considering him the tyrant which he is so often repre- 
sented to have been. — Eds. 


[May 15, 1677.] 
To all people unto whorae this p r sent deed of sale shall come 
greeting: Know y e y 4 we, Fitz-John Winthrop and Waite Still 
Winthrop, of Hartford in y e Colony of Connecticott in New 
England, gent™, executo r s of the last will and testam* of the 
honoured John Winthrop Esq!*, late of Hartford afores d deed, 
and Elizabeth Newman, widow, Edward Palmes, in right of 
Lucy his late wife deed, John Corwin and Margaret his wife, 
Martha Winthrop & Anne Winthrop, children of the said John 
Winthrop Esq r and executrixes of his said last will: for and 
in consideration of the sum of three thousand three hundred 
pounds, in currant money of New England, to us in hand paid, 
and secured in the law to be payd, at and before the ensealing 
of these p r sents, by M r3 Elizabeth Lidgett, of Boston in y e 
Massachusetts colony of New England, widow, wherew th we 
doe acknowledge ourselues fully contented, satisfied and payd, 
have given, granted, bargained, sold, aliened, enfeoffed & con- 
firmed, and by these p r sents do freely, fully and absolutely give, 
grant, bargaine, sell, assigne, alien, enfeoffe & confirme, unto y e 
s d Elizabeth Lidgett, her heires and assignes, all that our farme 
called Ten Hills, situate, lying and being at Misticke, within 
the precincts of Charlestowne in the county of Midd* in y e 

* This was the suburban farm of Governor John Winthrop the elder, lying between 
Charlestown Neck and Medford, and to which there are references in his journal as early 
as 1631. In 1740 it came into possession of Robert Temple, father of Sir John Temple ; and 
his eldest son, the Hon. Robert Temple, a loyalist, was living there at the outbreak of the 
Revolution. It maintained its reputation as a farm until comparatively recent times, but 
was gradually cut up and built over. — Eds. 

454 APPENDIX. [1677. 

Massachusetts Colony afors d , containing six hundred acres of 
land, more or less, of arable, pasture & wood land, medow and 
marsh, with the tenement or dwelling houses, barnes, out- 
houses, and all edeffices and buildings whatsoever standing and 
being upon the said farme or any part thereof, with the gar- 
dens and orchards thereunto belonging ; as also one orchard in 
y e neck of land over ag st the oyster banks ; the said farme being 
bounded south easterly by land formerly sold to Hutchinson, 
and a broad creek running from said Hutchinson's land to y e 
river a little below the orchard ; northerly and north easterly 
by Mistick River ; southwest & westerly by Charlestown Com- 
mon from Hutchinson's land to y e foot of Mistick Bridge (ex- 
cepting ab* four acres of marsh sold to Benanuel Bowers) ; 
and all and every of o r estate, rights, titles, interest, possession, 
claime and demand of, in or to y e said farme or any part or 
p r cell thereof, together w th all the timbers, wood, underwoods, 
fruit trees & other trees, fences (as well of stone wall as others) 
standing, lying or growing upon the said farme or any part 
thereof, or in the orchard on said neck of land ; w th all wayes, 
waters, water-courses, ponds, rivers, fishings, allotting, comon- 
ages, feedings, rights, members, liberties, priviledges and appur- 
tenances whatsoever to y e said farme belonging, or in any wise 
thereunto at p r sent belonging, or therewith hereafter to be had 
& enjoyed ; together with the two divisions on y e other side of 
Mistick River, namely, the wood lott above M r Wade's land, 
with the comonage thereunto belonging, and the last division 
of lands towards Woburn, and o r right in the ware at Nottomy : 
to have and to hold the above granted and bargained farme 
and all other the above granted p r misses, with the rights, liber- 
ties, members, priviledges & appurtenances thereunto belonging 
or in any wise appertaining, unto the above named Elisabeth 
Lidgett, her heires and assignes, to the only proper use, bene- 
fit and behoofe of the said Elisabeth Lidgett, her heires and 
assignes for ever. And we, y e said Fitz-John Winthrop & 
Waite Still Winthrop, Elisabeth Newman, Edward Palmes, 
John Corwin & Margaret Corwin, Martha Winthrop and Anne 
Winthrop, each of us, for o r selues and for our respective heires, 
executo r s and adm r s, do covenant, promise and grant to and 
with the said Elisabeth Lidgett, her heires & assignes, that at 
the time of the ensealing hereof we are the true, sole and law- 

1677.] APPENDIX. 455 

full owners of all the afore bargained p r raisses, and are lawfully 
seized of and in the same, and every p* thereof, in o r own 
proper right. And y t we haue in o r selues full power, good 
right and lawfull authority to grant, sell, convey and assure 
the same unto the said Elisabeth Lidgett, her heires & assign es, 
as a good, p r fect and absolute estate of inheritance in fee simple, 
without any condition, revertion or limitation whatsoever so as 
to alter, change, defeat or make void the same. And farther 
that the said Elisabeth Lidgett, her heires and assignes, shall 
and may by force and vertue of these p r sents from time to time, 
and at all times for ever hereafter, lawfully, peaceably & quietly 
have, hold, use, occupy, possess and enjoy the abovesaid farme, 
and every part & p r cell thereof, with all other the aboue granted 
p r misses with theire appurtenances, free and clear and clearly 
acquitted and discharged of and from all former & other gifts, 
grants, sales, leases, mortgages, wills, legacies, bequests, entailes, 
joyntures, forfeitures, judgments, executions, and of and from 
all other titles, troubles, charges and incumbrances whatsoever; 
and shall and will warrant and forever defend the above granted 
p r misses, and every part and p r cell thereof with theire appurte- 
nances, unto the said Elisabeth Lidgett, her heirs and assignes, 
ag st all and every p r son and p r sons whoever haveing, claiming 
or p r tending to have or claime any legall right, title or interest 
of in or to the same, by, from or under us or other of us, by 
our or either of our means, act, consent, default, title or pro- 
curement, and, without the least lett, deny all interruption, 
suit, trouble, eviction or ejection of us, or either of us, or 
either of o r heires, executo r s, adm r s, or assignes. In witness 
whereof, we the said Fitz-John Winthrop, Waite Still Win- 
throp, Edward Palmes, John Corwin, Margaret Corwin, Elisa- 
beth Newman, Martha Winthrop and Anne Winthrop, haue 
hereunto put o r hands & seals this eleventh day of May, anno 
Dom: one thousand six hundred seventy & seven, annoque 
regni Regis Caroli Secundi Anglise &c, vicessimo nono. 1677. 

F: John Winthrop. 

Waite Still Winthrop. 

Edw? Palmes. 

John Corwin. 

Margaret Corwin. 

Martha Winthrop. 

Anne Winthrop. 

456 APPENDIX. [1G77. 

Postscript indorsed : 

It is agreed before the ensealing hereof, and the within- 
named Fitz-John Winthrop, Wayte Still Winthrop, and other 
y e granto r s within named do further covenant, promise and 
grant for themselves respectiuely and theire respectiue heires, 
executo r s and adm r s, to deliver up unto the within named 
Elisabeth Lidgett, her heires or assignes, all originall deeds, 
writings and evidences whatsoever, faire and uncancelled, or 
true coppies of them, which they have or can come by, touching 
or concerning the within grants, p r misses, or any part or p r cell 
thereof; as also, upon the request or demand of the said Elisa- 
beth Lidgett, her heires or assignes, to give unto her or them 
such further and ample assurance and confirmation of the afore- 
bargained and every part thereof as in law or equity can or may 
be desired or required. Witness o r hands May the 17 th 1677. 

F: John Winthrop. Margaret Corwin. 

Waite Winthrop. Martha Winthrop. 

Edward Palmes. Anne Winthrop. 

John Corwin. 

Signed, sealed and delivered, after y e entrance of the post 
script, in p r sence of us, by all the within named p r sons excepting 
M™ Newman : 

John Richards. 

Samuel Shrimpton. 

Is* Addington. 

Mr Fitz-John Winthrop, Waite Still Winthrop, Edward 
Palmes, John Corwin, Margaret Corwin, Martha Winthrop 
& Anne Winthrop, freely acknowledged the within written in- 
strument, and postscript indorsed, to be theire jojmt act and 
deed : May : 17 th 1677. 

Before me, Thomas Danforth, Assist 1 . 

Entered y e 17 th of Octofr 1677. 

1678.] APPENDIX. 457 


July 18 th , 1678. 

S*, — The inclosed is a coppy of a petition delivered in 
to y e Councill yesterday by the agents of Warwick. It is 
ordered thereupon that a coppy thereof be sent to y e Bos- 
ton agents and that they answer to as much as concernes 
theire governrn*. I am taking out one order for one of y e 
petitions & thought to have gott them both in one order, 
but must have 2 distinct orders for y e petitions, which 
will be refer'd to the determination of some judicature in 
New Eng d . I feare therefore that I shall not gett a posi- 
tive direction from the King as you intended, but feare 
not but I will gett you into some place of profitt & ad- 
vantage, & am therefore petitioning the King, for the 
better observation of the lawes of trade, to have all the 
forts & castles by his comra 8 . 8 putt into the hands of such 
as I may answere for, & to that end have made a map of 
the bay of Boston, that the King may see the necessity 
thereof. W* money I lay out in y r busines shall account 
at our next meeting. Pray let me heare from you, but 
be assured that all those petitions will the sooner bring 
the whole matter to a determination. Wishing a good 
voyage & safe arrivall, I am, S r , 

Yo r faithfull freind & serv* 

E : Randolph. 

* Edward Randolph, who has been called "the evil genius of New England" from his 
efforts to procure the abrogation of the colonial charters, came first to Boston in 1676, as an 
agent to report upon the condition of the Colonies. He subsequently made a number of trips 
to and fro, sat in the Council of Sir Edmund Andros, was imprisoned and sent home after 
the latter's fall, but continued to exercise a baleful influence over colonial affairs. This is 
an original letter, evidently written in London, and was probably addressed to William 
Stoughton, afterward Chief Justice and Lieutenant-Governor, then one of the two Massa- 
chusetts agents, who came home not long after. He may have lent it to Dudley, with 
whom he was intimate. At any rate, it appears to have come from Dudley's papers; but 
it could not have been addressed to Dudley, as he did not go abroad till some years 
later. — Eds. 


458 APPENDIX. [1678. 


N: Lond: Nov: 19: 1678. 

Hon ble S*, — Since my returne hither from Boston I 
haue rece d yo r . Hon rs letter and renewed faaoures therein, 
and am sorry that I haue not tyme to make my confession 
& acknowledgments to yo r Hon r , haueing but a minute's 
notice of this opportunety and a little hurried with my 
trifles, being just come to towne. I heare noe newes 
worth yof notice in these parts, nor any thing at Boston. 
Y e last ship from England arriued there about seuen 
weekes since ; others haue been long expected and tis 
hoped will come in with y e first easterly windes. The 
small pox increaseth daly and is uery mortall ; 43 were 
buried last wek and about 800 are now sick, others daly 
uisited, and y e disease spred into many townes of that 
Collony. Capt : Lamoigne y e French priuateere was 
lately at Boston, where I had opportunety to see him & 
heare his declaration against y c priuateeres in his other 
shipps, for wilfully loosing one of his prizes and dispos- 
ing of much gold, pearle, siluer plate & other things to 
great ualew, contrary to his knowledg & their articles 
of agrem* at their comission-port ; and his application to 
y e Gou r for releife & y t y e principle actors might be se- 
cured & a Court of Admiralty granted to heare his com- 
plaint by his attornyes M r Wharton & M r Tayler. After 
he had gon thus far in his busines, he returned to Rhode 
Island to share y e goods in y t ship, w ch I understand is 
ended to consent, & most (I beleiue) disposed of to some 
merchants there & at Boston ; and is this weeke gon 
thither for y e issue of y e Court of Admiralty. Seuerall 
interests are engaged in y e case on both sides, w c . h makes 
much discoarse of what may be y e issue. S r , I am calld 
upon, & haue onely tyme to scrawle my humble seruice & 
my desires that I may still be preserued in yo r good 
opinion & fauour, and that I think it long till I haue 

1678.] APPENDIX. 459 

y e hon r to kiss yo r hand and renewed leaue to be still 

Yo r Hon r s most faythfull obedient humble seru* 

J: W. 


Deare S r , — I haue been soe long without yo r letters 
that I begin to think you haue allmost forgot me, w ch you 
must beleiue is greatly unsatisfying to me, since noe thing 
can happen more severe upon me then y e sence of being 
out of yo r memory, to whom I am greatly obliged in my 
affection & seruice. I haue but a sand of tyme & must 
suspend my affectionate quarrell with you till a fitter 
season, this being in y e greatest hurry to p r sent my ser- 
uice & desires of hearing from you; and must end, as 
confusedly as at blindeman's buff, with my due respects to 
yo r self ■& good lady & a hasty assurance y t I am, deare 
S r , yo r most affectionate humble seru*, 

J: W. 

N:Lond: Nov: 1678. 


For the worship/ 1 } Major John Winthrop, Esq r , at his house in N: London. 

[Indorsed, Dec! 1678.] 

S?, — The appearance of this bearer, whom I take for 
the ghost of N : London, recovers my shattered brains & 
lost senses (by the late mischeif I have suffered) unto a 
perfect & living remembrance of those great & strange 

* This letter and the preceding are on the same sheet, on the back of which was subse- 
quently indorsed by the writer, "Copp)' to S r Edmond Andros" ; but the second letter is 
probably to John Allyn, or some Connecticut friend. — Eds. 

t The writer was at this time an Assistant of the Massachusetts Colony. " The Bishop " 
may be a nickname for Wait Winthrop, who was always a man of graver disposition than 
his brother, and whose middle name of Still is believed to have been derived from his 
father's great-uncle, Dr. John Still, Bishop of Bath and Wells. — Eds. 

460 APPENDIX. [1680. 

civilityes I was made happy with when lately I troubled 
your quarters & you. I account myself unhappy that I 
should be the object of so much goodness with so little 
sense. That I may recover what I have lost of that 
nature, I labour to rayse in my self a scene or theater as 
like as possible to N : London Hill, upon which to my 
great satisfaction 1 see you hasting to meet raee, & then 
I despise my poverty & feel no payn. The distemper in y e 
towns hereabouts prevayles & is very mortall. Mf Whar- 
ton is hurrying the poor English privateers to jayle & 
misery. Yesterday arrived two ships in eight weeks from 
London, confirming what we formerly heard : y e danger 
of his Majesty by y e Dukes secretary either by poyson or 
ponyard, procuring y e disarming of all papists. Excuse 
my not writing to y e Bp : at this time by reason of hur- 
ryes, & let mee obtain your kind remembrance for him 
who is 

Your humble serv* J. Dudley. 


For the Hon hl f Major John Winthrop, att his house att Fisher s Island. 

N: Yorck, y c 16* of A prill, 1680. 

S*, — This is by Cap. fc Hall (comander of the sloop Mary, 
in the King's service). My reiterated acknowledgem t9 & 
thancks for yo r late obliging & kind visitt in this place. 
I have now sent about y e wrack, or goods drove ashore, 
out of y e barck Providence, & to demand & receave a 
lambe for y e tenure of yo r island, & assure you that as I 
doe my duty to his Maj^ & R 1 Highnes, I shall have con- 
tinued regard to vol particular concernes. M r Arnold 
having lett me know he hath by his sloop signified to 
you his readines to convey any letters, or what else, to 
me (as order'd), I hope to heare from you upon all oca- 
tions, & shall not be wanting to serve you without delay 

1680. J APPENDIX. 461 

accordingly. I have receav'd an answer from Governor 
Leet from Hartford, by which he seems to argue for a 
pretended right to Fisher's Island (by consequences) nott 
particularly parted with ; but nothing materiall for their 
said pretence, — rather y e contrary in every respect, — 
& if insisted on by them must tend to their further detri- 
ment.* So thinck they will not persist therein ; however, 
shall not be wanting in asserting itt & yo r interest as I 
ought, & remain e 

Your most afectionate freind & humble servant, 

E. Andkos, G. 


Hartford, May 31: 1680. 

Hon r . d S R , — I haue been so hurry ed w th busines that I 
scarsly haue had time to thinke of my freinds, but 
should I forget your selfe, who haue so often multiply d 
your obligations & bound me to your seruice, I must be 
forced to acknowledg I breake all the bonds of frendship. 
I must now only beg pardon for all past ero r s & promise 
to be more carefull in paying my debts for y e future ; & 
after thankfull acknowledgment of your last kindnesses 
to your unworthy seruant, I must tell you that Fishers 
Island doth ly where it did in spight of M. A. or — ! O r 
statesmen haue had great talks about it & would easily be 
perswaded to a good agreement w th your selfe as touching 
the gouerm* of that island & the acknowledgments from 
it, if S r Edmond were shifted off. They seem resolued to 
hold it, but yet haue done no more then only sent a 
protest to your constable to publish, but I suppose will 

* The sovereignty of Fisher's Island had long been in dispute between New York and 
Connecticut. The island was originally granted to John Winthrop, Jr., by the General 
Court of Massachusetts, Oct. 7, 1640; confirmed by the General Court of Connecticut 
April 9, 1641. Finding it subsequently included in the patent of New York, he obtained 
from Governor Richard Nicolls of New York a patent, bearing date March 28, 1668, erect- 
ing it into an independent township or manor. See 5 Mass. Hist. Coll. VIII., for Fitz-John 
Winthrop's answers to this and other letters from Andros. — Eds. 

462 APPENDIX. [1680. 

speedily proceed farther. Sundry acts of safety haue 
been drawn up by o r last Court, which I send by the 
marshall, whoe will giue you a sight of them before they 
goe out of his hands. He can informe what you shall 
inquire of concerning o r affayres here. Prouidence hath 
so disposed that one of o r new justices is like to be the 
administrato r of justice amongst you. I hope you will 
giue him all due countenance & incouragement. Major 
Tallcott is very ill ; this day his fitt was so sore it was 
ready to overcom him. Many are ill of the feauour here. 
O r freinds at Boston, y e Capt" &c. were well last weeke. 
Ben Dauis hath a young daughter. Y e last election at 
Boston spgyled a good minister, a deacon & ship's car- 
penter ! Bedford Russell, by reason of some applyca- 
tions, mist it this bout, I hear.* If any thing be with 
you, pleas to acquaint your poor servant with itt. His 
Ma ties letter I am forced to detain a litle longer, but by 
my next you shall find it inclosed. Respects to all 
freinds. I wish good success in your affayres & ever 
will be 

Your humble seruant, John Allyn. 

My deare salutes you. 


For the Hon hl . e Major John Winthrop, at Fisher's Island. 

N: Yorck, y e 8 ,h of June, 1680. 

S R , — This is by Cap* Hall, of the sloop Mary (intended 
as soon as returned to Pemaquid) sent expresse to in- 
quire of y r health & welfare, w ch I hope is well. I 
heare that our neighbours, after some debates among 
themselves, are better satisfied, & doe not thinck of 

* By "Bedford Russell " Allyn means George Russell, stated to have been youngest 
son of the fifth Earl of Bedford and brother of the patriot, William, Lord Russell, who 
resided several years in Boston at this period. — Eds. 

1680.] APPENDIX. 463 

intrensliing upon the right of Fisher's Island ; and I 
shall be glad to heare from you & doe what farther 
may be necessary in any respect. I did hope I might 
have seen you my selfe ere this, but have been a litle 
taken up with N : Jersey concernes, where am this even- 
ing, or early in the morning, going againe to an Assembly 
sitting; all very well satisfied & hope wil be indemni- 
fied for past actions. By a small vessell from Bermoudes, 
I heare of my Lord Colpeper passing in there about 7 
weekes since, in his way to his go verm' of Virginia. No 
newes, but all well at home. Wee drinck your health 
and desire your acceptance of a toste of our wine, 
remaining, S*, 

Your affectionate and most humble servant, 

E. Andros, G. 

Cap* Hall asking me, ocations this postscript, to repeate 
& acknowledge the receipte by him of y e lambe you paid 
him (as authorized) for acknowledgm fc of yo! tenure of 
Fisher's Islan^ and is in full to this time. 

Yo? E. A., G. 


N: Yorck, y e 30* of June, 1680. 

Hon bi : e S* — I have by Cap* Hall receav'd both yours 
of y e 8*? & 12^ instant, & inclosed protest of Coneticutt 
of y e 13^ May, relating to Fisher's Island, as insignifi- 
cantly published att New London, — of w ch nott the least 
notice to me, though letters from them since. I had 
been by M r Throughbrig told that busines had been 
under consideration, but laid by. My brother Knapton & 
M r West are now sent to setle & sweare a constable upon 
yo r island according to lawe, & so proceed eastward. Of 
all w ch I doe both write & send home a full accompt by a 

464 APPENDIX. [1G80. 

pi nek of M r Heathcots, now ready to saile for London. I 
shall nott be wanting on ocation efectually to serve y?, 
perticularly for suficiently fitt authority (when y u give me 
the oportunity) nott only for yo r island, but other parts 
of y e governm* ; w c . h I thinck none cann blame you for, but 
the contrary, & pray I may heare from y u of itt. Cap*. 
Clements & Bownd arived from London last week, 9 
weeks passage ; report all well, and Parlem* prorogued 
from 15 th Aprill to 17 th of May, or No ber , unles forein 
afaires require itt. Our young marchants or factors hiere 
are full of expectacion of a new colector for y e customes ; 
ye revenus of this place said to be farmed, as hath been 
much solicited, by one M r Tho : Grifith, but nott yett 
efected when these ships came away. So, referring y? to 
the bearers & Cap* Hall for all perticulars, & hoping yett 
to see you this sumer, I remaine, S% 

Your afectionate and most humble servant, 

E. Andros, G. 


N : Yorck, 26* h of August, 1680. 

S H , — This is by y e first oportunity, the return of M! 
Piatt. My thancks for y ra by him of y e 16 th instant ; in 
answer to w ch I thinck our neighbours will not atempt to 
seize or trouble the new constable of y T . island, but if they 
should, I shall be ready upon y e first notice, as I have 
authorized, to justifie & indemnifie him acordingly, and 
hope by y! retorn of y e sloop Mary (dayly expected) to 
heare farther from you, & if not, then att my return from 
Albany (where I thinck I must goe in a few dayes vpon 
our neighbours acompt with Indians) to see y u hiere or 
nearer y r parts. Remaining, Hon ble S r , 

Your afectionate freind and most humble servant, 

E. Andros, G. 

1680.] APPENDIX. 465 


To the Hono hl ? Majo r John Winthrop JEsq r , present, att New London. 

Hon b1 : e S R , — I have by my brother Knapton & M r 
West receav'd y r f of y? T^ instant, & am glad to heare 
of y r continued welfare and care to send what may con- 
cern your island, & shall nott be wanting in my duty & 
perticularly to serue y u . relating to itt vpon all ocations 
acordingly. This is by Cap* Collier, sent with the sloop 
to Roode Island or Seconck, & so by land to my Lord 
Culpeper att Boston, & have directed him, in case my 
Lord should come this way, to give y u . notice, hoping 
your good company then also. I remaine, S r , 
Your faithfull and most humble servant, 

E. Andros, G. 

N: Yorck, y c 14*? of Sep* 1680. 


These for Maj r . John Winthrop, at New London, p r M r Christophers. 

Boston, Sep? 29: 1680. 

Deare S b , — My last to y u was p r M r Minor of Stoning- 
ton, which gave y u an acc° of all remarkable occurrents 
heer till y* day, and p'ticulerly with my disposition to be 
yo r darywoman, but since shee receives noe call to y* im- 
ployni*, shee is fearful 1 y u doubt her sufficiency and have 
p r ferred some other to y e place ; but of this more at 
Narrogansett next month. Since my Lord Culpepper 
came hither I have knowne of noe opportunity to give 
y u notice. * It would have been great satisfaction to yo r 
friends to have seen y u heer, and noe less to yo r selfe to 
have conversed with his Lordship, who designd much 
more than to shun a seasoning in comeing hither. He 

* Thomas, 2d Lord Colepepper, was then Governor of Virginia : he died in 1688. —Eds. 


4G6 APPENDIX. [1G80. 

is a strict observer of all publique transactions and pri- 
vate improvements. He hath lately complemented our 
Govern 1 " and Councell with his desire to have our Agents' 
company for England, offering them y e accomodation of 
his ship and table, and to stay a fortnight or three weeks 
for them. He hath also tendered to deposite for y e King's 
behalfe £1250 sterling for y e Province of Maine, w ch will 
not be received. His Lordship hath communicated to 
myselfe and some few friends a letter from y e King, full 
of most intimate expressions of respect and favour, and 
great dependance-upon his councell and service in Eng- 
land, with comands \v th all possible speed to returne. It's 
probable he hath some private instructions respecting this 
place, his observacons and offers intimating soe much. 
His stay will not now be above 5 or 6 dayes, except 
some desperate offer of agency be made in y e mean tyme. 
He promises to be our sollicitor for settlement of Narro- 
gansett, and to send an effectuall answere to our peti- 
con sent this sumer. Noe news from Engl^ more than 
that y e Parliam' has prorogued till November next, and 
that y e King hath by a publique declaracon abjured all 
marriages and contracts with any woman besides his 
p r sent Queen. I have with great care attended yo r in- 
structions ; and to keep separate y e wine from y e brandy, 
put one in a barrell & y e other in a case. M r Christo- 
phers hath y e key of y e case. S r , I reteine a due sense 
& disposicon to be 

Yo r aff fc brother & serv*, Rich Wharton. 

Note. — Richard Wharton was a very active man, who at different periods 
was concerned in trade with the West Indies, with mining operations, and 
with land speculations in Maine and in the Narragansett country. He was 
a member of the Council of Sir Edmund Andros, but, becoming one of the hit- 
ter's strongest opponents, went to England in 1687 to complain of him. He 
died in London, May 11, 1GS9, leaving his affairs much embarrassed. There 
are both earlier and later letters of his to Fitz-Jolm Winthrop; but his hand- 
writing is so difficult that it has not thus far been convenient to decipher 
much of them. Some interesting letters of his to Wait Winthrop will be 
printed in the succeeding volume, lie married, first, about 1G59, Bethia, 

1680.] APPENDIX. 467 

daughter of William Tyng, and cousin of Mrs. Joseph Dudley; second, in 
1672, Sarah, daughter of Rev. John Higginson of Salem (she died in 1676); 
and third, in 1677, Martha, one of the younger daughters of Governor John 
Winthrop of Connecticut, who survived him. He had issue by all three 
marriages. William Wharton, his son by his first marriage, is known to 
have been abroad as early as 1680, appears to have been secretary to Cran- 
field's Commission in 1683, and was subsequently a lawyer in London. He 
is mentioned in the letters of William Penn and Sir Henry Ashurst in 
the present volume, and a letter from him to Fitz-John Winthrop is printed 
on page 288. Our late president, the Hon. James Savage, was rarely at fault 
in his Genealogical Dictionary of New England; but he made the mistake 
of describing two Eichard Whartons, who, as subsequently pointed out 
by our learned vice-president, Dr. Charles Deane, were one and the same 
man. See 5 Mass. Hist. Coll., IX. 113. — Eds. 

To the Honor^ Majo r John Winthrop^ att New London, p r sent. 

N: Yorck, the 2? of Oct*' 1680. 

S R , — This is by M r Daraals sloop. No ships lately 
ariued, nor any newes, but all well in these parts. 
Hourely expect the return of the sloop Mary, when I 
hope seing you also att this time of Generall Court of 
Assises; thow my Lord Calpeper (as I doubt) doe nott 
come this way, w ? 1 you '1 heare from Cap* Collier. Shall 
not be wanting to serue you ; remaining 

Your afectionate and most faithfull servant, 

E. Andros, G. 


For the Hon hl f Major John Winthrop, att his house in N: London, 

N: Yorck, y. 2* of No b r 1680. 

S% — I ariued hiere a Thursday night, where I found 
Cap* John Lewen, authorised by his R: Highnes to 
inspeckt acompts & reuenu, for w c . h great profers have 
been made. And for other concerns his Highnes is gra- 
tiously pleased that I may leave my Lif * as afore, with 

468 APPENDIX. [1680. 

such farther directions as the pres fc may require, & to 
repaire home by the first. In order to w c . h , vpon aduise 
I have order'd a Generall Court, or meeting of the 
Justices from all parts, to be on Wensday y e 17 fc . h instant, 
& am intended ouer in y e Beauer, now loading, & hope 
to saile this month ; afore w ch I should be glad & hope to 
see y™ hiere, for w ch will send a vesell, or indeavour 
meeting y™ on Long Island as you '1 resolve & aduise, w c . h 
shall expect & alwayes be ready to serue you. My 
seruice, I pray, to Cap* Winthrop if yet with you. No 
perticular newes, butt all well. If time, would haue sent 
y" copy of M r Lewen's comision, but this opertunity is 
suden. I am 

Your most afectionate humble servant, 

E. Andros, G. 


For the Hon**? Major John Winthrop, att New London. 

N: York, y? 16 f . h of No br 1680. 

Hon 8 " S b , — The 29*? past I gave y™ an acompt of my 
ariuall, orders for my going home, designed per first, & 
leaving my Lif fc . Brockles as last time in comand in this 
place, & M r Lewen, a gentleman sent by his R. Highnes, 
arived, a copy of whouse comision I send y?. With him 
came Mf Atkins, a well acomplished young gentleman of 
good family & fortune, curious to see these parts & the 
West-Indies; intends for Barbados, but had thoughts to 
have goon eastward towards y? now, & may yett first. 
I hope y u are perfectly recouered. This is by the sloop 
Mary, the master order'd to wayte on y u , desiring to 
heare from if I am nott so hapy to see y* ; & I hope none 
being more glad to heare of yf welfare & ready to serve 
y u than 

Your afectionate and most humble servant, 

E. Andros, Cf. 

1682.] APPENDIX. 469 


For the JHbn b l e Major John Winthrop, att his house in N: London. 

N: Yorck, y e 29 l . h of No b f 1680. 

R, — The 2T* I receav'd by the Mary yo rs of the 22< h 
instant, & am very much troubled that I must nott now 
hope of seing you afore I goe, & more to heare of yo r 
continued distemper & ilnes ocationing itt. Shalbe ready 
in what y n . desire relating to yo r interest in Narraganset 
& to serve y u in what I may, perticularly for y e concerne 
of yo v . island as soone as may be, & I doubt nott to yo! 
satisfaction. And as I doe nott know any alteration or 
change, or have any other orders, I hope & canot thinck 
my absence cann be prejudiciall, tho I am concerned y u 
are nott in another place & from yo r retirement, as I 
have long desired. My service, I pray, to your relations 
& freinds att Boston, perticularly to Cap* Wayte Win- 
throp. Hope to heare from y" in England, att y e Earle of 
Craven's howse, or M r Blathwayt att y e Plantation office 
in Whitehall, & remaine, Hon b ! e S% 

Your afectionate and most humble servant, 

E. Andros, G. 


New London, Oct. 3<* 1682. 
Deare S% — I haue been very unfortunate in my dis- 
appointment of opportunetyes to giue you y e continued 
assurances of my respect & affection, haueing been 
nnhapily on the island when any one was goeing to 
Hartford exept the Country Ghost (Marshall Graves # ), 
and he was soe unkinde not to let me know of his being 
in towne. I made my excuse by M r Lord, w ch I confes 
was a good oportunety, but was then under the symp- 
toms of my last contagious ilnes, & haue ever since been 

_ e 

* George Graves, of Hartford, was for some years Marshal of the Colony. — Eds. 

470 APPENDIX. [1682. 

cuelly afflicted, yet with moderate circumstances of y e 
disease. My indisposition this day will onely permit mee 
to revive my self in yo r memory & hastily add y e sin- 
cerety of my affection & sendee, being well assured y fc y e 
accidentall omission of my paper devotions will make noe 
breach of freindship with soe generous & worthy a person. 
I know noe one for whom I haue a more naturall inclina- 
tion of service than yo r self, and esteeme it an hereditary 
affection derived from my deare father, whose esteme 
and vallew for yo r person was too great to be inserted in 
this paper roome ; from whom our whole famely toock 
that example w c . b is at this day in great sincerety remem- 
bred by us that are yet suruiueing. I write not this to 
flatter you, nor as the effect of a wanton pen, but to put 
you in minde of that ancient freindship, w ! 1 I desire may 
allwayes be continued. I was in great hopes of the 
hapines of yo r good company the last Court, where, 
besides my perticuler disapointm*, I must tell you yo r 
presence was greatly wanted. My indisposition at that 
tyme made me keepe house, and soe was not an eye 
witnes of the seuerall transactions that hapned, but haue 
too often heard the abuses and notable actions that passed 
at that meeting. Tis monstrous and unmanly to suffer 
that cursed yoke of Leislerisme to be tyed about our 
necks by y e apointment of such triuiall instruments, where 
y e pooreness of y e persons makes the curse y e greater. 
Tis easier to imagin y e meaning of these things than to be 
certaine to what issue they will tend. If y e lawfull course 
of our affaires must suffer y e uiolence of ignorance & 
prejudice, twill be tyme to loock about us. As for my 
perticuler concernments, I haue noe greate matter to say, 
haueing noe occation yet of try all. But as I am con- 
cerned in y e generall welfare of y e place, soe I can not 
but dislike some actions w ch I heare would haue been 
imposed vpon us. And an unwarrantable judgm* is passed 
vpon a privet person publiquely imployd by y e pruden- 

1683.] APPENDIX. 471 

tiall men of the towne, w ch if not otherwise orderd will 
haue y e just censure of the most judicious persons. I 
must now ask yo r excuse for this trouble, which is more 
than I intended when I began to wright, I am too ill to 
add more about it, haueing scarce strength to make an 
end of this scrawl. I intreet y e p r sentment of my endeared 
respects & seruice to yo r good lady & my acknowledg- 
ment of her many obligations, as well as those to yo r self ; 
w ch is all at p r sent but y e assurance that I am, deare S r , 
yo T most affectionate & faythfull seru' 

J: W. 

This for the Hono r ? Majo r . John Winthrop, at his house in JW: London. 

Hartford, April! 23. 1683. 

Hon r . d S R , — Haueing this good oppertunety, I was will- 
ing to let you know that I and myne are in good health, 
blessed be God ! I heard last week from Boston that all 
o r good freinds there are in health, sane Capt Brattle, 
who deceased about a fortnight since & was honourably 
inter'd. This day sevennight o r Gov r deceased* & was 
intered on Wednesday last w th as much solemnity as could 
be ; & now we shall be at a loss where to pitch upon a 
new Gov!, but the good people will quickly resolue where 
to pitch, I beleiue. S T ., I was informed by one of your 
neighbours that you would giue us a kind vissit the last 
weeke, but you fayled us. I hope you will not let such 
good purposes fall to the ground, but will take the next 
opportunety to accomplish them, that we may haue the 
benifitt of your good company, which will be acknowl- 
edged as a great fauoure by us. Please to lett me know 
what company you will bring with you & when you come, 
that we may not be unprouided for your reception. 
Please allso to let me know what inscription you would 

* William Leete, Governor of Connecticut, died at Hartford, April 16, 1683. — Eds. 

472 APPENDIX. . [16S5. 

haue upon good M r s Winthrops tombe stone. It lyes 
onely wayteing for your resolues.* I am in a kind of 
hurry & cannot enlarge but my well wishes for your pros- 
perity & to assure you that I am Sf in great sincerity 
Your most affectionate freind & seruant, 

John Alltn. 


For the Hono rd Majol John Winthrop Esq r , at his house in N: London. 

[Last of September, 1685.] 

HoNO* D S R , — Just now this moment I mett w th M r 
Plumbe, & he giues me an acco' of your hopefull re- 
couery out of your, confinement, which was wellcom 
newes to me & I rejoyce in it. The Lord continue his 
goodness to you & us ! We are in good health, blessed 
be God. Just now M r Hamlin is com from Boston & 
brings newes of the arriuall of M r Gardner & M r Clutter- 
bough, who bring the newes of Argile's defeat & the loss 
of his head before the castle at Edinburgh. M r Clutter- 
bofFe saw him beheaded. Monmoth is allso defeated, 
taken, and beheaded in London, about the midle of July, 
as they saye. Col Kirk is made Gov r of Tanton & Bridg- 
water, & the spoyle of Tanton giuen to him. This is .the 
sume of the newes. I doe want the fauour of your let- 
ters, w ch I must take that boldness to expect. The stop- 
ing of your sweet intercourse, is what I shall mourne 
under. This is in great hast & comes under your par- 
don, w ch I craue, & desire that you would still, as for- 
merly, number me among your most affectionat freinds 
& humble servants. Jqhn Alltn 

Accept my respects & hand them to Majo r Palmes & 
his lady, your daughter, & all freinds as named. 

* Elizabeth Reade, wife of Governor John Winthrop the younger, died at Hartford, Nov. 
24, ir>72. Fitz-John Winthrop was now putting up some sort of monument to her, which 
he had asked Aliyn to superintend. — Eds. 

1685.] APPENDIX, 473 


To Mr. Thomas Glover, Merchant, in London. 

Boston, November 6: 1685. 

S% — M r Richard Wharton of this place hath been now 
a year or two labouring to transport people into Cascoa 
Bay, for a settlement there upon very good & choice land 
suitable for trade, fishery & planting, to w c . h I judge hee 
hath an undoubted good title, and expects y e addition of 
his Majestie's favour for a further grant of priviledge 
thereupon, & hath lately shewed me his proposalls for 
y e settlem* of planters there, w c ^ are very well fitted for y° 
country & will bee as easy & beneficiall to y e people y* 
may come thither; all which he is desireous I should give 
account of to further his request to yourselfe to counte- 
nance y e affaire & to allow Edward Probee Esq r , M r John 
Jue & M r W™ Wharton, whom he hath appointed & 
will improve in London, M r John Richardson of Bristoll, 
M r Thomas Clayton of Leverpoole, & M r John Burton & 
M r W™ Rix of North Yarmouth, to write or recommend 
such persons as may put in their names w*! 1 them for a 
removeal, unto yo r selfe for advice & encouragement. I 
am senceible y e matter will bring its trouble with it, for 
w c . h M r Wharton will be yo r debt r ; but I am truly of 
opinion y fc it will prove a very beneficiall remove to such 
as will be persuaded thereto. I give y u my humble 
thanks for all yo r favour in London & pray my humble 
service may be presented to yo r good dame, Doctor Bates 
& yo r good daughters, & am S% 

Yo r obliged friend & serv!, Joseph Dudley. 

Note. — The foregoing is a copy. There is a similar one from William 
Stoughton to Major Robert Thompson, who appears to have been a brother- 
in-law of Glover, together with the following to the latter from Richard 
Wharton : — 

Boston in New England, November 28 : 1685. 
M? Thomas Glover: 

S?, — Haveinge communicated my projections for planting & 
promoting y e fishing trade & other improvem*. 8 in Cascoa Bay to 


474 APPENDIX. [16S6. 

my good friends M r Stoughton & M r Dudley, and haveinge their 
approbation, which they have sundry wayes effectually mani- 
fested, perticulerly in their favorable recomendation of the de- 
signe to you and Maj r Thompson : I am bold to crave your 
countenance and kinde councell to M r Probee, M r Jue, and my 
son, how they may most ad van t agio u sly manage this affayr, \v c . h 
if favourably & truely represented to such sober & pious people 
as sitt uneasy in many parts of England may, I hope, encourage 
y™ to remove hither & oblige them to thanke those y* may en- 
courage thereto. I herewith trouble y u w*? 1 a mapp & descrip- 
tion of y e place & true reason why it hath not beene sooner 
improved. I also add my proposalls, or terms, to such as may 
be willing to interest themselves, w c . h considering y e goodness of 
land k great conveniency for navigation & trade, will, I hope, 
be judged very easy. If y u know any godly ministers in Lan- 
cashire or elsewhere y* may with their people be willing to 
transport themselves, please to intimate this accommodation to 
them, and as it may upon serious consideration desire yo r recom- 
mendation & assistance, I crave them from you, in which you 
will much oblige ST, 

Yo r humble serv* Rich? Wharton. 


Boston, May 17* 1686. 

S R , — I am commanded by M r Dudley, our President, 
to acquaint you that his Ma M . e has been pleased to appoint 
you to be one of the Councill now established by his 
Commission under the Great Seal, which wee haue re- 
ceived, and are desirous of your company, & have no 
other argument to proffer your speed than to acquaint 
you his Ma tie8 affaires here want your presence ; which 
will be acceptable to the gentlemen already mett & to 
him who is, S% 

Your humble serv' E : Randolph. 

To Major Jo : Winthrop. 

Note.- Tn mentioning the appointment of Fitz-John and Wait Winthrop 
to Dudley's Council, Palfrey says (Hist, of New England, III. 485), they 

1686.] APPENDIX. 475 

"both had lived in Boston much of the time since their father's death." 
This is true of Wait Winthrop, who long before his father's death resided 
much in Boston; but it is quite untrue of Fitz-John Winthrop, whose official 
duties, agricultural pursuits, and uncertain health all combined to render his 
visits to Massachusetts very rare, and, in point of fact, he had been oftener 
in New York than in Boston during the period in question. With this 
letter from Randolph he filed a copy, in his own hand, of the following 
letter from Dudley to Governor Treat, which has been printed in Conn. 
Coll. Rec. 1678-1689, pp. 358, 359, but which is reprinted here on account 
of its references to the Winthrop brothers : — 

To the Hon hl f Robert Treat, Esq 1 : Gov r - of Conecticot Cottony, present. 

Boston, July 21 8 . 4 1686. 
S?, — Wee are very sensible of the difficulty & intanglement 
of yo r affaires as they are circumstanced by his Ma ti6S comandes 
& expectations, the contrary inclination & desire of your good 
people, & the satisfaction of yo r neighbours in the other of his 
Ma u . es provinces neere you ; & for that wee know that the con- 
sideration of y e new-modeling & perfect settlem* of all his Ma 11 . 63 
provinces from Pemaquid to New York is now lying before his 
Ma 1 ! 6 & probable to have a sudeine & lasting dispatch ; & that 
yo r parts, as lying betwene the two seales of goverm* may be 
the more easely spoyled e}^ther way, if early sollicited & good 
reasons layde before his Ma*! 6 therefor. In w c . h wee can not 
suppose yo r selves soe indifferent as to be unconcerned, & have- 
ing had noe advantage of discourse with any of yo r gent? lately, 
& that wee might not shew any neglect to informe or advise 
you in anything that might after proove the detrim* or hurt of 
the many good people under yo r care, with whom wee have soe 
long had a hapy understanding and good agreem* in the comon 
intrest of religion & liberty, wee have persuaded Major John 
Pinchon & Cap* Waite Winthrop to undertake a visit to soe 
many of yo r Councell as can be convened at Hartford, which 
wee hope will come by the third day of August next ; and have 
written to Maj r John Winthrop persuant hereto, to give his 
assistance, of whose integrity & advice wee are well assured 
you have no doubt, & who will lay before you such considera- 
tions & accounts of affaires as wee believe necessary for you to 
know, in order to an election (if any be) in yo r future manage- 
ment. Wee are in consideration of sending an agent to attend 
his Ma*! 6 in the affaires of this Province, by whome, or by any 

470 APPENDIX. [1686. 

other meanes, if wee can be serviceable to you, wee sincerely 
offer it, and are Sf, 

Yo r servant, 

Joseph Dudley, President. 
With the consent of the Council. 

Please to be soe just as not to make us sufferers by our kinde 
offer in makeing this letter publique, or by giving any copy or 
intimation thereof. 

To Major Winthrop, at New London. 

Boston, Aug* 25. 1686. 
S?, — I congratulate your recovery from your late 
indisposition, and that you may not suddainely relapse, 
I send you for a cordiall the good newes that S r Edm* 
Andros is appointed our gouv r , calls first at Bermodos to 
settle that goverm*, and upon y e Kingfisher, a ship of 50 
guns, comes for Boston, where he may arrive some time 
in Nov b . r next, with his lady. God send them a safe 
passage ! My service to Madam Curwin & Madam Ann : 
is all from, Sr, 

Your humble serv' E : Randolph.* 


To John Fitz Winthrop, Esq r , one of the Members of his Maj ty . s Councill, 
at New London, p r sent. 

Boston, 22 d of Decemb r 1686. 
S R , — His Excellence S r Edmond Andros, Knight, Cap- 
taine Generall & Governour in chiefe, arrived here yes- 
terday, at w ! 1 time his Ma** commission, bearing date the 

* This very friendly letter is in marked contrast to the writer's denunciation of Fitz- 
John Winthrop a few years later. — Eds. 

1686-7.] APPENDIX. 477 

third of June last, was published. His Excellence has 
appointed a generall councill to be holden here on Thurs- 
day, the 30^ of this instant, December, and directed me 
to acquaint all the members thereof, that they may be 
present accordingly. His Excellence presents his humble 
service to you and would be glad to see you at Boston. 
I am 

Your humble servant, E : Randolph. 


[Jan. 7. 168f ] 
S R Edmond Andros K**, one of the gentlemen of his Ma tJ ? 9 
most hono b ! e Privy Chamber, Cap* Gen a . u and Governour in 
Cheife in and over his Ma ti . es Territoryes and Dominions of 
New-England in America, to Collonell John-Fitz Winthrop 
greeting : Reposeing especiall trust and ^confidence in yo? loy- 
alty, courage and good conduct, I doe by these p r sents, pursuant 
to the authority given unto mee by his Ma*! e , constitute and 
appoint you to be Collonell of the Militia of Rhoad Island, 
Cannonicott, Block Island, Narraganzett or Kings Province, 
and Providence Plantations, and captaine of a company of the 
sayd Militia in the towne of Providence aforesayd. You are 
therefore carefully and dilligently to discharge the duty of a 
collonell and captaine by ordering and exerciseing the sayd 
militia and company in armes, both officers and souldiers, and 
keeping them in good order and discipline, comanding them to 
obey you as their collonell and captaine ; and yo r »elf to follow 
such orders and directions as you shall receive from mee, or 
other y r superior officers, according to the rules and disciplines 
of warr pursuant to the trust reposed in you. Given und r my 
hand and seale, att Boston, this seaventh day of January, in the 
second yeare of his Mat 1 ! 3 reigne, annoque dm 1686. 

E. Andros. 

478 APPENDIX. [1686-7. 


For the highly Hono rd Majo r Winthrop Esq r ., in Boston, this; 
g Capt Perry. 

Hartford, January y e 7 1 . 11 168f. 

Hono ri> & dear S R , — Haueing this good opportunely 
by M r Perry, I was willing to salute you & to request a 
favour of you, which is this way occasioned : his Excel- 
ency hath acquainted o r Gouerno r that his Ma tie hath 
impowered & authorized him to receiue our resignation 
of o r Charter if we tender it to his Excelency, & to take 
us under his own charge, which is the best we can expect. 
Yet some are so blind that they caiiot see what is theire 
owne interest. His Excelency will receiue some lines 
from the Gov r & Councill by this bearer, by which you 
will understand that they haue not yet surrendered to 
Sf Edmund, & they haue resolued to call a generall Court 
to consider the matter further. What theire resolues 
may be, I know not. My request is, S r , that if you can 
obteyn a coppy of his Excelencies comission, or a coppy 
of the indulgences there w th granted in matters of Religion, 
& other fauourable clauses that may incourage o r people 
to a present submission, that you would send it to me 
with what you shall thinke convenient to send of any 
instructions his Excelency hath rec d concerning us. I 
am sure that o r people haue greater inclinations to be 
joyned to the Massachusets than to be of any other 
Govern^, & if your Gouerment haue occasion to send to 
England to his Ma tie & are desirous of our being under 
the same G overmen t, you may assure his Ma*! 8 that it is 
the desire of the greatest part of the people of this 
Colony, if our Gouerment must be changed, that they 
will be conjoyned w fc . h Massachusets, rather than with 
any other Goverment. I haue not to ad, but best re- 
spects & seruice to your selfe and to your hono rd brother, 
Capt n Wayte Winthrop, his lady, & all freinds w th you. 
I am your most affectionate freind & seruant, 

John Allyn. 

1686-7.] APPENDIX. 479 


For the Hono r ? Sf Worp 11 . Majo r John Winthrop, in Boston, this ; 
g M r Perry, 

Hartford, February 3«? 1684. 

Much hon e . d S r , — Your oblidging lynes of the thir- 
teenth of the last moneth came safe by M r Perry, & I 
doe now return you my hearty thankes for your respect 
therein & for the coppy of his Excelencies commission. 
I haue hoped that this time we should haue bin ready to 
haue joyned o r diuisions & to haue made an intire body, 
but by o r statesmen it is thought not convenient yet, & 
they will not be moued beyond their pace ; notwithstand- 
ing the advantage that offers to encourage a present 
union, they will not be persuaded to it. It lookes so 
like a giueing away that which is precious to them, 
which they can rather be passiue then actiue in parting 
with it ; & allso those difficulties that threaten the stand- 
ing out, — as the procureing his Maj* 1 . 63 displeasure, make- 
ing our termes the harder, & looseing the litle share we 
possibly might haue in the Gouerm* if cheerfully sub- 
mitted to, — seemes of litle weight with too many. The 
result of p r sent considerations are that we must stand as 
we are untill his Ma tie farther dispose of us, & all that is 
gained is o r gent n rather choose to be conjoyned w th 
Massechusets than with any other Prouince or Colony. 
S r , I doubt not but you will so exercise your wisdom & 
wonted kindness towards your freinds in these parts, to 
keep off what may be inconvenient & to promoate their 
tranquility to the utmost. You will, I doubt not, see our 
Generall Court's letter to his Excelencie, w T hich smells 
too much of that scent that you took notice of in that 
which came from our Councill in December last & in your 
last tould me of it softly* It was drawn, I can assure 
you, more ceremoniously than his Excelency will receive 

* See 5 Mass. Hist. Coll., VIII. 301, 302. — Eds. 

480 APPENDIX. [1686-7. 

it, & corrected & amended till it came to a button all- 
most; but such as it is, you will find it, which needs 
pardon & a good construction from his Excelencye, which 
1 hope he will grant. S r , I understand that you are one 
of the gent n impowered to reuise the lawes, & that 
they are to be sent his Ma tie for approbation, & upon that 
conclusion (which doth necessarily follow from the prem- 
ises) I humbly request it may be considered whether it 
may not be necessary, in your stateing of the times & 
places of courts of tryalls for this Colony, that there be, 
for the ease of inhabitants, a county court setled in each 
county twice a yeare, & that there may be no court from 
the midle of June to the midle of September by reason of 
o r haruest & husbandry occasions, as allso that there may 
be necessary portes & places of entry for vessels as shall 
transporte o r prouisions, as conveniently as may be for 
the ease of the people, & that o r properties may be 
secured to us, & that, if it may be, wills and inventoris 
may be proued & kept in the courts in the seuerall 
counties. For other things, I know not but the lawes 
that will sute & accomodate other Colonyes & Prouinces 
may be sufficient for this. For those who must admin- 
ister justice amongst us, I doubt not but his Excelency 
will appoynt such suitable persons as may answer that 
clause in his commission that " vertue may be incouraged 
& vice suppressed." S r , I cannot enlarge, but w fch mine & 
my wiue's best respects to your selfe, & Captaine Win- 
throp & his lady, & M r Wharton & his lady, & M r Curwin 
& M r s. Ann & all theirs, is all at p r sent from Sf, 

Your most affectionate freind & humble seruant, 

John Allyn, S. 

Pray present my humble seruice to his Excelency, to 
whom I would haue writ, had I not thought it had been 
presumption, or might be so taken. 

1687.] APPENDIX. 481 


For the Hon bl ? Coll 1 } John Winthrop, att his house att New London. 

Boston, 28* Aprill, 1687. 

S*, — This is by a Quaker of y r town, with whom goes 
MonsT Vilbon, Lif' to Mons? Perratt, Gou r of Acadie, (ar- 
iued two dayes since) intended for N : Yorck to com- 
plem fc . Gou! Dungan, but, as I hear, about the seisure att 
Ponobscott & to see the countrey. Saterday being S' 
Geo : day, the King's coronation, the forts and ships 
fired great guns, as they ought, and all the militia of this 
town then in armes fired volyes, and Coll el Shrimpton & 
oficers apeared very briske and all y* compaynyes well. 
Att night had bonfiers att Fort Hill, and Mont-!" Bondy, 
one of Cap* Hambleton's volunteers, very good fierworcks 
in a great barge without y e warfe ; the King's health often 
drunck, and nott y e least disorder. Twesday, the Superior 
Court satt here, M*. President & Stouton, Judges,* Coll 1 ! 
Shrimpton Mf Linde and Lidget, Asistants, and dispatched 
all busenes of said court; ended yesterday. The Dock 
att Charlestown is now almost ready and I hope his 
Maj'T" ship the Kingfisher may be gott in this next spring 
tides, but hath been very troublesom and chargable, nott 
to be avoyded ; y e ship wanting neare 70 foot of new 
keele nott otherwayes to be putt in to her. I hope twill 
nott be long afore wee see y u . here, & that y? will come 
by Eoode Island, & if conuenient see y e militia. No ship 
yett arived from England. I shall only add my reiter- 
ated satisfaction & thancks for yf going by Roode Island 
& setling things as y u did, & am 

Y r afectionate freind and humble seruant, 

E. Andros. 
I pray my seruice to Madam Curwin. 

* When the Massachusetts Charter was vacated, a provisional government was appointed, 
with Dudley as President and Stonghton as Deputy President, and with sixteen Counsellors. 
Subsequently they were superseded by Andros, and Dudley and Stoughton were made Judges 
of the Superior Court. See Palfrey's Hist, of New England, III.. 484, 485, 520. —Eds. 


482 APPENDIX. [1687. 


For the Hon u -' Coll 1 } John Winthrop, one of his Maj tys Oouncill, att 

New London, 

Boston, y e 19^ of Oc b . r 1687. 

S R , — I am glad to hear that Ml 8 Ann is on the mending 
hand & all other y T . relations & family recouered. I haue 
receau'd his Ma]*! 8 orders & comands for Coneticutt 
anex'd to this Gou fc , w ch I shall pursue in few dayes by 
sending or going my selfe, of w ch I shall giue y! 1 notice, 
desiring yf being there, and therefore that y u will dispose 
yT selfe to be ready acordingly ; & in the meane time this 
intimation only to Cap* Winthrop to come with y", it 
nott being yett made publick here. Munday ariued 
Cap* Ware, in 7 weeks from the Downs, with whom 
my wife, who desires her saruise to y u and the ladys & 
brother. W c . h with mine, I remaine S% 

Y r afectionate humble saruant, E. Andros. 

I do not give y* the trouble of late matters in these 
parts, w ch I doubt nott you have had att large by Cap' 
Winthrop & other good hands ; but Essex rates or sesem*? 
now returned are to aduantage, and an ace*, of all persons 
well disposed & satisfied. All quiett att home. Y e Empe- 
rer lately gott a great victory ag* the Turks. The Frensh 
began a warr with Algiers, is the most remarcable newes. 


For the Hon bU Coll 1 } John Winthrop, one of his Maj ty .' Councill, 
att his house att New London. 

Norwich, 29* Oc br 1687. 

S R , — Nott being very well, I desired M r President to 

write to y u of our setting out from Maj r Smith's yesterday 

morning, sent by an express ; when wee hoped to haue 

gott here last night, but most of our compayny faltering, 

1687.] APPENDIX. 483 

man & horse almost tired, wee lay att Stonington, resolu- 
ing to go no farther than this to-day, & a Munday set 
out for Hartford ; where I againe desire to have y r f and 
Cap* Winthrop's company, and that you will aquaint Majf 
Palmes of itt, who I shall also be glad to see. Pray my 
seruice to the ladys, and remaine 

Yf afectionate humble seru*, E. Andkos. 

M? President & others yf freinds now att table, remem- 
ber yf health without ofence. 


[Nov. 10, 1687.] 
S? Edmund Andros Kn*, Cap* Generall and Governour in 
Cheife of his Ma^f 9 Territory and Dominion of New England, 
to Collonell John Winthrop greeting : Reposeing spetiall trust 
and confidence in your loyalty, courage and good conduct, I 
doe by these p r sents constitute and appoint you to be Major- 
Generall of the Militia of the sevrall counties and precincts of 
Rhoad Island, Kings Province, Providence Plantations, Hart- 
ford, New London, New Haven and Fairefeild, within his 
Majesties Territory and Dominion of New England. You are 
therefore carefully and dilligently to discharge the duty of a 
Major-Generall by ordering and exerciseing the said militia in 
armes, keepeing them in good order and disciplyne, comanding 
them to obey you as their Major-Generall, and your selfe to 
observe and follow such orders and directions as you shall from 
time to time receive from me, or other your superiour officers, 
according to the rules and disciplyne of warr, pursuant to the 
trust reposed in you. Given vnder my hand and seale, att New 
London, the tenth day of November, in y e 3? yeare of y e reigne 
of our Sovraigne Lord James the Second, by the grace of God 
of England, Scotland, France and Ireland, King, Defender of 
the Faith &c. Annoque Dm 1687. 

E. Andros. 

By his Excell e s Cofnand, 

John West, D. Sec7 

484 APPENDIX. [1687. 

Note. — In addition to the various commissions of Fitz-John Winthrop 
printed in this volume, there are others among the unpublished papers. 
Among them are his commission as commander-in-chief, signed by Governor 
Treat, July 11, 1690; a similar one signed by Governor Leisler of New York, 
July 31, 1690; and his commission as agent for Connecticut in London, dated 
Sept. 2, 1693. A somewhat indiscriminate use of military titles would appear 
to have been not uncommon in New England even at that early period. In 
Fitz-John Winthrop's informal correspondence he is variously styled major, 
colonel, and major-general, — all at about the same time, and apparently at 
random. — Eds. 

For the Hon hle Major Gen 1 - 1 John Winthrop, these, at New London. 

New Yorke, Novemb! 27'. h 1687. 

S*, — It was my hap to be at Southold the beginning 
of this month, at our annuall Courts, when the great guns 
ecchoed to us on Long Island side his Ex c ? S r Edmund 
Andros' welcome back to the river's mouth from his pro- 
gresse through Conecticott, where he was accompanied 
by an honourable suite, amongst whom your worthy selfe 
was one. I congratulate, S r , the new honour which yo r 
meritts have acquired you in his Maj d . e8 service, and wish 
you all imaginable satisfacon therein. The times are well 
alter'd in the reception of S r Edmund Andros in those 
parts now, to what they were formerly. I am sorry at 
the misfortune of my former letters, that they have not 
deserved an answer. It may be that what I desired of 
you to have ace' of, was unseasonable ; if so, I crave yo T 
pardon. I should be loath to impose anything on you that 
is unsavory or unwelcome. It 's through the importunity 
of the bearer that I give you the trouble of these lines, 
being unwilling to give offence, and remaine, S r , 
Yo r most devoted humble serv* 

M. Nicolls. 

1687.] APPENDIX. 485 


These for the Hon hl . e L n --Generall John Winthrop Esq*, at his house in 

New London. 

Hartford, Decemb r . 10 th 1687. 
Hon b ^ S B , — Hearing of an opportunety just now to 
conuey this short epistle to you, I could doe no less then 
to tell your Hono r I am yet aliue & in good health, & haue 
counted my selfe very happy in that short opportunety I 
had to wayt upon you when you were here last, & hope 
that the same mercy hath been your portion. S r , just 
now I parted w^ Majo r Kinsley & M r Seargent (not he 
of Boston, but his kinsman), who arriued here from Bos- 
ton last night & giues acco* of the health of many of 
o r good freinds there ; perticulerly they say his Excelency 
was much better when they came away, than he had been. 
Capt. Winthrop & Capt. Niccolson were in good health 
last Fryday. Those two gent° (the Major & M r Sarg*) are 
bound towards New York to morrow with Perry. I rec. d 
a letter from his Excelency, wherein he manifests his re- 
spects to me, which I conclude your fauourable asspect 
doth influence, which I am much oblidged to you for your 
goodness therein & desire the continuance of your fauour 
& the manifestation of it by some lines euery good op- 
pur tune ty. We haue no news from Boston, saue that of 
M r Randolph sueing of M r Mather in an action of slander, 
which is to come to a tryall the last of this moneth ; as 
allso that many people in Boston are sick of the measells, 
but it is not mortall as yet. S r , I haue sent a packet 
which I receiued of Jn° Perry from M r West, which please 
to conuey to Majo r Palmes by the first oppurtunety. 
His Excelency hath made Majo r Tallcott a Ln fc Colonell, 
& I hear that Majo r Treat is a Colonell ; no other military 
officers as I hear of, but what you heard of when you 
were here. John Perry the begining of the next moneth 
goes for Boston ; he intends to call upon your HonoT as he 

486 APPENDIX. [1688. 

goeth, by whome you may expect to hear how we doe. 
S r , my selfe & wife p r sent o r best respects to your selfe & 
daughter & to Mrs Curwin & M r s Ann, & wish you all 
prosperity. Pray allso giue my seruice to Majo r Palms 
& his lady, to whome I would haue writ, but not hearing 
of this oppertunety till just now, I had not time to doe it. 
Pray therefore excuse me to him, Hono rd S r I must beg 
your pardon for this trouble, & take the boldness to 
subscribe my selfe S r , your humble seruant, 

John Allyn, 8. 


To the Hono hl . e Majo r . Generall John Winthrop, one of y 6 members of his 
Ma tie$ Council^ att New London. 

Boston, y e 9 e . h of Aprill, 1688. 

S B , — Finding a generall defect of good armes in 
all places, I haue sent orders for all the militia to 
traine and muster as soon as may be, in their seuerall 
towns or vsuall places, & a perticuler ace* to be taken 
of the sorts & sizes of all armes, & how fixed for 
seruice, w c . h with y e rolls to be forthwith transmited to 
me, in order to his Maj* 8 seruice acordingly ; when I also 
desire your opinion of what y u thinck proper or may oc- 
cur relating to s d militia, & if they could nott be induced 
to come on horseback to y e seuerall trainings, for w c . h as I 
told y u . I would not desire any expence or trouble, but a 
short false reine with a stick button, & a ring or strap on 
y e other side of y e horses headstall, collar, or halter, to 
fasten y™ togeather on ocation, when a few men may take 
care of all y e horses. I pray my service to y T . lady & 
am S r , 

Your afectionate & most humble servant, E. Andros. 

The orders are sent to the oficer in chief in y e respec- 
tive places, and all y e same as Maj r Palmes now sent, to 
whom I also pray my seruice & to his lady. 

1688.] APPENDIX. 487 


To the Hono u . e Maj<f. Generall Winthrop^ one of his Ma d f s Council^ att 

New London. 

Boston, y e 29^ of May 1688. 
S?, — Finding itt nessesary, & no present ocasion this 
way, I went farther eastward beyond Pemaquid & staid 
longer then I intended ; where all well. Returned to 
this place last night and receau'd y r f of y e 5*. h instant, by 
w c . h am glad to hear of y T . good health, tho nott then so 
well as to see y e militia in other parts. I sent orders to 
all y e field oficers in cheef, in y e respective parts of y e 
Governm*, & hope all will be carefull of their duty as im- 
porting King and countreys seruice. Thanck you for y* 
letter ; & desiring my service to y e ladys with y u . 9 remaine 
in haste 

Yy afectionate humble servant, E. Andros. 

I do not write any English newes from whence 2 ships, 
& in generall all well, expecting farther by Cap* Foy, who 
was almost ready, designing to saile in lesse then a month 
after these. 

To the Hon u f Maj: Gen 11 Winthrop, att N: London. 

Boston, y e 5«. h of July, 1688. 

S R , — This is by Maj r Palms to acknowledge the favor 
of y r . 8 by him, to whom refer for all worth y T . knowledge 
in this place. & shal be glad to hear from y", as desired 
by my former, what y" thinck relateing to Indians (as y? 
mention) or of any thing els of publick import. I have 
lately heard from Gou! Dungan from Albany that a truce 
for a year was concluded with y e Frensh, but he doth nott 
mention an} 7 thing of the forts by y™ built on our side 
lately reported surendred to y e Indians, so seems to want 

488 APPENDIX. [1688. 

confirmation. S? Will m Phips resolves now to go home with 
his ship, & aplys to have his Marshal's place setled, for 
w ! 1 he hath given me a paper & intends to bring his patent 
this day in Councell. One Peeterson, pretending a Frensh 
Comision, from Pety Guava [?], coming into Roode Island 
the 24^ past to anchor without Goate Island, staid there 
some dayes, but, on aprehention of the Rose frigott, went 
to sea (afore Cap fc Nicols sent, ariued ;) who having had & 
sufer'd dealings on shoore w th inhabitors wil be much 
blamed, and ocation the magistrat's & oficers to be cen- 
sured. If she should hapen to come yf way, I doubt nott 
y r giving efectuall orders, & take care pursuant to law & 
his Maj fc * 8 proclamations relateing to pirates & privateers, 
& his subjekts serving other Provinces or States. I am 
in haste, Maj r Palms oblegin me in calling in & staing 
for this 

From yf afectionate humble servant, E. Andros. 


July 19* 1688. 
S?, — I have had the hon r of yo r Excell: letter & there- 
with the certainety of y r health & safe returne after y e dif- 
ficultyes of a tedious journy, every step whereof does in- 
fluence a generall good and makes us reape the fruite of 
yo r unweried trauell & those designes yo r Excell : layes 
to settle a lasting hapines to the posterety of this coun- 
try. Yo r Excell fs command es for my thoughts about set- 
tling y e Indians in these parts can not now be presented, 
hauing but a minute's notice of this opportunety by 
Maj r Palmes, & hope yo r Excell: will pardon that omition. 
I want very much yo r interpretation of some perticulers 
in y e Act for settling y e militia, w c . h seemes to oblige y e 
oldest to attend at trayning as others, without any ex- 
ception. It is very much desired & thought needfull to 

1688.] APPENDIX. 489 

excuse ferrymen & millers as to their attendance, pro- 
vided they keepe armes & amunition according to y e Act. 
Many have been with me for that liberty, but all I de- 
ferred till yo r Excell : shall give me intimation & yo r 
pleasure therein. Some few perticular persons would be 
much favoured if yo r Excell: will be pleased to overlooke 
my dispenseing with their appearance, & there is a kinde 
of necessety (if yo r Excell: shall thinke fit) for such a 
liberty, w c . h should be in no wayes abused nor in any thing 
obstruct his Majestyes service. I beg yo r pardon for 
this trouble & pray to be preserved in yo r good grace 
& favour, & am 

Yo r Excell :'s most obedient faythfull humble serv* 

J: W- 


To the Hono hl . e Maj r . Gen 1 } Winthrop, one of the members of his Ma H ? 
Councill, att New London. 


Boston, y e [torn] July, 1688. 
S", — The Kings Letters Pattents lately ariued, anex- 
ing N: Yorck & y e Jerseys to this Dominion of N: England, 
were published here on Thursday ; & this week I in- 
tend (God willing) to begin my journey tow ds N: Yorck by 
y e way of Roode Island, and be with y u the begining of 
next week, if I may by water; so possibly may nott come 
in with the vesels, or stay longer than for y r selfe or 
others (I hope wil be ready) to go with me, & so speed 
all the way by water as most easy. Nothing new, but 
all well here. I am 

Yf afectionate freind and humble servant, 

E. Andros. 


490 APPENDIX. [1688. 


For the Hon b * Maj r . Gen 11 . Winthrop, att his house in N: London. 

Boston, y e 26* of July, 1688. 

S R , — Some dayes since I writt to y u , by y e way of 
Hartford, of my going to N: York & intent of being (God 
willing) att N: London y e begining of next week ; hoping 
y e advantage of y r compayny on this ocation for anexsing 
those parts to his Maj^ 8 Dominion of N: England. I 
canott omitt by this (againe) so good an opertunity, to 
give y u a reiterated ace* of y e aboue, & hope I shall nott 
faile of my desires acordingly of y T . s d . compayny to N: 
Yorck & Jerseys. I have made a proclamation declaring 
y e continuing of all oficers, civill & military, in their re- 
spective places. All is well in these parts, & no newes 
from abroad. I am 

Y? afectionate freind and humble servant, E. Andros. 


These to the Hon rd Majo r Genn rU Jn° Winlhrope Esq r , of his Majes tia 

Oouncill in y e territory and dominion of New England, att New 

London, or elsewhere. 

Harttfford, July 28* 16S8. 

Right hon ed S b , — Afftor all harty & due respeckts 
premised, I know you are not such a stranger in Israeli 
but have hearde offe the death offe o r hon d L* Coll: 
Tallcott, which hath made a great breach amongst us in 
this county offe Harttford, in re ffe ranee to o r millitary 
affaires, and hath occationed the serious thoughts offe 
divers offe o r cheife capt. amongst us to consider what 
may bee incumbant vppon them in refferance to the settle- 
ment offe those matters amongst us againe : viz, Capt. 
Newbery, Capt. Chester, Capt. Joseph Fitch, my selfe also 
beeing a well wisher amongst them; and o r purpose 
was, with the rest of o r cheife commition officers in this 
county, to haue ptioned his Exelency about itt iff his Hon? 

1688.] APPENDIX. 491 

had passed throw o r parts to Yorke ; but that falling out 
otherwise, I do in my owne behalfe and in behalfe offe 
the rest offe the gen 11 aboue named, humbly request yo* 
Hon r s good helpe & fav r with his Exelency o r Capt 
Generall, that the hon d Capt John Allyn may bee the 
commander in cheife in [several words torn and illegible], which will 
bee exceeding acceptable to all the good people and 
souldgers therein. Allso, in loosing o r hon d freinde above 
mentioned, wee haue loost o r Majo r , he being first comi- 
tionated Major and no supply since put into that place by 
his Exelency : which allso all offe us, unles Capt New- 
bery in this request being exsepted, could gladly pro- 
moate o r elldest Capt. & hon d freinde, said Newbery, to 
bee o r Majo r in this county, and should bee hartily glad 
if you could fauor this matter as you have oppertunity. 
As for smaller matters, if thay are or should prove gre- 
vious thay may bee much eased by y e wisdome offe those 
that are cheiffe amongst us, which I doubt not will bee 
allways ready to promoate the pease and wellfayr offe his 
Maje ties good subjeckts in this his terretory & dominion 
off New England. S% if any oppertunity should present, 
I could wish you would not be forgittfull to promoate o! 
worthy & deseruing freinds, M r Cyprian Nicols and Ens. 
Nath: Stanly, which will be as acceptable to the good peo- 
ple in o r towne as the promotion offe any persons amongst 
us. O r worthy Capt. Tho. Hooker is full of scruples offe 
contience whether hee should kepe his place or not ; but 
I am sattisffyed that his Exelency is able to resolue those 
doubts att his pleashur, and I know not but he may do 
God, his Majesty, & his Exelency, with the rest offe his 
neighbours, good servis in the place he is called vnto, & 
bee well accepted in the said place. Humbly request- 
ing you would pardon my boldnes and make a candid 
construction offe my teadious lynes, I make bold to 
subscribe my selfe 

Yo r Hon r s cordiall freinde & serv*. Caleb Stanly. 

492 APPENDIX. [1688. 


To Maj r . Gen al } Winthrop, att his house in New London. For his 
Ma t{ ? Service. 

Squabague, 16 th Octo r 1688. Jive in y e morning. 

S R , — This night I had news, by express from Boston 
that the eleventh instant one man was found killed to the 
eastward, att Cape Porpus, and severall others missing, 
who are feared to be killed also by Indians still out in 
those parts. And therfore desire yo r comeing to Boston 
w fc . h all convenient speed for his Ma ties service accordingly, 
where I also desire to see y r brother, as others of the 
Councill if I can, and remaine S% 

Your humble seru', E. Andros. 

[No date but " New London " ; probably latter part of December, 1688.] 

S B , — The anguish of a cruell distemper, and my con- 
tinued indisposition, has hitherto hindered the present- 
ment of my duty and humble thankes for the honour of 
yo r Excellency es favour ; but being a little recovered, 
and laying aside my crutches, tis fit I should make my 
first offering to the great proprietor of my best & most 
obedient services. Tis to yo r self alone, S r , that I am 
most obliged, and I should be very fortunate to convince 
you of my affection & zeal. Yo r Excellency puts noe 
date to yo r favoures, nor is yo r hand late to doe justice 
to every one. And since you favourably look upon the 
petitions of all sorts of people, I hope myne allsoe may 
be accepted, that begs yo r favourable consideration. Sev- 
erall tracts of land that were given to my father, and 
others purchased, at the first settlement of this wilderness, 
pray yo r Excellencyes favour for confirmation. Since tis 
his Majesty es grace to give renewed title to all our pos- 

1688.] APPENDIX. 493 

sessions, it will be great pitty to loose, or suffer difficulty 
in, any of our small portions, — the best of our accomoda- 
tions being but trivial rewards for the waste of that plen- 
tifull estate w c . h my predecessors joyfully layde downe to 
begin the growth & prosperity of this country. And I 
have great satisfaction to see those beginings, under their 
great charge and industry, thrive to soe great perfection. 
I am not myself e sollicitous for the sweete of this world ; 
but, being now ready to leave it, and haveing two 
nephewes, # the hopes of our family, I would gladly leave 
a settled and sure title of such accomodations as I have, 
that, by a peaceable enjoyment of their vine, they may 
recover the losses that their predecessors have suffered 
and live plentifull, to serve his Majesty in their genera- 
tion. It will be great in yo r Excellency to build up the 
ruines of our family, whose decay was one of the greatest 
supplyes that gave life to the begining and growth of 
these plantations, since tis soe much in yo r power, whose 
generous hand is all way es ready to doe good. I have 
much to say to yo r Excellency, but it is now noe tyme ; 
nor must I add more at p r sent than my wishes for yo* 
continued health & prosperity, & that it may please the 
King to continue you a shield to the people under yo r 
Goverm' I beg yo r Excellency will not please to let me 
fall, nor forbid me the hon r of being, S r , 

Yo r Excellencyes most obedient faythfull humble ser- 
vant, J: W. 

Note. — Fitz-John Winthrop had been offered the command of the expe- 
dition against the Eastern Indians in November, 1688, but had refused it on 
account of the precarious state of his health. Randolph imagined this a 
pretext, and denounced Fitz-John as lukewarm, if not disloyal. (See Ran- 
dolph's subsequent letter to the Lords Commissioners of Trade, May 29, 
1689: N. Y. Col. Docs. III. 581.) Fitz-John knew how potent was Ran- 
dolph's influence, and realized that the invalidation of early grants of land 
and Indian titles, then threatened, might ruin him. His phrase " tis to 
yo r selfe alone that I am most obliged" implies the personal nature of his 

* Wait Winthrop had then two sons living. — Eds. 

494 APPENDIX. [1689. 

support of Andros and that he disclaimed obligation to Randolph. His allu- 
sions to the pecuniary losses of his family refer to the melting away of the 
property of Governor John Winthrop the elder ; see ante, p. 418. In Gershom 
Bulkeley's "Will and Doom." mention is made of a certain "J. W." of 
Connecticut, who took an active part in promoting the Revolution of 1689 in 
New England, who was in Boston at the fall of Andros, and who has been 
supposed to have been Fitz-John Winthrop (see Conn. Col. Recs. 1678-89, 
p. 455). This, however, is a mistake founded upon the similarity of the 
initials. During that winter and early spring Fitz-John was ailing in 
New London the greater part of the time, and barely able to attend to the 
duties of his military jurisdiction, which did not include Massachusetts. 
Whether he was aware that his brother and other Boston friends were en- 
deavoring to procure the recall of Andros is not certain, as the political cor- 
respondence of the two brothers at this period was either destroyed by them 
or has since disappeared. His own position was an embarrassing one. On 
the one hand, he had for Andros a friendship of fourteen years' standing, 
together with a rooted distrust of the turbulent element in Connecticut and 
Massachusetts. On the other hand, he had a profound veneration for his 
father's memory, and a full appreciation of the advantages of the charter 
which his father's diplomacy had secured. So far as can be gathered, he 
remained constant to the advice he had given at the outset, which was to 
submit patiently to the incorporation of the New England Colonies into one 
Dominion, avoiding collision or controversy with the Crown, in the hope that 
some amelioration would turn up. The fall of James II. solved the problem ; 
but there cannot be a doubt that if Fitz-John Winthrop had been in Boston, 
April 18, 1689, instead of helping to imprison Andros, he would have done 
his best to protect him from the mob. That the people of Connecticut be- 
lieved his conduct throughout these troubles to have been that of an honest 
and patriotic man, is evidenced by his election, a few weeks later, as an 
Assistant under the restored charter. — Eds. 



Whereas I am informed by severall credible persons, 
& perticulerly by a declaration of the gent, at Boston 
& y e country adjacent, that some ill-affected persons had 
designed to disturb our peace & y e growth & prosperity of 
y e country, & that our neighbours y e French & Indians 
above us were incited to attempt in an hostile manner y 6 
distruction & subvertion of y e English plantations in this 
Dominion : I doe therefore, in persuance of y e trust re- 
posed in me, order & comand the Feild-officers in each 

1688-9.] APPENDIX. 495 

respective county within y e late Colony of Conecticot, as 
allsoe of Rhode Island, Providence Plantations, & King's 
Province, forthwith to give order to theire respective 
Cap* 3 & inferiour officers, both of horse & foote, to see y e 
militia under theire comand well furnished in all respects 
according to law, & that due care be taken to discover y e 
approach of any enemy, eyther by land or water, by 
apointing a military watch and ward & orders to alarme 
y e plantations upon any danger. This I order to be at- 
tended to till otherwise comanded by lawfull authority. 

J : Winthrop, Maf. Gen". 

Subsequently indorsed by the writer : " An order to the Feild-officers, 


To the Hono bl . e Major- Gener 11 John Winthrop, one of his Maf'f 3 Council, 

at New London. 

Fort James, New Yorke, Feb. y e 16'* 168f. 

S% — I had the honour of your obligeing letter by Capt" 
Sellwicke, for w c ? returne you my hearty thanks. I beg 
the favour of you to let me know what may be acceptable 
to the Indian that sent me the thinges. The weather 
being open, a sloope is gone to Aesopus, from whence wee 
expecte Major De Mayer to come and marry some young 
wenche. Lately an Indian from Albany sent to give an 
account of Madam Kantsler's death. Sellwicke, in come- 
ing down, ran ashore at Hell Gate, but (he saies) received 
no damage, soe unloades above. Two or three vessells 
bound for the West Indies, & one for Maderas. Wee 
have a flying reporte from Virginia that the Prince of 

* Captain Francis Nicholson, who had formerly commanded a company of regulars at 
Boston, was commissioned Lieutenant-Governor to Sir Edmund Andros, April 20, 1688, 
and was subsequently made Lieutenant-Governor of Virginia. He would appear to have 
been an old friend of Fitz-John Winthrop, to whom there are a number of letters from him 
couched in affectionate terms. — Eds. 

496 APPENDIX. [1688-9. 

Orange was landed in Tarr Bay and had dined at Exeter ; 
his Majesty had set up his standard upon Salisbury 
Plaine. But this news I want to have confirmed. Noe 
ship to goe out of Virginia or Maryland, except twenty 
together. Deare S^ I desire you to believe that when I 
shall be capable of doeing you any of the least service, I 
shall thinke myself very fortunate. In the mean time 
I assure you that I am, with all sincerity, 

Yo r most affectionate friend, Fr : Nicholson. 


To the Hono hl f Major Generall Winthrop JEsq r , att New London. 

Boston, 23 t > February, 168|. 

S R , — The first instant I arrived here from Pemyquid, 
where y e 28 th past left his Excell 7 & all with him well, 
tho' noe thoughts of leaving those parts untill some bet- 
ter account of y e Indians, who are either fled, or removed 
farr into y e country, beyond what y e season of y e yeare 
would then pmitt to psue ; tho' many a hard march made 
in snow & cold, but ineffectuall, none haveing shewed 
themselves save some skulking spyes neere our out-garri- 
sons, who finding some of our people stragleing alone out 
of command con